ABSTRACT
THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (2005, vol.16)




Isomura, RikukoiChiba Keizai CollegejCMachida, ToshiakiiTsudanuma Elementary Schoolj & Muto, TakashiiShiraume Gakuen College, Ochanomizu UniversityjD Turning Point of Classroom Communication in Lower Elementary School: IntroducinggEveryonehto the Class. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.1, 1-14.
This article described experiences of participation in whole-class discussion among children in lower elementary school grades. Observations of interactions during moral education classes in a 2nd grade class offered a detailed description of micro-processes of the interaction whereby whole-class discussion was introduced to the class. The focus was on situations where the teacher intervened or modified behaviors of children who were speaking. An analysis was made of how the teacher directed interactions by modifying childrenfs behavior and how the children reacted to the teacher. The teacherfs modifications were directed toward the following aspects of the speakersf utterances: i1jaddressee, i2jaudibility, and i3jvisibility to the addressee. Examination of the verbal and non-verbal behavior of the teacher and the children revealed that by introducinggeveryonehas the addressee, modification by the teacher was pivotal in changing the participation structure of the ongoing communication. It was also notable that children sometimes experienced difficulty adjusting to changes in the participation structure.
[ Key Words ] Classroom communication, Whole-class discussion, Address of utterance, gEveryoneh, Non-verbal behavior



Onodera, AtsukoiMejiro Junior CollegejD Marital Changes During the Transition to Parenthood. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.1, 15-25.
A longitudinal study of 68 couples took place during the transition to first-time parenthoodiduring pregnancy, and two and three years postpartumjDFour aspects of marital relations were investigated: closenessh, stubbornnessh, patienceh, and calmnessh. Spousal gclosenessh declined after the birth of a first child but there was no significant differences in closeness between couples at two and three years postpartum. This result suggested that despite an initial drop, closeness stabilized between two and three years postpartum. Wivefs scores for stubbornness toward husbands increased after the birth of a first child, while husbandsf patience scores were consistently higher than their wivesf scores. These results suggest that husbands were often attuned to their wivesf moods and tried to be patient even when they were having unpleasant feelings. Regression analysis clarified the factors contributing to the decline of closeness. For husbands, the level of wivesf irritation and menfs working hours contributed to a decline in feelings of closeness. In the case of wives, insufficient participation by husbands in child care and womenfs recognition of childrenfs difficult temperament contributed to a decline in closeness.
[ Key Words ] Marital relations, Intimacy, Patience, Paternal involvement in child care, Transition to parenthood



Sumiya, ShioriiJoetsu University of Educationj. Participation in Extracurricular Activities and Studentsf Satisfaction with Junior High School: A Latent Growth Curve Model. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.1, 26-35.
This longitudinal study examined the effects of extracurricular activities on junior high school studentsf satisfaction with school. Between 1999 and 2001, 131 pupils (in seventh grade at the time of the initial data collection) completed four-wave questionnaires. The results showed that active engagement in extracurricular activities had a positive effect on school satisfaction, even when controlling for the initial levels of studentsf academic competence. Although active engagement in extracurricular activities and high level of academic competence related directly and concurrently to high level of satisfaction with school, only active engagement in extracurricular activities led to growth in school satisfaction. Conversely, satisfaction with school and academic competence may affect the growth of studentsf active engagement in extracurricular activities.
[ Key Words ] Junior high school, Extracurricular activities, School satisfaction, Academic competence, Latent growth curve model, Adolescent development



Morino, Miwo (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University). Preschoolersf Theory of Mind, Understanding of Emotions, and Interactions with Peers. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.1, 36-45.
A sample of 144 children, 3 to 6 years of age, completed 4 measures of theory of mind, that is, the ability to grasp the links between actions and mental states like beliefs and desires and 2 measures of understanding of emotions. Teachers assessed childrenfs interactions with peers with regard to social skills and popularity. The results showed that theory of mind and understanding of emotions were correlated. Correlational analysis between theory of mind and understanding of emotions conducted for each age group, revealed significant associations for 4- and 5-year olds. While theory of mind was correlated with social skills for both 4- and 5-year olds, a correlation between theory of mind and popularity was found only for 5-year olds. The results were discussed in relation to (1) a unitary understanding of mental states and (2) changes in the relationship between theory of mind and interactions with peers.
[ Key Words ] Theory of mind, Understanding of emotions, Individual differences, Peer relations, Preschoolers



Kawata, ManabuiGraduate School of Humanities, Tokyo Metropolitan UniversityjCTsukada-Jo, MichiruiGraduate School of Humanities, Tokyo Metropolitan Universityj & Kawata, AkikoiOme Public Health CenterjD Infant Self-Assertiveness and Maternal Coping Behavior: A Longitudinal Study from 5 to 15 Months of Age. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.1, 46-58.
This study examined the developmental processes of infantfs self-assertiveness and mother-infant interactions. In relation to Wallonfs theoryi1949jCwe focused on the relation between grole-reversal behaviorhiRRB, in infantfs feeding towards motherjand self-assertiveness. Monthly home observations of mealtime setting were conducted for 8 mother-infant dyadsi5 boys, 3 girlsj from 5 to 15 months of age. The major findings were as follows. Infantfs self-feeding began at about 10 months of age, and RRB appeared between 9 and 11 months. After the onset of RRB, the rate of rejection of motherfs feeding attempts increased markedly. At 11 months, infants became more persistent in actualizing their intentions. Also at around this age, mother-infant conflict occurred frequently, and beginning from this age maternal interventions gradually decreased. Finally, the data suggested that the experience of RRB makes infants feel different or against kinds of emotions in the situation that has same structure. This would prompt infantsf self-assertiveness because they discriminate between self and other, i. e., as distinct subjective agents.
[Key Words] Self-assertiveness, Role-reversal behavior, Socio-emotional development, Mother-infant relations, Mealtime communication



Kukiyama, Kenichi (Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University). A Study of Motivation to Develop Social Skill in Adolescence. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.1, 59-71.
This study examined the relationship among motivation to develop social skill, personality traits, discrepancy between ideal and actual friendship, and social skill development. In Study E, undergraduates (N=401) completed questionnaires assessing their motivation to develop social skill, social skills, awareness of self formation, self-esteem, interpersonal orientation, and friendship. The results showed that motivation to develop social skill was positively related to awareness of self formation and interpersonal orientation, but negatively related to social skills and self-esteem. In addition, participants who were aware of the discrepancy between ideal and actual friendship had greater motivation to develop social skill. In StudyE, 3 months later, participants selected from the Study E sample (N=253) completed questionnaires that assessed their social skills. Factor analysis extracted 3 scales for social skills: forming relations, dealing with interpersonal problems, and regulating inner conflict. Motivation to develop social skill was positively related to social skills development, for the relationship formation skill and inner conflict regulation skill, but not for skills in dealing with interpersonal problems.
[ Key Words ] Social skill development, Motivation to develop social skill, Adolescents, Factor analysis, Social development



Nakajima, Midori (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University). Characteristics of Awareness of Child Abuse and Effects of Developmental Factors on Parents and Professionals. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.1, 72-80.
This study compared parents and specialists (child guidance center workers and nursery teachers) in their awareness of abuse. It also studied the effects of individual parental factors (experiences of being abused, age, and child care environment) on their awareness. Parent of day nursery children (n=169), child guidance center workers (n=68), and day nursery teachers (n=71) completed questionnaires. Compared to child guidance center workers, parents were less likely to view behaviors that did not cause immediate injury or detrimental influence as abuse, and parents were significantly more likely to perceive acts related to everyday childrearing of abuse. On the other hand, compared to parents, child guidance center workers more readily took non-harmful acts to be abusive, in accordance with their awareness of the Child Abuse Prevention Law. Day nursery teachersf awareness was similar to that of parents. We could not conclude that individual factors affected parentsf awareness of abuse, although there were significant differences according to factors such as parentsf own childhood experiences of abuse and parental age.
[ Key Words ] Awareness of child abuse, Abuse experience, Parenting, Child guidance center workers, Nursery school



Fujinaga, Tamotsu (Center of Developmental Education and Research), Shinagawa, Reiko (Ochanomizu University), Watanabe, Chitose (Kokugakuin Tochigi Junior College), Ogihara, Mifumi (Fuchu City Educational Counseling Room), Sasaki, Takeo (Kumon Learning Therapy Co.,Ltd.) & Hori, Atsushi (Kumon Educational Japan Co.,Ltd.). Early Therapeutic Intervention for Down Syndrome Children, and Mothersf Attitudes toward Childrearing. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.1, 81-91.
Early therapeutic intervention for children with Down syndrome has been shown to produce highly facilitative developmental effects. In the present study, a sample of 152 mothers of children with Down syndrome completed a questionnaire in order to clarify the features of information given by doctors, methods and timing of the intervention, childrenfs language acquisition and numerical operations, the personality traits of children and mothers, and mothersf childrearing. It was found that the quality of information given by doctors improved, and that early intervention became more diverse. In addition, there was earlier daily encouragement of childrenfs walking and autonomy, for example, toilet training, and mothersf encouragement of childrenfs motivation using praise affected childrenfs acquisition of language and number and their general development.
[ Key Words ] Down syndrome, Early therapeutic intervention, Language acquisition, Childrearing attitudes



Obara,Tomoko (Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University). Relation of Mothersf Emotional Empathy and Emotional Availability to Their Difficulties with Child Care. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.1, 92-102.
Questionnaires about child care difficulties and emotional empathy, and the JIFP test for emotional availability, were administered to 79 mothers with infants under 12 months of age, and 41 mothers with one year-old infants. Results indicated that emotional empathy was related to child care difficulties of mothers with infants under 12 months of age, whereas emotional availability was related to child care difficulties for mothers of 1 year-olds. These findings show that with increasing experience with child care mothersf difficulties are affected more by emotional availability (relevant to mother-child interaction) rather than by emotional empathy (relevant to maternal personality).
[ Key Words ] Child care, Emotional availability, Empathy, IFEEL Pictures, Mother-child relations



Nomura, Haruo (Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo). Narrative Analysis and Coherence of Narrative Structure: A Methodological Discussion of Turning Points, as Told by an Elderly Japanese. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.2, 109-121.
The present study provided a methodological discussion about narrative analysis from the point of view of coherence of narrative structure. It investigated narratives concerning turning points in life as told by one elderly adult (n = 1). Sub-categories for analysis were extracted based on a framework of temporal, causal, and thematic coherence of narrative structure (Habermas & Bluck, 2000). After examination of this framework, situational coherence concerned with factors such as the listener in the interview was suggested, and sub-categories of the additional framework were extracted. Structural coherence as a result of the analysis showed coherence caused by transcendent others and coherence through reciprocity between the interviewee and the interviewer. The results of this investigation had practical applications for narrative analysis in demonstrating the coherence and meaning of life stories of the elderly.
[ Key Words ] Later adulthood, ElderlyCNarrative analysis, Turning point, Life story



Egami, Sonoko (Graduate School of Human Culture, Ochanomizu University). Adherence to gMaternal Loveh, and Mothersf Emotional Dysregulation in Child-Rearing. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.2, 122-134.
This study examined the influences of mothersf adherence to gmaternal loveh on their emotional dysregulation in their child-rearing. It was postulated that adherence to gmaternal loveh (defined as the tendency to accept and obey blindly to traditional maternal role and sociocultural belief in gdesirable mothersh) would have both positive and negative effects on parenting, depending on other factors. In Study 1, The Adherence to gMaternal Loveh Scale was developed and its reliabllity and validity were checked. Study 2 tested the hypothesis that adherence to gmaternal loveh would interact with mothersf appraisal of childrenfs developmental statuses, and thereby affect their emotional regulation over their children. The results showed that (1) when childrenfs developmental statuses were rated as high, adherence to gmaternal loveh was positively associated with emotional regulation (i.e. anger management), and (2) when childrenfs developmental statuses were rated as low, adherence to gmaternal loveh was related to their emotional dysregulation (i.e. anger under control). These findings lead to the conclusion that adherence to gmaternal loveh, interacting with other factors, has both positive and negative effects on parenting and therefore represents a gdouble-edged sword.h
[ Key Words ] Adherence to gmaternal loveh, Developmental status, Emotional dysregulation, gThe double-edged swordh



Yamana, Yuko (Center for Area Research and Development, Kobe Gakuin University). Influences on the Distribution Strategies of Preschoolers: The Effects of the Number of Chips Per Plate. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.2, 135-144.
The present study investigated how preschoolersf distribution strategies were influenced by the number of chips on each plate when they were required to distribute a certain number of chips equally among recipients. The number of chips to be distributed varied from 4 to 20, and the number of plates from 2 to 4, generating 9 tasks. One hundred and sixty preschoolers participated in the experiment. The main results were as follows: (1) 80% of 3 year-old children correctly distributed the chips on their easiest task; (2) More than 80% of 6 year old children correctly performed all the tasks; (3) Performance deteriorated for younger children as the number of chips increased; (4) The most advanced Unit Strategy was more often employed by older children for their easier tasks where the number of the chips on each plate was sufficiently small. These results suggested that older children tended to distribute a certain number of chips in their first round, even if they did not know the quotient to distribute in advance.
[ Key Words ] Distribution strategies, Unit strategy, Informal mathematics, Early Childhood



Nakagawa, Yoshiko (Tokai Womenfs University), Koyama, Takamasa (Japan Womenfs University) & Suga, Tetsuo (Japan Womenfs University). Development of Receptive Grammar in Japanese Children: An Investigation Using the J.COSS. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.2, 145-155.
This study evaluated the grammatical ability of children, to assess the developmental sequence acquisition ages for Japanese receptive grammar. A sample of native Japanese children (N=390, ages 3-12 years) were tested in a cross-sectional design using a grammatical test (J.COSS: JWU), Japanese test for Comprehension of Syntax and Semantics). The results included the following. First, because the coefficient of reproducibility of scale analysis was within an acceptable range, 20 grammatical items were formed in a step-by-step sequence in accordance with pass rates. At the point of complexity, we analyzed the developmental sequence for each function with respect to phase number, viewpoint, order/particle strategy, structure, and conjunctions. Second, the age of acquisition for 20 items was revealed by average pass rates. There was a difference in acquisition age for a few items because of differences in methodology, but generally acquisition ages were the same as in previous research. Finally, an analysis of error patterns indicated how children understood sentences and demonstrated the developing pattern of their comprehension of Japanese grammar.
[ Key Words ] Japanese grammar, Receptive grammar, Language development, Cross-sectional research, Psycholinguistics



Nagaya, Sawako (Chukyo University Graduate School of Psychology). Mothersf Responses to IFEEL Pictures: Effects of the Gender, Numbers, and Ages of Their Infants. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.2, 156-164.
This study examined the emotional responsiveness of 120 mothers of 0-24 month-old infants. Mothers responded to each of 30 photographs of infantfs facial expressions (IFEEL Pictures), and their data were analyzed in relation to the gender, numbers, and ages of their children. The participants showed emotional responsiveness regardless of the gender and numbers of their children. In the case of single children, mothers of sons tended to feel frustration in the relationship with the child, while mothers of more than one child observed daughtersf emotions as passive (gattentionh and gshynessh). In mother-son relations, gself-assertivenessh and gpleasant feelingsh correlated positively with the sonfs age, but in mother-daughter relations there were no such correlations. Many previous studies of mother-child interactions have shown that mothers interact positively with sons and interact with daughters in more varied ways. The findings of the present study, consistent with previous data, demonstrate that analysis of mothersf cognitive processes is necessary for a thorough understanding of mother-child interactions, as well as in clinical applications.
[ Key Words ] Emotional availability, IFEEL Pictures, Parent-infant relationship, Gender differences, Sibling rivalry



Nakagawa, Miwa (Faculty of Education, Hiroshima University) & Yamazaki, Akira (Faculty of Education, Hiroshima University). Sincerity of Preschoolersf Apologies: The Influence of Inferences about a Victimfs Emotions. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.2, 165-174.
A sincere apology involves both taking responsibility and feeling guilty for onefs behavior. The purpose of Study 1 was to examine whether 5- and 6-year old children (Ns=20, and 23, respectively) satisfied the two conditions for a sincere apology. The results showed that most 6-year old children satisfied both conditions for sincerity, but about half of 5-year olds felt responsible yet did not feel guilty. Study 2 examined whether the childfs inferences about the victimfs emotions had an influence on the sincerity of an apology. Participants were 5-year-old children (N=41). It was found that a larger proportion of children in the experimental group, who were prompted to infer the negative emotions of victims, showed feelings of guilt when compared with the control group. This finding indicated that most children in the experimental group satisfied both conditions for a sincere apology.
[ Key Words ] Sincere apology, Emotional inference, Responsibility, Guilt, Preschoolers



Maruyama, Manami iGraduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya Universityj. The Development of Hierarchical Temporal Organization and Time Processing Strategy in School Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.2, 175-184.
The purpose of this study was to examine the development of hierarchical temporal organization and the temporal processing strategy in school children. Participants were 1st, 2nd, and 3rd graders iN=78jD First, a card sorting task was conducted to examine the hierarchy of daily activities. To examine the use of time processing strategies, children were asked to compare the length of two time intervals. In addition, a card arrangement task was used to examine children,s ability to process information about time. The results were as follows: i1j older children,s hierarchical temporal organization had more complex part/whole relations, and i2j children who had hierarchical temporal organization with more complex part/whole relations used a more relevant time processing strategy. This study, however, could not examine developmental relationships between image processing ability and hierarchical temporal organization, which is required in follow-up research.
[ Key Words ] Hierarchical temporal organization, Part/whole relations, School children, Time processing strategy, Cognitive development



Tanaka, Koji (Graduate School of Humanities, Tokyo Metropolitan University). Development of Group Consciousness in Preschoolerfs Tag Play. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.2, 185-192.
This study investigated the developmental process by which preschool children become able to take the role of other participants when playing tag (called gonigokkoh in Japanese). Children aged 4-(n=15), 5-(n=18) and 6-years old (n=12) took part in the research. The adult researcher formed play groups of three same-aged children and asked each group to play tag. In addition, the researcher participated in each game as a player. The results were as follows. It was much easier for children at ages 5-6 years to change roles between the roles of chasing and catching others (gonih) and that of escaper fleeing from the chaser (gkoh), compared with 4-year olds. In addition, 6 year-old chasers chased more than two escapers at the same time more frequently, compared to 4-year olds. In conclusion, older children were more conscious of their relations with others in playing tag. These results were discussed in relation to the actual game of tag.
[ Key Words ] Play, Social development, Group consciousness, Tag game, Preschoolers



Suzuki, Ayumi iGraduate School of Education, Kyoto Universityj. Development of Self-Regulation in Young Children in Interpersonal Situations: An Investigation of Self-inhibitive and Self-assertive Behavior Using Experimental and Imaginary Tasks. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.2, 193-202.
This research investigated developmental changes in the relationship between behavior on experimental tasks and responses on imaginary tasks, focusing on two aspects of self-regulation in young children: self-inhibition and self-assertion. Participants were 4- to 6-year olds iN=101j. In the experimental tasks they were prohibited from touching attractive toys, to observe whether they showed self-inhibitive behavior. In addition, the promise that they could play with these toys later was not kept, to observe whether they showed self-assertive behavior. In the imaginary tasks, children were also presented, using a personal computer, with imaginary stories similar to those in the experimental tasks. The results showed that although older children selected more proper responses on the imaginary tasks, there were no age differences during the experimental tasks. The number of children who showed proper self-inhibition in both imaginary and experimental tasks tended to increase with age. But it was difficult for them to assert their demands during the experimental task, even if they recognized that they could be assertive in the imaginary task.
[ Key Words ] Self-regulation, Self-inhibition, Self-assertion, Young children



Yabuki, Rie (Shirayuri College). Cultural Identity Construction Strategy of Japanese Wives in Japanese-American Intermarriages : The Wifefs Choice of Family Name Indicates a New Positioning as a gStrategieh. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.3, 215-224.
In Japanese-Foreign intercultural marriages, Japanese spouses can legally choose either to keep their maiden name or adopt their partnerfs surname after marriage. They can use different family names when they are in Japan and the U.S. In this situation, the family name functions as one of the tools that demonstrates onefs cultural identity. In this study, to obtain qualitative information and ascertain the meaning of their family name choice, questionnaires and in-depth interviews were administered to 20 Japanese wife - American husband couples. Informants chose either a Japanese name, their spouses names or a combined family name. Wivesf choice of family name indicated their new positioning (Hall, 1997) upon marriage. The wife consciously chose the appropriate family name for their situation. Choice of family name was a gstrategieh (Bourdieu, 1979) to gain social advantage in their daily cultural practice. Therefore, the social and cultural identity of these wives was not totally static, but was partially self-determined.
[ Key Words ] Japanese-American intercultural marriage, Cultural identity, Cultural practice, Strategie, Positioning



Kawashima, Akiko (Ochanomizu University, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences). Family Membersf Attributions of Marital Conflicts and Childrenfs Evaluations of Family Functioning. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.3, 225-236.
This study examined relationship among marital attributions, childrenfs parental marital attributions, and perceptions of family functioning. Children (n=196) in a junior high school, along with their mothers (n=190) and fathers (n=160), imagined hypothetical spousal or marital conflicts and rated 20 causal statements. Children also responded to three scales from the Family Assessment Inventory. Three subscales were derived for childrenfs perceptions of marital conflict (internal, external, and relationship attribution), and four were derived for parentsf responses. Data from 131 families who completed the questionnaire were utilized in a path analysis. A path diagram was drawn to show the relationship among parentsf and childrenfs perceptions of marital conflicts, and childrenfs view of family functioning. It showed that the relationship among these variables differed between girls and boys. Further research is needed to clarify the causal relationship between marital attributions and family functioning.
[ Key Words ] Marital conflict, Family functioning, Marital attribution, Childrenfs perceptions, Spousal conflict



Aoki, Naoko (Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University). The Effects of Praise Preferences on Motivation. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.3, 237-246.
This research dealt with the effects of praise from the perspective of children. In Study 1, preschoolers and first-grade children were interviewed with regard to episodes in which they were praised and the mode of praise they preferred. A developmental difference was observed in the performance of chores: preschoolers preferred to receive the feedback gGoodh or gGreat,h while first-grade children preferred gThank you.h Study 2 examined the effect of praise on motivation in a free-choice situation. Children participated in an experiment in which they helped a researcher make cards. They were subsequently given feedback in the form of gThank you,h gGood,h or a nod. Following the feedback, the children were given a 5-minute period of free-choice time. The results revealed that preschoolers who received gGoodh and first-grade children who received gThank youh made more cards during the free-choice period.
[ Key Words ] Praise, Feedback, Social approval, Motivation



Watanabe, Terumi (Graduate School of EducationCHiroshima University) & Okamoto, Yuko (Graduate School of EducationCHiroshima University). The Relationship Between Personality Development After Bereavement and Care Experience. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.3, 247-256.
This investigation focused on personality development following bereavement and identified variables that were associated with positive change. Bereaved persons (N=424) and non-bereaved persons (N=40) answered a questionnaire concerning personality development after bereavement. The results revealed that the experience of bereavement may stimulate personal growth. Subsequently, only the bereaved sub-sample (N=424) completed another questionnaire, comprised of several items about personality development after bereavement, and about their care experiences. Factor analysis with Promax rotation for items related to personality development after bereavement produced 3 factors: gextended self-sensation,h govercoming fear of deathh and gconcern with death + meaning of deathh. The personality items were related to gender, age, relationship type, age when bereavement was experienced, understanding of bereavement, frequency of care, and satisfaction with care. These findings suggested that personality development after bereavement was related to both care experiences and satisfaction with the care.
[ Key Words ] Bereavement, Personality development, Care, Stress, Death and dying



Beppu, Satoshi (Faculty of Education, Gifu-University) & Nomura, Kayo (Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital). Do Children with High Functional Autism Have a Different Theory of Mind than Normal Children? THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.3, 257-264.
Happe (1995) found that children with autism could pass the false belief task, representative of theory of mind, at a higher verbal mental age (9.2 years) than that of normal children (4 years). The present study examined which children with autism acquired the theory of mind, delayed or deviant, by asking children to select which box the protagonist would search and to explain verbally how they arrived at their conclusions. Participants were 60 normal children ages 3-6 years and 29 children with high functional autism with above-70 VC (WISC-III) and CA ranging from 6 years 10 months to 12 years 4 months. While some normal children passed the false belief task, they were unable to explain their reasons (level 1). Others passed and could express their reasons (level 2). In addition, in the case of children with high functional autism, all who passed could give the reason correctly, and none displayed reactions belonging to level 1. The discussion compared the intuitive mentalising of normal children with the verbal proposition mentalising of children with high functional autism.
[ Key Words ] High functional autism, Theory of mind, False belief task, Intuitive mentalising, Verbal proposition mentalising



Matsumoto, Kotaro (Graduate School of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu University). The Meaning and Value of Going Out, in Daily Lives of Elderly: Accompanied Observations with Local Elderly People. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.3, 265-275.
To better understand elderly people it is helpful to focus on their activities. The author studied the meaning and value of going out for elderly people who lived at home, by accompanying participants when they went out for daily activities. While gerontology has mainly studied psychological functions within the individual, this study focused on the nature of actions and experiences of outings. The researcher accompanied 11 individuals, with a focus on describing their casual interactions while out. Descriptions of actions and experiences revealed the nature of (1) preparations for going out and (2) interactions with artifacts, places, environments, persons in situations, and the body with onefs self. The results showed that elderly people encounter various otherness/information while going out. The mechanisms of an gencounterh (Reed, 1996a) and gimplication and inclusionh were presented in the meaning and value of going out.
[ Key Words ] Local elderly people, Going out, Accompanied observation, Action, Experience



Namba, Kumiko (Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University). The Concept of gNakamah (Peer Groups) in Japanese Adolescence: Its Position within Personal Relationships Compared with Friends and Best Friends. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.3, 276-285.
This study examined the Japanese concept of nakama by interviewing a sample of 24 adolescents. Participants first rank ordered several terms that described relationships, according to intimacy, compared with friends and best friends. Study 1 revealed that nakama was the second closest relationship after onefs best friend, and was composed of a medium-sized network. Study 2 asked interviewees to compare the qualities of their nakama relationships in their late adolescence to those in their childhood, and also to compare the nakama to friends and best friends. The results showed that nakama in late adolescence vs. in childhood were essentially different in quality. The interviews also revealed that the two basic dimensions of nakama were intimacy and network size. A third dimension (shared purpose/activity) was identified when nakama was contrasted with friends and best friends. Nakama, friends, and best friends were positioned by the two dimensions of intimacy and sharing purpose/activity. It was evident that sharing purpose/activity was the most effective dimension in differentiating nakama from other relationships.
[ Key Words ] Nakama (peer groups), Sharing purpose/activity, Friendship, Interpersonal relationships, Late adolescence



Obokata, Akiko (Graduate School of Humanities and Science, Ochanomizu University) & Muto, Takashi (Shiraume Gakuen University). Regulatory and Preventive Factors for Mild Delinquency of Junior High School Students: Child-Parent Relationships, Peer Relationships, and Self-control. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.3, 286-299.
A sample of 1,623 Japanese junior high school students participated in a questionnaire survey about delinquency. The study first examined regulatory factors including association with deviant peers, child-parent relationships, peer relationships, and self-control. Association with deviant peers was a strong regulatory factor for studentsf committing of mild delinquency, and regulatory factors also differed according to grade level and gender. The data also indicated that child-parent relationships had a strong influence on children early in junior high school, while self-control came to have a stronger influence in the upper grades. Association with deviant peers was a strong predictor of delinquency, and preventive factors were examined by classifying participants according to whether or not they associated with friends committing mild delinquency. This comparison showed that greater self-control and more intimate child-parent relationships functioned as preventive factors for children who did not commit mild delinquency, despite their association with delinquent peers.
[ Key Words ] Delinquency, Junior high school students, Parent-child relations, Peer relations, Self-control



Hamatani, Naoto (Tokyo Metropolitan University). How Itinerant Consultation Services Support Daycare for Children with Disabilities: A Model of Clinical-Developmental Consultation. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2005, Vol.16, No.3, 300-310.
This study specified a model of itinerant consultation to improve the quality of consulting in nursery daycare, at facilities where children with disabilities were integrated. An analysis was conducted on an itinerant consultation system operated by consulting clinical-developmental psychologists. The consulting system had the following characteristics:(1) consultants delivered psychological service indirectly to children through nursery daycare teachers;(2) the relationship between the consultant and consultees was crucial to the consultation process; and (3) consultants regarded it as important that they assess the interactions of teachers and children with ecological validity. Six functions of support were extracted from a factor analysis of the evaluations of the consultations by teachers (N = 241), and four core support functions were proposed. The results of an analysis of a typical itinerant consultation suggested that teachers referred to the assessment when they examined their nurturance, and referred to the advice of consultants when they produced plans.
[ Key Words ] Children with disabilities, Itinerant consultation, Early childhood, Nursery daycare, Integration