Shoji, Reika (Graduate School of Humanities, Tokyo Metropolitan University). Effects of Compromise on Management of Marital Conflicts: Newlywed Women's Process of Meaning-Making.
The purpose of this study was to examine the meaning and functions of compromise in marital relationships, focusing on the process of making sense of conflict events and conflict management. Recently married women (N=21) were interviewed about their experiences with marital conflict since they were married. Narratives were analyzed by classifying the causes of conflict events and participants' conflict management strategies. Compromise was compared with other management strategies and examined for its meaning in daily life. Newlywed women reported positive meanings of compromise. In addition, by compromising they reinterpreted their relationships and the conflict events, and changed their conflict management strategies. These findings showed that it is important to consider the process of meaning-making of conflict management, in the study of marital relationships.
[ Key Words ] Newlywed women, Marital conflict, Compromise, Meaning-making, Marriage

Kamei, Miyako (Graduate School of Humanities, Tokyo Metropolitan University). The Relation Between New Employees' Identity Change at Work and the Structuring of Learning. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.1, 14-27.
This study investigated the relation between changes in identity in a work context and the structuring of learning resources in the work community. Based on interviews with new employees, the research was conducted within the framework of Legitimate Peripheral Participation (LPP). New employees (n=23) took part in interviews just after they started work and again 5 months later. The results indicated that many new employees who had a "conflict-positive" pattern of identity were classified into "practical-basic type" job assignments and had stable teaching-learning work relationships. Newcomers displaying a "positive-positive" pattern were classified as a "newcomer-skilled type" in their job assignments. In contrast, among new employees who stopped work there was a case of a worker who became alienated from practical participation. Based on the comparison of these three types of cases, it was apparent that various structural learning resources for practical work have a close connection to the process of identity change in new employees. Further, the existence of a guide that gives meaning to existing practices and practical participation is important in constructing a learning curriculum.
[ Key Words ] Work participation, Identity change, Occupational development, Legitimate Peripheral Participation, Structure of resources for learning

Nishihara, Kazuma (Abiko School for the Mentally Challenged), Yoshii, Sadahito (University of Tsukuba Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences) & Nagasaki, Tsutomu (University of Tsukuba Institute of Comprehensive Human Sciences). Development of the Ability to Understand the Other's Mind in a Child with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: An Intervention Case Study. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.1, 28-38.
This experimental intervention assessed the level of understanding of the other's mind, in a 6 year old child with a pervasive developmental disorder. It showed that the principle of "seeing-leads-to-knowing" needed to be taught using a joint action routine called a "treasure hunt." The results were as follows. First, the child gradually became able to conceal information as to the whereabouts of a toy he had hidden. Second, the child became able to deceive his peers by such acts as emphasizing the wrong cup. Third, the child became able to use the principle of "seeing-leads-to-knowing" interacting with other children and adults. Fourth, the number of the utterances referring to others' mental states increased. However, the child could not pass the false belief task. The preceding results were discussed in terms of the efficacy of the intervention using a joint action routine.
[ Key Words ] Pervasive developmental disorders, Understand other's mind, The principle of "seeing-leads- to-knowing", Joint action routine, Cognitive development

Shiozaki, Naomi (Sagami Woman's University) & Muto, Takashi (Shiraume Gakuen University). Mother's Sense of Separation from Children: An Examination of Components and Effective Factors. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.1, 39-49.
This study was concerned with both positive and negative elements of Japanese mothers' sense of separation from their children. Four elements relevant to the separation were identified: anxiety about the child, acknowledgment of mother's importance, loneliness, and acceptance of separation. Influences on these elements included the traditional concepts of child-rearing, the father's awareness of mother-child separation, and the child's shyness. A traditional concept of child rearing proved to be more influential than the child's shyness, suggesting that social factors can have a greater impact than the individual characteristics of a child. The association between the mother's sense of separation and stress about child rearing was also discussed. Anxiety about the child had strong and positive effects on child rearing stress, whereas acknowledgment of the mother's importance has an inverse relationship to stress, which suggests that acknowledgment of the mother's importance is a positive aspect of maternal sense of separation. These results also indicate that there are essential factors for the independent development of mothers if they are not to be overwhelmed by the role of caregiver.
[ Key Words ] Mother-child separation, Father's awareness of mother-child separation, Child's shyness, Traditional child rearing, Child rearing stress

Sakakibara, Tomomi (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science/University of the Air). The Role of Japanese Preschool Teachers' Support in Young Children's Mathematical Development. JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.1, 50-61.
The present study investigated young Japanese children's mathematical development in relation to Japanese preschool teachers' support. In Study 1, types and frequency of mathematical activities, and the details of teachers' support of such activities, were examined by observing 14 preschool classrooms over a one year period. It was found that there were very few activities with the objective of teaching mathematics to the children. However, teachers' encouragement of mathematical development, especially with regard to numbers, was observed frequently in a variety of activities where the explicit goal was other than teaching mathematics (e.g., singing or taking attendance). In Study 2, the effect of the teachers' support was examined by comparing the mathematical competence of children in terms of the levels of mathematical support provided by teachers. The teachers' support was found to have an effect on children's competence with numbers. These findings suggest that Japanese preschool teachers facilitate young children's number development without relying on systematic teaching.
[Key Words] Early childhood education, Mathematical development, Preschool teachers, Preschool activities, Naturalistic observation

Ito, Yuko (Faculty of Humanities, Seitoku University), Sagara, Junko (Faculty of Humanities, Seitoku University) & Ikeda, Masako (Faculty of Human and Social Services, Yamanashi Prefectural University). The Influence of Occupational Life on the Marital Satisfaction and Psychological Well-being of Middle-Aged Couples: Crossover Effects and Career Types. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.1, 62-72.
This study concerned on the influence of occupational life on marital satisfaction and psychological well-being of middle-aged couples. It examined spillover influences and crossover influences within couples, in relation to women's employment types. Commitment to work, degree of marital satisfaction, and subjective well-being were the focus of a questionnaire survey of 110 couples where women worked full-time, 170 couples where women worked part-time, and 106 couples where women were not employed. It was found that a woman's commitment to her work (but not the man's commitment to work) influenced the degree of woman's marital satisfaction. In addition, a man's commitment to work influenced a woman's marital satisfaction and subjective well-being in a crossover manner. Specifically, a man's devotion to work reduced the woman's subjective well-being, and an increase in his work satisfaction increased the woman's degree of marital satisfaction. The woman's commitment to her work influenced the man's subjective well-being in this crossover manner only when the woman was working part-time. Both spillover and/or crossover influences of occupational life on marital relationship and psychological well-being apparently differed according to variations in women's work and men's gender role attitudes.
[ Key Words ] Crossover effect, Marital satisfaction, Occupational life, Psychological well-being, Middle-aged couples

Ito, Keiko (Department of Child Education, Faculty of Literature, Ibaraki Christian University) & Tanaka, Mari (Graduate School of Education, Tohoku University). Pragmatic Language in Children with Autism : Comprehension of Japanese Demonstratives ko/so/a. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.1, 73-83.
This paper reported on an experiment about the comprehension of Japanese directional demonstratives, "kocchi" "socchi" and "acchi" among 14 autistic children (CA:5-7) and 33 typically developing children (CA:5-12). Comprehension of this type is one characteristic of pragmatic language. The results revealed that when a subject (listener) stood facing opposite of an experimenter (speaker), children with autism performed significantly less well with general use of demonstratives than did typically developing children. In the case of typically developing children, there was no difference according to position (opposite vs. along side). In contrast, autistic children had particular difficulty with directional demonstratives when they stood opposite the experimenter. Overall, children with autism showed persistent responses and lacked in the ability to use nonverbal clues during this experiment.
[ Key Words ] Children with autism, Pragmatic language, Japanese demonstratives, Comprehension experiment

Wakamoto, Junko (Ochanomizu University, Graduate School of Human Culture) & Muto, Takashi (Shiraume Gakuen College). Subjective Experiences of Aging in Middle and Late Adulthood. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.1, 84-93.
This research examined the subjective experiences of 4 domains of aging, which consisted of physical and socio-psychological decline, "conversion of orientedness", and "leeway and maturation," with 2026 adults aged 30-75. Categorical canonical analysis revealed three interrelated dismensions: 1) aging and "leeway and maturation," 2) physical and socio-psychological decline along with negative psychological and economic states, and 3) "conversion of orientedness" and psychological factors. It was notable that Conversion of orientedness was related to an increase in emotional instability in men and an increase of self-esteem in women. The results of a MANOVA showed that aging as a developmental experience becomes recognizable from one's 40's. In addition, the four domains of aging were found to have independent psychological structures and processes. Relations between the four domains in the latter part of middle adulthood also differed from that found at other life stages in terms of correlations between Conversion of orientedness and other domains. Therefore, later-middle age appeared to have a developmental characteristic whereby Conversion of orientedness was significantly correlated with positive aspects of aging.
[ Key Words ] Middle and late adulthood, Subjective experience of aging, Conversion of orientedness, Later middle-age, Adult development


Nakamichi, Keito (The United Graduate School of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University). The Influence of Make-Believe Context on Young Children's Conditional Reasoning. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.2, 103-114.
The first of two experiments examined the influence of make-believe context on the four-cards selection task of Nakamichi (2004). This task gave a familiar or counterfactual conditional equation to the participant, and identified the violation to the conditional equation from among four cards. The results showed that 5- and 6-year old children (n=28) performed better than 3- and 4-year olds (n=24), the counterfactual task was more difficult than the familiar task, and 5- to 6-year old children,s reasoning on the counterfactual task was promoted by the make-believe context. Experiment II examined the influence of make-believe context, with detailed explanations, on 3- to 4-year old children's (N=28) conditional reasoning. The 3- to 4-year old children's reasoning was not promoted by the make-believe context as well as in Experiment ‡T. The data showed that difficulty in understanding make-believe context was not a factor in the influence of make-believe context for 3- to 4-year-olds. These results showed that the influence of make-belive context on the conditinal reasoning changed with age.
[Key Words] Preschoolers, Deduction, Conditional reasoning, Make-believe, Cognitive development

Komatsu, Koji (Osaka Kyoiku University). The Construction of a Young Child's Self in Mother-Child Conversations: A Longitudinal Case Study Focusing on 'The Self in Relation to Others'. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.2, 115-125.
In this study, natural conversations between a young girl and her mother were recorded in a car over a 17-month period (from ages 4:4 to 5:8), mainly when they were driving home from nursery school. Analysis of the recordings (34 hours over 153 days) focused on conversations that depicted the girl in relation to her nursery school friends. In 50 episodes concerning her interpersonal experiences at the nursery school, the girl frequently compared or enumerated her friends and herself, using several criteria such as their abilities or their roles in pretend play. In the early portions of the recordings, only simple comparisons and enumeration were observed. But later in the tapings, several narratives or explanations concerning the characteristics of the enumerated person were skillfully inserted into the enumeration. Whereas the mother directly supported her child's expressions in the early part of the research period, her role gradually changed, and the communication became increasingly mutual and collaborative.
[Key Words]Mother-child conversation, Self, Nursery school, Longitudinal design, Case study

Kimura, Minako(Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University)& Kato, Yoshinobu(Faculty of Letters, Aichi Prefectural University). Young Children's Understanding of Video Images. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.2, 126-137.
This study investigated how young children come to understand video images not as real, physically present objects but as representations. To assess the nature of their understanding, three experiments were conducted in which children were asked about the possibility of the interaction between the image world and the real world. The research focused on how intentionality affected children's perception of video images. Intentionality was manipulated in terms of the difference of direction and source. The results of the study indicated that (1) up to the age of 51/2 most children thought they could interact with video images, whereas a greater number of children over 6 years of age denied the possibility of interaction; and (2) the direction and source of intentionality affected children's understanding of video images, depending on their ages. The results suggested that it takes a long time for children to come to understand the representational nature of video images. The factor of intentionality may play an important role in this developmental process.
[Key Words] Understanding of video images, Early childhood, Intentionality, Representational status, Television literacy

Nakagawa, Ai (Minatogawa College) & Matsumura, Kyoko (Hyogo University of Teacher Education). Phonetic and Behavioral Analysis of Infant-Directed Verbal and Physical Behavior of Students Lacking Experiences with Infants. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.2, 138-147.
This study examined the behavior and speech of students (18 males and 14 females) who were inexperienced in contacts with babies. Participants' verbal and physical behaviors directed to a four month-old baby and to an adult were recorded. The infant-directed speech of students was characterized by significantly higher frequency sounds and a slower speaking style, compared with their adult-directed speech. The infant-directed speech of male students included soothing speech, and the speech of female students was both soothing and stimulated the baby's attention. Both male and female students showed similar infant-directed physical behaviors such as patting the baby on the back, rocking, and soothing.
[Key Words] Infant-directed speech, Infant-directed behavior, Phonetic analysis, Behavioral analysis

Nakaya, Namiko (Nagoya University, Center for Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry) & Nakaya, Motoyuki (Graduate School of Human Science, Osaka University). The Effects of Mothers' Hostile Attributions on Child Maltreatment. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.2, 148-158.
The purpose of this article was to investigate the relationship between a mother's cognitions about children's misbehavior (consisting of positive, negative, and hostile attributions) and child maltreatment. Participants were mothers ( N=207) of 3-4 year old children who attended a day nursery. Stress regarding childcare, self-esteem, attachment to their own parents, and demographic factors, were examined as factors that influenced maternal cognitions and child maltreatment. Path analysis revealed a significant causal relationship between child maltreatment and mothers' hostile attributions, and stress over child care and low self-esteem were also related to negative cognitions. In addition, direct relations were found between stress over childcare, attachment to their own parents, and child maltreatment. These results showed the importance of the mother's cognitions for childcare, and suggested an intervention method for high risk mothers.
[Key Words]Child maltreatment, Mother-child relations, Hostile attributions, Children's misbehavior, Early childhood

Tsuji, Ayumi (Kousai Gakuen) & Takayama, Yoshiko (Faculty of Education and Human Sciences, Yokohama National University). An Investigation of Changes in the Sequence of Actions of an Autistic Boy Interacting with his Mother. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.2, 159-170.
This research studied the process of change in the relations between a 3 year-old boy with autism and his mother during four sessions of playing with soap bubbles, over a one-month period. In the course of these interactions the boy gradually increased in connecting together his actions. Observations also focused on interactions in which the boy and his mother shared attention. We analyzed a series of the boy's actions, i.e., S-S behavior. The purpose of the research was to explore how this boy came to regulate his self-intentions. The results led to the interpretation that by interacting with objects the boy began to recognize his mother as the agent who manipulated objects. Later he began to clarify his intentions and came to recognize that his mother had her own intentions. Based on such recognition, the boy acted against his mother's intentions and began to predict her actions. Finally, he was able to exchange intentions with his mother and bring into existence a relationship in their interaction.
[Key Words]Autism, Social interaction, Self, Others, Intention

Yuzawa, Masamichi (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University), Yuzawa, Miki (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University; JSPS Fellow) & Watanabe, Daisuke (Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Education). How are the Use and Internalization of Cognitive Tools Related to Conceptual Development? Roles of Superimposition and Number in the Development of Quantity Concepts. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.2, 171-181.
The present research focused how the use and internalization of superimposition and numbers were related to the development of the quantity concepts of area and length in early childhood. In Study 1, children from 3 to 6 years of age were asked to divide a quantity equally into two under different conditions. As a result, the 3-year-olds cut the stimulus into many pieces and divided them into two piles by using numerical strategies. Children ages 4 and older more often cut the stimulus directly into two parts, but made an uneven division under a misleading condition with an uneven line on the stimulus. Children from 5 and half years of age used superimposition and divided the stimulus equally even under the misleading condition. Study 2 explored the effects of instruction of superimposition on children from 4 to 6 years of age. It was revealed that the use of superimposition was causally related to the internalization of the cognitive tool.
[Key Words]Number, Quantity, Superimposition, Preschoolers, Conceptual development

Morishita, Yoko (Division of Study on Structure of Education, Doctoral Course, The United Graduate School of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University). The Effect of Becoming Fathers on Men's Development. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.2, 182-192.
The present study investigated how men changed by becoming fathers and what kinds of factors were related to their changes. The participants in this questionnaire survey were 224 fathers whose oldest children were preschoolers. The findings were as follows: 1) The development brought by becoming a father consisted of several components such as "affection for the family," "responsibility and calmness," "expansion of perspectives," "perspective on the past and future," and "loss of freedom." 2) These, except "loss of freedom," were promoted by having interest in child rearing and talking about the child with their wives or friends, while direct involvement with children such as playing or taking a bath with them promoted only "affection for the family." 3) Fathers' involvement in child care was associated not only with individual factors but also with family ones such as marital relations and father-child relations.
[Key Words]Father, Adult development, Child care, Marital relations, Father-child relations

Kishino, Mai (Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University) & Muto, Takashi (Shiraume Gakuen University). Turning Points in the Professional Development of Teachers. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.3, 207-218.
Teachers develop their expertise through career formation and psychological development, in association with personal, social, and historical factors. To understand how these factors were associated with teachersf development of expertise, this study examined the life stories of 11 expert teachers and clarified how they changed psychologically at turning points in their professional development. An especially important historical factor was change of the public educational system, i.e., in association with the introduction of the new curriculum of gseikatsu-kah (life studies). Some factors overlapped, and teachers had the opportunity to reflect on their practices. This encouraged them to change their educational viewpoint from teacher-centered to child-centered, stabilize their educational view, or to establish their identity by finding challenges in their work. Teachers matured in educational view or practices by finding meaning and by evaluating events at turning points positively. It was suggested that teachers generally improved in expertise, and in their career and psychological development, by reflecting on and finding meaning in their practices.
[Key Words]Teacher development, Professional development, Curriculum, Elementary school teacher, Life story

Kanamaru, Tomomi (Hitachi Family Education Research Institute) & Muto, Takashi (Shiraume Gakuen University). The Development of Individual Differences in Emotional Regulation in 2-and 3-Year Olds. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.3, 219-229.
This research investigated individual differences in young childrenfs emotional regulation. The focus was on comparing how 2- and 3-year old children respond to frustration, specifically on changes in patterns of distress and positive emotions. The study also analyzed the emotional regulation behavior of three-year olds. Participants were 32 mother-child pairs. The results revealed three types of emotional regulation with regard to change patterns in childrenfs distress: gcontinuanceh, gsoothingh, and gnon-expression.h There were also two sub-types of emotional regulation in the positive emotion range. Many children who expressed distress at age two did not express distress at age three, and many children who did not express positive emotions at age two expressed positive emotion at age three. With regard to emotional regulation behavior, flexible choices increased more at age three than at age two. These results showed that the three-year olds came to regulate their emotions with increasing autonomy and adaptation.
[Key Words]Three-year olds, Emotional regulation, Individual differences, Distress, Positive emotion

Asano, Shizuko (Ochanomizu University). The Influences of Motivation and Enjoyment on Lifelong Learning: Older Students at an Open University. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.3, 230-240.
This study investigated the influence of enjoyment of learning and motivation on two aspects of lifelong learning: active involvement (effortful study at the present time) and volition (will power to continue studying over an extended time period). In Study 1, students (N=365) at an open university completed a questionnaire. The measure of enjoyment consisted of three subscales (gknowing,h gthinking,h gpracticalh). For students under age 64, enjoyment of gknowingh influenced both active involvement and volition, while for students aged 65 and older enjoyment of gthinkingh had different effects on their active involvement and volition depending on their level of educational background. In Study 2, 21 older students took part in interviews. Students with a higher educational background reported genjoyment of a broad variety of thinkingh which occurs in relating things across disciplines. This tendency influenced their volitional aspect of lifelong learning. Students with high school education or less reported genjoyment of depth and diversity of thinking,h which occurred when acquiring different perspectives from their own, and which was related to their active involvement in lifelong learning.
[Key Words]Motivation, Enjoyment, Diverse thinking, Lifelong learning, Adult learners

Ito, Junko (Miyagi University of Education). Prosocial Self-Perception in Relation to Prosocial Behavior: Preschool Observations of Free Play. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.3, 241-251.
In Study 1, 5-year-olds (N34) completed the Prosocial Self-Perception Scale, consisting of 6 items about how preschool children thought they should be (prosocial self-norm) and could be (prosocial self-evaluation). Their interactions with peers were also observed during free play. Prosocial self-evaluation scores were negatively correlated with onlooker/unoccupied behavior, and were positively correlated with frequency of associative play. In Study 2, 5-year-olds (N29) took the Prosocial Self-Perception Scale, and prosocial situations (facing the distressed situation, helping strategies) were also observed during free play. The children who thought they could be prosocial faced and helped their friends with situations of distress more than did other children. In addition, these children faced their friendsf distress more in associative play than did other children. These results suggested that prosocial self-perception was related to prosocial behavior in the context of free play.
[Key Words]Prosocial self-perception, Free play, Social cognition, Distressed situation, Prosocial behavior

Morita, Shinichiro (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo). The Influence of Preferences for Professionalism on Vocational Decisions among Students Proceeding to Medical School. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.3, 252-262.
The proportion of Japanese students who intend to choose professional-type career is expected to increase in the future. The purpose of Study 1 was to construct the scale to measure preferences for professionalism. This scale was divided into five components that sociologists believe define a profession: altruism, autonomy, learning and development of knowledge and skills, qualification, and cooperation with co-workers. University sophomores (N207) completed a questionnaire to assess preferences for professionalism. A factor analysis yielded five factors corresponding to the above five features, and a Professionalism Preference Scale (PPS) was constructed consisting of five subscales. The purpose of Study 2 was to reveal preferences for professionalism that could influence the vocational decisions of students who intend to become doctors. Ninety-six university sophomores who were scheduled to enter medical school completed a questionnaire including the PPS. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that both preferences for ecooperation with co-workersf and elearning and development of knowledge and skillsf could influence vocational decisions.
[Key Words]Professionalism, Vocational decision, Medical school, Learning of skills, Career development

Sekine, Kazuki (Shirayuri College). Developmental Changes in Spatial Frame of Reference among Preschoolers: Spontaneous Gestures and Speech in Route Descriptions. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.3, 263-271.
This research investigated how spontaneous gestures during speech represent gFrames of Referenceh (FoR) among preschool children, and how their FoRs change with age. Four-, five-, and six-year-olds (N55) described the route from the nursery school to their own homes. Analysis of childrenfs utterances and gestures showed that mean length of utterance, speech time, and use of landmarks or right/left terms to describe a route, all increased with age. Most of 4-year-olds made gestures in the direction of the actual route to their homes, and their hands tend to be raised above the shoulder. In contrast, 6-year-olds used gestures to give directions that did not match the actual route, as if they were creating a virtual space in front of the speaker. Some 5- and 6-year-olds produced gestures that represented survey mapping. These results indicated that development of FoR in childhood may change from an egocentric FoR to a fixed FoR. As factors underlying development of FoR, verbal encoding skills and the commuting experience were also discussed.
[Key Words]Spontaneous gesture, Speech, Frame of reference, Spatial cognition, Preschool children

Sato, Kensuke (Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo) & Haryu, Etsuko (Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo). Acquisition of Numerical Classifiers by Japanese Preschoolers: Does Ontological Knowledge of the Animate / Inanimate Distinction Help Them? THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.3, 272-281.
Numerical classifiers are morphemes that follow numerals when counting objects. In Japanese, classifiers for counting inanimate objects and those for counting animals are different. The present study investigated whether ontological knowledge about the animate/inanimate distinction helps children to acquire numerical classifiers. Four year-olds (N=21), 5 year-olds (N=26), and 6 year-olds (N=27) answered questions about whether a puppet was using classifiers correctly to count objects. It was predicted that it would be easier for children to identify the puppet,s errors when counting inanimate objects with the wrong animal classifier, compared with detecting errors when animals were counted using the wrong animal classifier. The results confirmed this prediction, but only for the 6 year-old participants. This suggests that from age 6 children can utilize ontological knowledge about the animate/inanimate distinction when deciding what classifier to use to count objects. In addition, even the 4 and 5 year-old children were able to correctly use the classifiers corresponding to a basic-level category.
[Key Words]Preschooler, Language development, Numerical classifier, Ontological category, Error detection paradigm

Matsushima, Kobo (The United Graduate School of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University). The Development of Christian Religiosity and Helping Behavior among Christian School Students. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2006, Vol.17, No.3, 282-292.
This study utilized a Religious Consciousness Scale based on the greligiosityh described by Glock (1962) and Verbit(1970), and Helping Behavior Scales, to study a sample of junior high and senior high school students (N=1,999). In addition to studying the relation between religiosity and helping, it examined developmental differences in the Christian religiosity of Christian School students (N=1,881). The results suggested that gbeing Christianh and ghaving Christians in one,s familyh are important aspects of religiosity for christian students. The data also showed age differences between junior high and senior high school students. Finally, analysis of the relation between Christian religiosity and helping behavior of junior high and senior high school students (N=183) showed that first-generation Christians and second-generation Christians had different features.
[Key Words]Religiosity, Helping behavior, Christian School, Christian, Adolescents