TAKAI, Hiromi (Faculty of Education, Shimane University). Situational Antecedents and Behavioral Tendencies of Moral and Conventional Transgressions: The developmental Process of Differentiating Guilt and Shame. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.1, 2-12.
In response to scenario-based questions about moral and conventional transgressions, 8- to 10-year old children consistently made inferences about protagonists' pro-social behaviors following both guilt-inducing and shame-inducing situations. In addition, adults made the inference that when transgressions in response to shame-inducing situations were less serious, protagonists would display asocial behavior that mediated feelings of shame. Twelve-year olds sometimes made adult-like inferences and sometimes behaved like younger children. The finding that 12-year olds' inferences were adult-like yet not entirely the same indicated that the developmental transition to adult understanding may continue during adolescence. This study also indicated that a functionalist approach to socio-emotional development, without use of the terms "guilty" or "ashamed", will be useful in future investigation.
[ Key Words ] Moral transgression, Conventional transgression, Guilt, Shame, Understanding of emotion

TOKUDA, Haruko (Kyoto University, Graduate School of Education). A Narrative Analysis of Meaning of Child Care for Women Raising Their Young Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.1, 13-26.
This study examined how women raising young children talk about and make sense of their child care and everyday life. Narratives about life perspectives and meaning of child care were obtained through in-depth interviews with 11 women who were engaged at home in full-time care giving for their first-born children (under the age of 3). Through a qualitative analysis using a narrative approach, five meaning patterns were identified: Child Care as Positively Self-Evident Experience, Child Care as Their Own Developmental Task, Present Life as a Rest Period, Child Care as Personal Growth, and Grasping for Meaning of Child-Care. Each meaning pattern seemed to reflect each mother's narratives about her own life, particularly her present life circumstance and past, and future possible life courses. The patterns were also related to each mother's distress, conflict, and uncertainty about her own life. The results support a meaning-making model as a unique coping strategy by which mothers can accept and adapt to their lives.
[ Key Words ] Child care, Mothering, Narrative, Meaning-making, Life-span development

KUSAKABE, Noriko (Graduate School of Human Science, Waseda University), TANIMURA, Ryo (Daido Institute of Technology), LAN, Woei-Chen (Taipei Municipal Teachers College) & MATSUDA, Fumiko (Fukuyama University). Fifth Graders' Temporal and Spatial Judgements About Moving Objects. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.1, 27-39.
In this study, fifth grade children (n = 67) solved word problems using the knowledge structure "duration = temporal stopping point minus temporal starting point" to compare the time two different objects moved. Before and after learning this knowledge structure, participants viewed an image on a screen that depicted two cars traveling in the same direction. The children were asked to judge which car had started earlier and stopped earlier, and which car had run for a longer time. A second sample of fifth graders (n = 70) made spatial judgments in the same way. The results showed that it was very difficult to judge durations of the two moving cars, even after learning the knowledge structure. For fifth graders it seemed to be a little easier to judge distances of the two moving cars by using the knowledge structure "distance = spatial stopping point minus spatial starting point."
[ Key Words ] Duration judgement, Spatial judgment, Fifth grade children, Learning, Knowledge structure

FUJISAKI, Ayuko (Graduate School of Human Culture, Nara Women's University). Children's Experience of Taking Care of Rabbits and Understanding of "Animal Mind". THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.1, 40-51.
Six-year olds(N=64), 5-year olds(N=60) and 4-year olds(N=29) were videotaped in daily activities at their preschool, and were interviewed about their understanding of the "animal mind." The videos showed that the most frequent activities of children at the rabbit hutch were watching and feeding the animals.@There were age differences in children's interactions with animals. For example, the four-year olds, more frequently than the five- and six-year olds, went after the animals and threw food to them. Six-year olds were most likely to clean the hutch and speak to the animals. The results of the interviews indicated that many children said they recognized rabbits' primary emotions, desires, and beliefs. However, there was also a limit on attributions of animal's mental states. The findings suggest that children gradually accord animals a social existence.
[ Key Words ] Preschool children, Rearing animals, Social cognition, Anthropomorphism, Biological concepts

SHIMIZU, Noriko (Graduate School of Human Ecology, Kinjo Gakuin University). Identity Development of Pre- and Post-Empty Nest Women. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.1, 52-64.
This study examined the identity development of mothers (ages 41-60) during the transition to an empty nest. The result indicated that recognition of children's psychological departure from home, especially in the case of the first daughter, was an opportunity for the mother to develop her identity. However, objective state of independence (measured according to the child's lifestyle) was not related to mothers' identity. This suggested that identity development was facilitated by recognition of her own changing role rather than by observation of her children's growth. It was implied that the mother's identity development began at the realization that the first child's departure was coming soon. The data also showed that the mother who did not have friends to talk with suffered from more diffusion of identity in the beginning of the empty nest transition, compared with the mother who had such friendships.
[Key Words] Identity development, Empty nest, Middle age, Women

TANGE, Chikako (Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University). Changes in Attitudes Toward Death in Early and Middle Adolescence. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.1, 65-76.
The purpose of this paper was to examine features to attitudes toward death in early and middle adolescence. The Scale of Attitudes toward Death was administered to junior and senior high school students. This scale consisted of six subscales: "fear of death," "intention to live out own life," "meaning of death for life," "underrating of death," "belief in existence of afterlife," and "choice of death-of-body / death-of-mind." The surveys were conducted five times at one-year intervals (total N=1742). The results suggested that positive attitudes toward life and negative attitudes toward death decrease during the years of junior high school. Belief in existence of an afterlife weakened with increasing grade level. Scores on the subscale of "meaning of death for life" did not change with grade level. The data showed that the structure of attitudes toward death was invariant in early and middle adolescence. Finally, experiences of bereavement for family members or close friends did not affect adolescents' attitudes toward death.
[ Key Words ] Death, Attitude toward death, Thanatology, Early adolescence, Middle adolescence

KUMAGAI, Takayuki (Fukui University). A Theoretical Examination of the Formation of Triadic Relations Preceding the Development of 'Theory of Mind': Manifestation of Symptoms in Children with Autism. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.1, 77-88.
In his developmental stage model, Baron-Cohen (1995) suggested that the formation of "SAM" precedes the development of "ToMM". Given the observation among normal children of a 3-year age disparity between the formation of SAM and ToMM, the present study addressed the question of whether there are intermediate stages between the development of SAM and ToMM. We examined the nature of two stages by putting them together in terms of triadic relations, while looking into their structural differences with respect to spatial, temporal, and personal relations. This analysis led to the hypothesis that there are two intermediate stages between the formation of SAM and the early development of ToMM. This paper presents a four-stage model, with development of ToMM as the final stage, to explain the nature of developmental phenomena typically observed in children with normal and autistic children.
[ Key Words ] Theory of mind, Triadic relations, Spatial, temporal, and personal relations, A developmental model, Autism

Shimizu, Takeshi (Graduate School of Human Sciences, Waseda University) & Negayama, Koichi (School of Human Sciences, Waseda University). Communication Patterns of Married Couples: Association with Couples' Occupational Statuses and Marital Ideals. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.1, 89-100.
This study investigated the communication patterns of middle-aged married couples, and analyzed the association between their occupational statuses and marital ideals. Participants were 277 post-parental married couples in nuclear families. The main results of the study were as follows. First, cluster analysis of communication attitudes extracted three types of communication patterns among couples: a "sympathetic friendly type"(36.5%), "average neutral type"(35.7%), and "oppressive and withdrawing type" (27.8% of couples). Secondly, among the "average neutral" and "oppressive and withdrawing" types, especially the latter, wives' marital satisfaction scores were significantly lower than their husbands' scores. Third, couples' occupational status had a significant relationship with their communication patterns. Single-income couples were more likely to be classified as "average neutral" in communication, whereas dual-income couples(wives' annual income greater than one million yen-about US$9,000) were most often classified as "sympathetic friendly" in communication. Finally, concerning marital ideals, husbands in "sympathetic friendly" couples emphasized "love and mutual respect" and "understanding and support of my wife" more than did husbands in the other two clusters of communication types.
[ Key Words ] Middle adulthood, Marital relationship, Husband-wife communication, Dual-income families,@Marital ideals

Tanimura, Ryo(Daido Institute of Technology) & Matsuda, Fumiko (Fukuyama University). Knowledge and Strategies for Duration Judgments: The Effects of 5th Grade Mathematics Classes About Speed. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.2, 129-139.
Thirty-six 5th graders performed two types of tasks before and after instruction about speed in mathematics classes. In the moving task, participants viewed CRT displays of two cars traveling on two parallel tracks and judged which car had run longer. In the word problem task, they solved arithmetic problems about two children who were traveling. For each problem, three or four kinds of information (distances, speeds, starting times, and arrival times of both traveling children) were presented, and participants judged which child traveled for longer. The main results were as follows: (a) On moving tasks, many participants seemed to judge duration based only on distance, both before and after classes on speed; (b) On word problems, participants sometimes solved problems based only on information about arrival times or distances; and (c) the speed classes had a few effects on performance of both types of tasks. These findings were discussed in relation to participants, knowledge and strategies used in duration judgements.
yKey WordszDuration judgement, Moving stimuli, Arithmetic word problems, Knowledge, 5th grade children

Karita, Tomonori (Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo). Why do Children Hide? A Participant Observation of Free Play in Kindergarten. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.2, 140-149.
Many observers of children,s play have been interested in why children hide. This paper illustrated the process of the author,s understanding of children,s acts of hiding, and also suggested inter-subjective research hypotheses. Five- (n=29) and six-year old (n=19) children were studied through participant observation, during a total of 65 play episodes. The KJ method (Analysis 1) classified the 65 episodes into 13 primary categories. These 13 categories were then classified into 4 secondary categories, and finally gdramatich and ginterpersonalh acts were formed as 2 aggregate categories. Analysis 2 suggested the hypothesis that triadic relationships involved the creation of enclosing, covering, and separating, when children hid during play. Triads were characterized by a hiding gsubjecth (participants), a physical and psychological gplace,h and gothersh (outsiders). Finally, Burke,s (1952 / 1982) gdramatismh perspective was introduced to offer two possible motives for why children hide.
yKey WordszHiding, Kindergarten play, Participant observation, KJ method, Dramatism

Imao, Mayumi(Faculty of Education, Aichi University of Education). The Process of Mourning Work in Chronic Illness: Examination of Stage and Chronic Sorrow Models. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.2, 150|161.
This study examined how two existing models(stage model and chronic sorrow model)applied to chronically ill patients, life stories as told after the appearance of the disease. Participants(N=14, ages 19-34)had chronic kidney disease. Analyses showed that neither the stage nor chronic sorrow model was appropriate overall to predict the process of mourning work. The data also suggested two factors that should be considered in an alternative model. First, for chronic illness the mourning process should be viewed within a longer time span than does the traditional model, shifting in the direction of acceptance/closure. Second, it would be useful to consider cultural factors in understanding the acceptance/closure stage.
yKey Wordsz Chronic illness, Mourning work, Adolescence, Early adulthood, Aging

Ito, Junko(Miyagi University of Education). The Effect of Prosocial Self-Perception on Prosocial Behavior? Value and Efficacy. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.2, 162-171.
This study examined the relationships between prosocial self-perception (sense of value and efficacy), attention to othersf needs, and motivation for prosocial behavior. Seven year-olds (n=157) and 9-year-olds (n=185) completed a 10-item Prosocial Self-Perception Scale. Children rated their sense of value and efficacy for each item, i.e., how they thought they should be (prosocial sense of value) and could be (prosocial efficacy). They also responded to five prosocial episodes in which a friend was distressed. Questions about the episodes concerned how the friend would feel and why (attention to the other,s need), and what they would do for the friend and why (motivation). In addition, teachers assessed each child,s prosocial behavior. Among 9-year-olds, sense of value and efficacy had a direct effect on motivation, and prosocial behavior was predicted by prosocial motivation. But for 7-year-olds, motivation did not depend on children,s sense of value and efficacy. These data suggest that, in comparing 7- and 9 year-olds, prosocial self-perception has different effects on prosocial behavior.
yKey Wordsz Prosocial behavior, Prosocial self-perception, Efficacy, Motivation, Social cognition

Taniguchi, Akiko(Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo). The Meaning of Teacher Practices: An Ethnographic Study at an In-Hospital School. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, 2004, Vol.15, No.2, 172-182.
This study investigated teacher practices at an in-hospital school and clarified the implicit meaning system of practices embedded within daily routines. A total of 223 episodes were recorded from fieldwork, consisting of participant observations, informal and formal semi-structured interviews, and document content analysis. Episodes were analyzed qualitatively according to the grounded theory approach. As a result, seven categories of teacher practices were identified and it was hypothesized that teachers not only taught academic subjects but also built formal and informal connections among the ecological systems surrounding the hospitalized children. In other words, they coordinated the support systems of the isolated and exhausted children. The concept of teachersf coordination of support has practical use, and appeared to be a core concept of teaching practices at the in-hospital school.
yKey Wordsz In-hospital school, Teacher practices, Fieldwork, Ecological systems, Support systems

Kanamaru, Tomomi(Ochanomizu University, Doctoral Research Course in Human Culture)& Muto, Takashi(Ochanomizu University, Research Center for Child and Adolescent Development and Education). Individual Differences in Emotional Regulation of Two-Year Old Children During Interactions with Mothers. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, 2004, Vol.15, No.2, 183-194.
This study investigated individual differences in two-year olds, emotional regulation as a process, by studying the change pattern of children,s distress during mother-child conflicts. Participants were 41 mother-child pairs. The other purpose of the research was to analyze each individual difference from the standpoint of the mother-child relationship (emotional availability, or gEAh) and their behaviors. Three patterns of distress processes were found: gcontinuance,h gsoothing,h and gnon-expression.h Children of the gcontinuanceh type actively tried to remove the source of their distress. The gnon-expressionh children independently contained their own distress and shifted to other activities as mothers followed along with them. Mothers were active partners in relieving the distress of the child, in the gsoothingh type, and their EA in conflict situations was greater than during pre-conflict situations. These results indicated that maternal emotional support is necessary for children,s emotional regulation, and that autonomous emotional regulation emerges in two-year olds.
yKey Wordsz Emotional regulation, Two-year olds, Mother-child interaction, Emotional availability, Individual differences

Yamagishi, Akiko (School of Health Care and Nursing, Juntendo University). The Relations Between Present Interpersonal Frameworks and Quality of Past Relationship with Their Mothers and Friends Described in Life Histories in Female Adolescents. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, 2004, Vol.15, No.2, 195-206.
This study examined the relationship between present interpersonal frameworks and quality of past interpersonal relations, by analyzing the free responses of 97 female college students. Interpersonal frameworks were assessed by a questionnaire about studentsf Internal Working Models, and the quality of relationships with their mothers and friends was assessed based on studentsf descriptions of their life histories from the viewpoint of security/insecurity of attachment. It was first notable that current secure and avoidant frameworks were related to descriptions of past relationships with mothers and friends, whereas ambivalent frameworks were not. In addition, descriptions of the past showed both commonalities and differences in comparing studentsf relationships with mothers vs. friends. Finally, the link between present framework and past descriptions was stronger in the insecure group, and the avoidant group revealed many serious problems in descriptions of the past. These findings were discussed in relation to theories of attachment and autobiographical memory.
yKey Wordsz Internal working model, Life history, Attachment, Mother-daughter relationship, Friendship

Kikuchi, Teppei (Kyushu University). Development of Young Childrenfs Understanding of Their Own Facial Expressions. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.2, 207-216.
The present study focused on the developmental process by which children come to understand their own facial expressions. It used childrenfs own facial photographs and traditional facial expression stimuli (schematic drawings, illustrations, and photographs of other people) to examine recognition of facial expressions by young children. Fifty-eight young children (3-6 years old) were participants in the study. Photographs were taken of each participant after they were instructed to show facial expressions for happiness, sadness, and anger. One week later, the children were asked to judge the emotions expressed in these photographs and the other facial expression stimuli. The results showed that recognition of self-facial expressions was significant weaker than recognition of other facial expression stimuli. In addition, younger children most easily identified the emotion of anger among the self-facial expressions. These results showed that understanding onefs own facial expressions contributes to the development of complex emotional comprehension.
yKey Wordsz Facial expression, Emotional competence, Self/other, Early childhood, Emotional development

Takagaki, Mayumi (Kamakura Womenfs University, Faculty of Child Studies, Department of Child Psychology). How Undergraduate Students Change Their Preconceptions About Forces. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, 2004, Vol.15, No.2, 217-229.
This research examined the effectiveness of teaching strategies that induced conceptual change in undergraduatesf preconceptions about forces, to clarify how conceptual change is achieved. Two experimental tasks, a balance task (plain task) and a falling motion task (difficult task), were performed by 82 undergraduates identified by a pretest as having three types of preconceptions about forces: designated forces, motive forces, and operative forces. Measurement of conceptual conflicts and cognitive motivation, and analysis of participantsf protocols, revealed the following. First, for many participants who gave correct answers to the plain task, incongruity-arousing information produced optimal conceptual conflicts, which led to perplexity among participants. For many who answered the difficult task correctly, incongruity-arousing information caused maximum conceptual conflict, leading to confusion. In addition, to resolve conceptual conflicts participants faced when engaged in the difficult task, an effective teaching strategy was to explicitly show students how to properly relate preconceptions and scientific conceptions. Lastly, among many of the students who gave correct answers to the plain task, incongruity-reducing information produced cognitive curiosity, facilitating recall and memory transfer. In contrast, for many who answered the difficult task correctly, cognitive curiosity caused by incongruity-reducing information led instead to surprise.
yKey Wordsz Preconception, Teaching strategy, Conceptual change, Conceptions about forces, Cognitive development

Tomita, Shohei (Yamaguchi Junior College of Arts). Judgments About Imaginary Objects and the Fantasy-reality Distinction in Preschoolers. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, 2004, Vol.15, No.2, 230-240.
This study examined the connection between judgments about imaginary objects and the fantasy-reality distinction in preschoolers. Preschoolers were first classified into four groups: an integration group, a confusion group, a denial group, and an affirmation group, based on their performance on a fantasy-reality distinction task. The integration group distinguished correctly between fantasy and reality. The confusion group mistook the fantasy for reality. The denial group denied both fantasy and reality, and the affirmation group affirmed them both. Next, actual behavior and verbal responses on an empty box task were compared between the four types. The main results were as follows. (1) Most of the denial group opened the box but said they thought the box was empty. (2) Most of the affirmation group did not open the box but said they visualized the imagined object as in the box. (3) In response to a question about the possibility of wishing and magic, most of the integration group did mention anything about the condition, or reserved their comments.
yKey Wordsz Imagination, Judgment of reality, Fantasy-reality distinction, Individual differences, Preschoolers

Saijo, Takeo (Graduate School of Human Sciences, Waseda University; Research Fellowships of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). A Cross-sectional Study of Mothers, Holding Time of Infants: A New Concept for the Mother-Infant Relationships. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.3, 281-291.
This cross-sectional study examined the developmental process by which mothers gradually cease holding their infants. Mothers (N=298) answered a questionnaire about how long they held their infants (ages 1-13 months). The results showed that compared with six hours of holding time in early infancy mothers only held their children for an average of 2.5 hours by the toddler stage. The parameters of the decline in holding time were also examined in terms of aspects of infant development. The following factors influenced the decrease of the holding time: motor development, height, weight, form of milk, restless movement during holding, and infants, attempts to gain release from the mother. The findings were discussed in terms of parental investment and systems theory. Observational and longitudinal studies are needed, and dynamic systems and cross-cultural approaches may be more effective in exploring this issue further.
yKey Wordsz Mother-infant relations, Holding, Decline in holding time, Physical contact,Toddlers

Suzuki, Ayumi (Kyoto University), Koyasu, Masuo (Kyoto University) & An, Ning (Kyoto University). Development of Understanding of Others' Intention, Social Problem Solving Abilities, and "Theory of Mind" in Young Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.3, 292-301.
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between social problem solving abilities and the acquisition of "theory of mind" in young children. Participants were twenty-one 3-year-olds, twenty 4-year-olds, and twenty 5-year-olds. They were asked to imagine interpersonal conflict with peers, and to answer whether the protagonists were intent on provoking conflict, and how they could solve the conflict situation. They were also given a "false belief" task to check the acquisition of "theory of mind". The results suggest that those who have already acquired a theory of mind, judged from passing the "false belief" task, understood the intention of the protagonists better. However, regardless of the protagonists' intent to provoke conflict, they chose more self-inhibitory and less aggressive ways to solve the conflict situation.
yKey Wordsz Social problem solving, Theory of mind, Intention, Young children

Lee, Sang Lan (Graduate School of Education, Tokyo University). Apathy in Japanese and Korean High School Students: Career Development. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.3, 302-312.
The purpose of this study was to compare causal models of apathetic tendencies, vagueness of motivation toward going to college (VMC), career indecision (CI), and ego identity, between samples of Japanese and Korean high school students. A questionnaire was administered to 562 high school students, including 310 Japanese and 252 Koreans. Differences found by covariance structure analysis were clearer for gender than nationality. In one gender difference, "anhedonia," one aspect of apathetic tendencies, was predicted by CI among males. Negativity-passivity, another apathetic tendency factor, was predicted by ego identity, and this effect was stronger for males than females. VMC had an influence on anhedonia in both Japanese and Korean high school students. Further, anhedonia was predicted directly by ego identity among Korean but not Japanese males. Anhedonia was predicted by both CI and ego identity in Japanese females, but only by ego identity in Korean females. These findings suggested that VMC and CI are both important predictors of apathy in Japanese and Korean high school students.
yKey Wordsz Causal model, Apathetic tendency, Motivation, Ego identity, Career indecision

Uematsu, Akiko (Ochanomizu University). Cultural Adjustment of Japanese Studying Abroad: Interpersonal Skills, Ethnic Identity, Self-Control. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.3, 313-323.
This study examined the impact of three phenomena on the cultural adjustment of Japanese studying abroad:(1)acquisition of interpersonal skills of the culture where they reside,(2)ethnic consciousness(personal ethnic identity and orientation toward other ethnicities),and(3)self-control(both redressive and reformative). Japanese university students(N=143)living in the U. S. participated in a questionnaire survey. A causal modeling analysis showed first that acquisition of interpersonal skills was the most important determinant of adjustment, and was connected to all cultural adjustment factors. In addition, different types of cultural adjustment were found, depending on the ethnic consciousness of the students. Both strong personal ethnic identity and orientation to other groups contributed to increased acquisition of interpersonal skills and predicted significantly positive cultural adjustment. Finally, redressive self-control had a positive effect on acquisition of interpersonal skills and cultural adjustment. This type of self-control with active diversion of one's feelings was especially effective.
yKey Wordsz Cultural adjustment, Japanese studying abroad, Interpersonal skills, Ethnic identity, Self-control

Uebuchi, Hisashi (Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University),Kutsuzawa, Ito (Benesse Corporation) & Muto, Takashi (Ochanomizu University, Research Center for Child & Adolescent Development and Education). Development of the Effects of Achievement Goals on Help-Seeking and Information-Seeking : A Multiple Population Analysis. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.3, 324-334.
This study investigated the effects of achievement goals both on help-seeking behavior and information-seeking behavior. Participants were 4th through 7th grade school children. To ensure equality of latent variables in modeling, we employed multiple population analysis of structual equation modeling. The results included the following: 1) learning goals produced positive effects on perceived benefits of help-seeking behavior; 2) performance goals had positive effects on perceived benefits of help-seeking behavior; 3) perception of support from help-givers affected perceived benefits of help-seeking behavior; 4) perceived benefits of help-seeking behavior were more likely to produce strong effects on help-seeking behavior than perceived costs of help-seeking behavior; 5) at every grade level, learning goals had stronger influences on information-seeking behavior than performance goals .
yKey Wordsz Achievement goals, Help-seeking, Information seeking, Multiple population analysis, Structual equation modeling

Tsuji, Ayumi(Kousai Gakuen)& Takayama, Yoshiko(Yokohama National University). Analysis of the Developmental Process of Triangulation in an Autistic Boy : Interactions During Soap Bubble Play. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.3, 335-344.
This research concerned the development towards triangulation between a 3 years-old autistic boy and his mother, as observed during four incidents of play with soap bubbles over a one month period. We observed 39 different actions of the boy toward objects or his mother, before he finally imitated his mother's bubble blowing. During the first play incident his actions were mainly directed at objects. Even in the infrequent instances when he directed activity toward his mother, he did not look at her. However, during the final play incident, his actions were more toward his mother, looking at her and imitating a part of the movement of bubble blowing. The boy also began to shift his gaze from the object to his mother. It seemed that through interaction with objects, this child first developed triangulation by noticing that his mother manipulated objects, and then he began to imitate his mother. Because triangulation requires one to understand others as intentional agents, it was apparent that to support children with autism it is necessary to stimulate their understanding of other people.
yKey Wordsz Autism, Interaction, Triangulation, Imitation, Understanding of others

Shinto, Takaaki(Center for the Promotion of Excellence in Higher Education, Kyoto University)& Ozaki, Hitomi(Department of Literature, Kyoto Notre Dame University). Teacher's Stress Processes in Higher Education Teaching : Stressor Appraisal and Coping. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.3, 345-355.
The purpose of this study was to clarify university teachers' stress and the coping process involved with teaching responsibilities. In Study 1, we investigated the various stressors facing university teachers. Through the use of interviews and videorecordings, we looked in Study 2 at interactions between three university teachers and stresses on their teaching. The main results were as follows: (1) overall there were many causes of stress related directly to students' reactions; (2) many strategies ignored the stress and hence left it unresolved; (3) experienced university teachers did not report higher levels of stress than did inexperienced teachers; (4) specifics of coping strategies varied according to the teacher's situation; and (5)when teachers solved one cause of stress, other stressors often arose. These results were discussed in relation to faculty development.
yKey Wordsz University teacher, Teaching, Stressor, Coping

Amaya, Yuko(Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University). Questions About "I": An Investigation of Ego-Experience. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.3, 356-365.
This paper reports on research on "ego-experience," that is, questions about "I" such as "Why am I 'I'?," "Why do I exist?," and "Why was I born at this particular time rather than at a different point in time?," along with the feeling that one's appearance is strange. The purpose of the study was to examine when ego-experience appears, the percentages of people who reported their own ego-experience, feelings about ego-experience, and whether participants told others about their experience. Participants (N=881) were in the age range between junior high school and college. 379 of the participants reported having an ego-experience, mainly between 9 and 12 years of age. These results suggested that ego-experience is a common but not universal phenomenon.
yKey Wordsz "I", Questions, Ego-experience, Survey research

Akagi, Kazushige (Kobe University, Graduate School of Cultural Studies and Human Science, Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). Can One Year-olds Teach? : Active Teaching When Observing Others Who Cannot Solve Problems. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.3, 366-375.
The present study investigated whether one-year-olds are capable of active teaching, which is believed to be a type of social intelligence. It also clarified the relation between active teaching and the acquisition of one year-olds' mirror self-recognition. Forty-three toddlers(ages 12-23 months)participated in an experiment where they saw an experimenter who was unable to solve a problem, and they also took the Mark Test developed by Gallup(1970).In the first task the experimenter failed to succeed on a task using material from the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development, in which one forced a round plate into a square hole. Observations of toddlers' reactions showed active teaching by about 60“ of the participants who were older than 20 months. In additions, participants' ability to teach was correlated with their acquisition of mirror self-recognition. The results were discussed in terms of self-other differentiation based on representational abilities acquired at about 18 months of age.
yKey Wordsz 1-year-olds, Active teaching, Mirror self-recognition, Self-other differentiation

Sakata,Yoko (Aichi Shukutoku University) & Kawai, Nobuyuki (Nagoya University). Does a Communicative Video Enhance Preschool Children's Memorization? THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2004, Vol.15, No.3, 376-384.
This investigation showed whether 4- and 6-year old children were able to memorize better after viewing a "communicative" video. Children responded to stories presented in either a "communicative" video or a normal video format. The story was about shopping for ten novel food items, and there were six possible episodic events. While watching the story in the "communicative" video group, children talked via microphones with an experimenter who was hidden behind the video monitor. Under the normal video condition, children did not interact with the experimenter, and only watched and listened to the video. Children then performed three memory tasks: 1) recall of episodes, 2) identification of foods bought in the video story, and 3) recognition of the foods. The "communicative" video group remembered episodes more effectively than the normal video group. Our results showed that two-way communication between the experimenter with the video and children facilitated children's ability to understand and memorize episodic events.
yKey Wordsz Communicative video, Two-way communication, Preschoolers, Memory