Tsukada, Michiru (Graduate School of Humanities, Tokyo Metropolitan University). Development of lnfants' Responses during lnteractions with Mothers: The Transition from Dyadic to Triadic Interactions. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2001, Vol. 12, No.1, 1-11.
This research examined the developmental progression from dyadic to triadic interaction, focusing on infants'coordination of their attention between a socialpartner and an object of mutual interest, and with emotional expression. In interactions of the mothers and 7 - 12 month old babies, 7 mother-infant pairs were observed in natural settings. Three kinds of interactions (dyadic, triadic with coordination of attention, triadic without coordination) were examined from a microanalytic viewpoint. From 9 months, most infants became capable of coordinating attention in relation to their mothers' showing of objects. Up until 12 months, infants were able to quickly coordinate their attention to the showing or giving of objects, and to express positive emotion contingent on mothers' behavior. The discussion focused on how dyadic interactions may be a transition to triadic interactions, and on how affective communication may continue to be used. Finally, it was pointed out that infants may not be responding intentionally to their mothers.
[ Key Words ] Mother-infant relationship, Infant development, 9 month-old, Dyadic interaction, Triadic interaction

Sugano, Yukie (Shirayuri College). The Effects of a Mother's Negative Feelings Toward Her Child on the Mother-Child Relationship. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2001, Vol.12, No.1, 12-23.
This study examined the positive effects of mother's negative feelings toward children on the mother-child relationship. Mothers (N = 25) were interviewed about times when they felt negatively towards their children. Narrative accounts were analyzed for their contents, and for accountings mothers gave about negative feelings. Mothers reported that negative feelings emerged when children were disobedient on an everyday task or when there was a change in children's behavior. In addition, the negative feelings reflected on maternal child-rearing styles and the children's growth. Two different patterns depended on the existence of a task as follows. When given a task, mothers tended to perform their own way, whereas mothers were more lenient with their children if a task was not given to them. These two different patterns of reflection resulted in a counterbalancing mechanism in the mother-child relationship.
[ Key Words ] Negative affect, Mother-child relationship, Accounting, Transition to motherhood

Hsieh, Wen-huei (The Doctoral Reserch Course in Education, Hiroshima University) & Yamazaki Akira (Faculty of Education, Hiroshima University). An Ethological@Analysis of@lndividual Characteristics. Dyadic Relationships, and Dominance Hierarchy in a Group of Three-and Four-Year Old Boys. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2001, Vol.12, No.1, 24-35.
This research evaluated the relations between individual behavioral characteristics, dyadic relationships, and the dominance hierarchy, in a 9-member friendship group of preschool boys. The behavior and dominance relationships of each boy as paired with each group member were measured, as observed during free play over a two-month period. The average dominance score for each pair was correlated with measures of cohesiveness, harmony, control, responsiveness, self-disclosure, and coordinated play. Group activities generally centered mainly on the most dominant boys. There was a linear relation with in the observed group for dominance, with the most dominant child in the group showing considerably more affiliation and harmonious interaction with his group members, as well as the most control behavior. In contrast, the second dominant child showed diverse behavior in affiliation and harmony with other group members. Control behavior also was evident between children ranking lower in dominance. The results showed that among the 3- and 4-year old boys, individual characteristics and dyadic relationships were both related to their group's dominance hierarchy.
[ Key Words ] Preschoolers, Peer group, Individuality, Dyadic relationships, Dominance hierarchy

Sakuraba, Kyoko (Graduate School of Human Infomatics, Nagoya University) & Imaizumi, Satoshi (Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo). Affect Label Comprehension and Facial Expression Interpretation in 2-to 4-Year Olds: A Developmental Study. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2001, Vol.12, No.1, 36-45.
Two affective tasks were performed by 2-, 3- and 4-year olds (N= 134) to measure their ability to understand labels of emotions and to discriminate facial expressions. On a label-to-face matching task, children were given an emotion label and asked to select the one of 4 pictures (representing happiness, sadness, anger and surprise) corresponding to the emotion label. On the face-to-face matching task, children were given a photograph of a baby and asked to select one picture matching the emotion of the baby. Although the percentages of correct matching increased with age on both tasks, performance by all age groups on the label-to-face matching task was significantly better than on the face-to-face matching task. For the face-to-face matching task, children tended to select a picture with a mouth shape and other features similar to that in the presented photograph, regardless of the emotion, and this resulted in a lower matching rate. Label-to-face matching was easier than face-to-face matching even for 2-year olds, suggesting that a cognitive connection between emotional labels and facial expressions had emerged by age 2.
[ Key Words ] Preschoolers, Emotional recognition, facial expression, Emotional label, Affective development

Kitamura, Kotomi (Ochanomizu University) & Muto, Takashi (Ochanomizu University). The Influence of Adult Mother-Daughter Relationships on Daughters' Psychological Well-Being: Life Events of Marriage and Childbearing. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2001, Vol.12, No.1, 46-57.
This investigation concerned the relationship between the quality of adult daughters' experiences and current relationships with their mothers, and indices of daughter's well-being (life satisfaction and depressive symptoms). A cross-sectional sample of 415 daughters (single; or married with or without children) completed questionnaires. The results showed that married and unemployed daughters felt closer to their mothers than did unmarried or employed daughters. The association between the quality of daughters' relationships with their mothers and their psychological well-being depended on daughter's marital , parental and employment status. Among unmarried daughters, a close mother-daughter relationship was associated with reports of high life satisfaction and lack of depressive symptoms. The relationship between mother-daughter closeness and depressive symptoms among married daughters was found only for unemployed women. Excessive care seeking and care giving to their mother had a significant negative association with the psychological well-being of married daughters without children, whether or not they were employed.
[ Key Words ] Mother-daughter relationship, Adult development, Psychological well-being, Life events

Nomura, Nobutake (Graduate School of Psychology, Faculty of Letters, Doshisha University) & Hashimoto, Tsukasa (Department of Psychology, Faculty of Letters, Doshisha University). Affective Quality of Reminiscence, Revaluation Tendency, and Adaptation in Old Age. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2001, Vol.12, No.2, 75-86.
This study examined the adaptive function of reminiscence in old age, based on the hypothesis that the quality of reminiscence affects adaptation, rather than the quantity of reminiscence. A sample of 208 older adults (ages 60- 82 years) and 197 younger adults (ages 18- 30 years), all attending college classes, completed questionnaires including a Positive Reminiscence Scale, a Revaluation Tendency Scale, and measures of life satisfaction, etc. The results indicated that the affective quality of reminiscence was generally associated with life satisfaction and mental health, although there was some variation in this tendency according to respondent age and gender. The revaluation tendency was found mainly in younger adults. Only among elderly males, the quantity of reminiscence was associated with adaptative indices, and there was a significant interaction between the quantity and positive affect of reminiscence. These findings suggest that the quantity of reminiscence mediates between the affective quality (positive vs. negative) of reminiscence and adaptation in old age.
[ Key Words] Gerontology, Reminiscence, Adaptation, Life review, Adult development

Sugimura, Kazumi (Faculty of Humanics, Otemon Gakuin University). A Longitudinal Study of Relatedness in Identity Formation of Female Adolescents. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2001, Vol.12, No.2, 87-98.
This longitudinal study examined changes of relatedness levels in identity exploration and identified the factors associated with changes in relatedness levels among female adolescents. The expanded Ego Identity Interview which covered four domains of occupation, friendships, dating, and sex roles, was administered to female university students (N=31) three times: the first semester as juniors and seniors, and the final semester as seniors. Significant progression to the higher relatedness level was observed in three domains, but sex roles levels changed slightly more often to the lower level than to the higher level. The main factors that precipitated changes were "job seeking career decision", which was the most common predictor of the movement to both higher and lower levels, and "changes in relationships with friends/dates", which was remarkably found in the movement to the higher level. The results supported the recent tendency in theory to emphasize relational aspects of identity, and provided evidence that identity formation is indeed associated with relatedness.
[ Key Words ] Identity formation, Relatedness, Females, Adolescence, Longitudinal study

Hirayama, Satoko (Ochanomizu University, Doctoral Research Course in Human Culture). Adolescent Mental Health and Father's Involvement in Families: The Incongruent Rating of Fathers and Mothers. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2001, Vol.12, No.2, 99-109.
The goals of this research were to investigate incongruent maternal and paternal ratings of father's involvement in family life, and to study whether such discrepancy was related to adolescent's mental health. Participants were 161 adolescents (7 th-9th grades) and their fathers and mothers. Correlation analysis related adolescent mental health to maternal and paternal ratings on a Father's Involvement in the Family (FIF) scale. Mother's FIF ratings correlated with 3 indexes of adolescent boy's reported mental health; neurotic tendency, anger, and uncooperativeness. In addition, both paternal and maternal FIF ratings correlated with reports of girl's neurotic tendency. Analysis of variance was also preformed on indexes of adolescent mental health. Adolescent neurotic tendency was low when both fathers and mothers rated paternal involvement as high. For adolescents who were rated high for neurotic tendency, mothers made low FIF ratings and fathers gave high FIF ratings. In this sense, incongruent mother and father FIF ratings were strongly associated with adolescent's neurotic tendency. Finally, when mothers reported that fathers were highly involved in the past but not Involved in the present, their adolescents were highly neurotic.
[ Key Words] Parenting, Adolescence, Mental health, Personality development, Fathering

Ishino, Hideaki (Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University). An Attempt to Describe 2-and 3-Year-Olds' "Being-with-Others" : From the Viewpoint of Ambivalent Dynamics of lntersubjective Relationships. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2001, Vol.12, No.2, 110-122.
At the ages 2 or 3, children gain a new subjective perspective on self-engagement in interpersonal relationships, and increasingly appear to their caregivers as unique individuals. This article illustrated and analyzed 2- and 3-year olds' "being-with-others" based on longitudinal participant observation at a nursery school. Descriptions of several episode revealed the following about both children's and caregivers' subjective experiences. (1) Children asserted themselves in relation to caregivers and other children, but they identified themselves as dependent upon their caregivers. (2) Care- givers tried to curb the excessive willfulness of children, but accepted their children emotionally. (3)Within such ambivalent children-caregivers relationships, children may experience "being-with-others", which would be grasped intersubjectively by caregivers. The findings were discussed in the theoretical terms of ambivalent dynamics of intersubjective relationships.
[ Key Words ] 2- and 3-year-olds' self, Caregivers, Self-other relationships, Participant observation

Shibahashi, Yuko (The United Graduate School of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University). Self-Expression and Expectation of Friends' Expression in Adolescence. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2001, Vol.12, No.2, 123-134.
This study of adolescent friendship investigated the features of adolescent (1) self-expression, (2) expectation of other's expression, and (3) the relationship between self-expression and expectation of other's expression. Junior and senior high school students (N=731) filled out a questionnaire about these aspects of their friendships. Factor analysis of the data revealed 4 factors for self-expression and expectation of friends' expression, respectively, and the following was found in relation to these factors. (1) Boys reported expression of "dissatisfaction and demand for friends' behavior" more frequently than girls, whereas girls reported expression of "personal limitation and pleasure" more frequently than boys. Senior high school students reported expression of "personal limitation and pleasure" and of "opinion", more often than junior high school students. (2) Girls expected others' expression more than boys , for all factors. (3) Expression of "personal limitation and pleasure" and "opinion" correlated modelately with all factors for expectation of friends expression, whereas expression of "dissatisfaction and demand for friends' behavior" and "rejection of friends' request" almost did not correlate significantly with expectation factors.
[ Key Words I Self-expression, Assertiveness, Social cognition, Friendship, Adolescence

Kato, Hiromichii (The Graduate School of Literature, Chuo University). The Continuous Process of Problem Behavior: Analysis of Student Relationships. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2001, Vol.12, No.2, 135-147.
This research concerned the psychological processes associated with adolescent problem behavior that occurred over time in a school context. It consisted of a series of interviews with .an 18 year-old boy named 'F' and with 4 of his schoolmates. F had dropped out of high school, where he had repeatedly evidenced problem behavior. An analysis of the interview protocols showed that F engaged in two different types of relationships. The first one was his relationship with delinquent boys, and the second was his relationship with other high school students. Problem behavior and the guidance of teachers differed for these two types of relationships. In the former relationships, problem behavior had a positive sense, whereas in the latter it had a negative sense. These results indicated a circular relation between F's problem behavior and teachers' guidance, by which the more F showed problem behavior and had been given guidance about the behavior from a teacher, the more new problem behaviors he evidenced.
[ Key Words ] Problem behavior, Peer relations, Adolescence, Adolescent-teacher relationship, Life history

Kinoshita, Yoshiko (Yokohama City University, Faculty of Humanities and International Studies). Judgement of Legitimacy of Group Decision making over Individual Concerns: A Developmental Study.
Three studies were conducted to examine how children come to distinguish between the private affairs of an individual and the legitimate scope of group decision#making, and under what conditions children first become aware of individual rights. Participants were children and adolescents ( Study 1 n 119, Study 2 n 120). The participants were presented with stories about situations in which members of a class were to make a group decision. They were asked to judge whether a group decision was appropriate in each situation, and gave reasons for their judgements. Then they were asked to judge how binding the group decision would be and rated how wrong a person would be to go against the group decision. Studies 1 and 2 showed that group decisions that benefit individuals met more approval, and that reasoning associated with individual rights became more common with age. Study 3 showed that group decisions were approved of more often when the decision benefited the group, and when decisions were made in the context of school rather than a home context.
yKey Wordsz Decision#making, Individuality, Peer group, Social cognition

Kinoshita, Takashi (Faculty of Human Development, Kobe University). Young Children's Understanding of Delayed Video Images of Self: Self- Recognition, Temporal Perspective, and 'Theory of Mind'.
The focus of this study was young children's self- recognition involving the understanding of temporal perspectives. Three- , 4- , and 5- year- olds (N 56) played a game while an experimenter covertly placed stickers on their heads. Three minutes later, children were shown a video of the scene in which they had been marked. After the mark test, children were asked when they and the experimenter, respectively, discovered the sticker. Most 4- and 5- year- old children passed this mark test. But some children who passed the mark test could not report when they found out about the sticker. Children who could report the time performed better on theory- of- mind tasks, and were unwilling to show their own images to others, compared with children who could not report the time. These results suggest that an explicit understanding of temporal perspectives is related to the development of self- recognition and theory- of- mind.
yKey Wordsz Self- recognition, Early childhood, Temporal perspective, Theory of mind

Matsui, Mana (Ochanomizu University, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences), Muto, Takashi (Ochanomizu University, Department of Developmental and Clinical Studies) & Kadoyama, Mutsumi (Mejiro Youchien). The Initiation of Peer Interaction: Analysis of Preschoolers' Free Play.
How do children initiate interactions with peers? Preschoolers' free play behavior was observed using a videotape recorder, and scenes in which children initiated peer interactions were analyzed to understand the children's types of explicit and implicit strategies. In addition, the stream of initiation behavior (strategy, peer response, consequent condition) was analyzed as a sequence. The results included age differences in initiation styles during ages 3 and 4. There were various implicit strategies besides direct and explicit ones to initiate interactions with peers. Three year- olds imitated others' behavior to engage peers more often than did 4 year- olds. Between ages 3 and 4, children came to use implicit strategies and participate in peer play more often. But in the latter half period of 4 year- olds, children tended more to invite peers to join in their activities, and to attract peers' attention. This latter style might reflect the fact that older children know each other better. The number of explicit entry attempts increased as children became more familiar with the rules of entry into preschool play.
yKey Wordsz Initiation of peer interaction, Strategy, 3 year- olds, 4 year- olds

Taguchi, Masanori (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University). A Developmental Sudy of Young Children's Drawings: Visual Realism and Amount of Information.
This study examined whether amount of information affects children's expression of visually realistic drawings. Participants, 169 children 4- 6 years of age, were each assigned to one of two conditions. In the partial condition, children were shown the back of a doll before drawing, and in the whole condition, they were shown entire doll. While the children were told to draw what they saw, the doll was set with its back facing them. The results showed that 5 year- old children in the partial condition composed more view- specific drawings than in the whole condition. In addition, view- specific drawings became more common with age in the partial condition. In the whole condition, however, the view- specific drawings of the 4- and 6- year olds were more common than those by the 5- year olds. Finally, non- view specific drawings of 4- year olds were canonical and among the 5- and 6- year olds' drawings were communicative. The results suggested that 5- year olds draw objects in consideration of the information presented to them.
yKey Wordsz Young children, Drawing, Amount of information, Visual realism, Cognitive development

Hirayama, Junko (Shirayuri College) & Kashiwagi, Keiko (Shirayuri Colleg). Attitudes of Married Couples toward Communication: Husband/Wife Comparisons.
This study investigated middle- aged married couples' attitudes toward communication with their partners, and analyzed the relationship between communication attitudes and demographic variables (educational background and income level). Participants were 277 pairs of married couples who ware parents in nuclear families. The main results were as follows.@(1) Factor analysis of communication attitude extracted four factors, "high- and- mighty", "sympathetic", "dependent/friendly", and "ignoring/avoiding".@(2) Husbands' attitudes were significantly higher than wives' on 2 negative dimensions ("high- and- mighty" and "ignoring/avoiding"), while wives' attitudes were higher than husbands' on 2 positive dimensions ("sympathetic" and "dependent/friendly").@(3) Husband' attitudes were characterized primarily on the "high- and- mighty" dimension, whereas wives' were strongest on "dependent/friendly". (4) Educational background was found to have no significant association with communication attitudes to their partner. Finally, wives' income level was significantly related to husbands' "sympathetic" attitude, i.e., the higher the wives' income level the more sympathetic husbands were toward them.
yKey Wordsz Husband- wife communication, Married couple, Marital relationship, Economic status

Tomita, Shohei (Department of Early Childhood Care and Education, Yamaguchi Junior College of Arts). Preschoolers' Understanding of Mental Metaphors: Viewing the Mind as a Container, Object or Agent.
Six year- old children interpreted 3 domains of mental metaphors: container (e. g., "The mind was empty."), object (e. g., "The mind was heavy."), and agent metaphors (e. g., "The mind hesitated."). In Study 1, 16 children were presented two picture stories: a correct interpretation of the metaphor and a foil, and were asked to select the correct interpretation. In each of Studies 2 and 3, 20 children were presented with a metaphor and 4 picture stories: metaphorical/correct, metaphorical/incorrect, literal/incorrect, and an unrelated interpretation of the metaphor. They were asked to make the same choices as in Study 1. In all three studies, most children made more correct selections for container metaphors than for agent metaphors. These esults were discussed in terms of preschoolers' image of the mind.
yKey Wordsz Mental metaphor, Image of the mind, Pictorial context, Preschooler, Cognitive development