Seno, Yui (Nagoya University, Graduate School of Education and Human Development) & Kato, Yoshinobu (Aichi Prefectural University, Faculty of Letters). Young Children's Understanding of the Mental State of gKnowingh: Pointing Acts During the Seeing-Knowing Task. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.1, 1-12.
This research investigated the role of executive functions in young children's understanding of mental states of gknowingh and gnot knowingh. On a Seeing-Knowing task, 3-6-year old children (?N90) were allowed to see where the target object was hidden, while the research assistant could not see the location. The children were then asked whether they and the assistant knew the location of the object. Many 3-and 4-year olds pointed to the location of the object, but 5- and 6-year olds could correctly describe their (and the assistant's) mental state of knowing vs. not knowing, without having to physically point at them. Whether they were asked about their own knowledge or the assistant's did not affect their performance. Children were able to more easily respond without action when perceptual cues of the hiding location were reduced. There was a significant correlation between performance on the Seeing-Knowing task and on the theory of mind False Belief task. Children's understanding of the mental state of gknowingh developed as their understanding became detached from their actions.
[ Key Words ] Seeing-Knowing task, Executive function, Pointing behavior, Theory of mind, False Belief task

Uriu, Yoshiko (Faculty of Education, Nara University of Education). Young Children's Responses to a Deception Task Compared with Responses to the False-Belief Task. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.1, 13-24.
This study examined whether or not children could rescue a popular animated cartoon hero by deceiving his enemy. The results showed that 80“ of 5-year-olds and 100“ of 6-year-olds could tell a lie to pass a deception task, regardless of their ability to pass the false-belief task. Only 30“ of 4-year-olds passed the deception task, while 40“ passed the false-belief task. Some of these younger children hesitated to tell a lie to the enemy. Logistic regression analysis showed the dominance of boys on the deception task, which suggested that a personality factor influenced their responses. On the other hand, the finding that the regression model fit even the 4-year-olds' data suggested that their low pass rate did not derive from their hesitation, Instead, it seemed to result from their difficulty in understanding the deception task, which was easier than the standard false-belief task. These findings are discussed with regard to the early acquisition of theory of mind by Japanese children, which is slightly later than European children.
[ Key Words ] Japanese children, Deception task, Dominance of boys, Four-year-olds, Theory of mind

Tsukakoshi, Nami (Graduate School of Cultural Studies & Human Science, Kobe University). Preschoolers' Understanding of Wishing and Magical Events. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.1, 25-34.
Participants were 126 preschoolers, ages 4-, 5-, and 6-years old (42 children in each age group). After watching an object appear in a box, seemingly brought about by the child's wishing, each child was observed alone in a playroom. As to children's verification of the possibility of reproducing the preceding event, a Chi-square analysis with logistic transformation was conducted on whether children initiated several wishing actions, and whether they checked the box for tricks. The percentages of children showing both or either of these behaviors were 26“ of 4-year olds, 64“ of 5-year olds, and 71“ of 6-year olds. Specifically, the proportions of older children who initiated their own wishing and who showed both initiated wishing and checked for tricks were greater than the proportions for 4-year olds. These age differences may be explained in terms of the presence vs. absence of hypothesis testing, as older children went beyond a simple belief in magical causality.
[ Key Words ] Wishing, Magical event, Magical thinking, Young children, Cognitive development

Kato, Kuniko (Hitachi Family Education Research Institute) & Kondo, Kiyomi (Health Sciences University of Hokkaido). A Comparison Between Fathers and Mothers in a Play Situation with Three-Year Olds. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.1, 35-44.
This study compared father-child and mother-child interactions in a play situation with 3-year old children. Observers watched Japanese fathers and mothers playing with their children in a laboratory setting. Seventy-two father-child and 72 mother-child dyads were rated for play interactions using three scales: gParental respect for the child's autonomy,h gAdequacy of parent's attempts in structure and limit-setting,h and gSensitivity to the child's communication.h Classifications of the characteristics of parent-child interaction combined parents' scores on the three scales. The relationships between parents and their children can be classified into several types: H|H|H (all three scales were high), L|L|L (all three scales were low), Limit-High (only limit-setting was high), and Limit-Low (only limit-setting was low). Interaction classifications were significantly related to child rearing attitudes both for mothers and fathers, as measured by a questionnaire, and to children's affective control as observed. There was also a significant difference between father-child and mother-child interactions in the distributions of the four types of interactions. The flexible attitudes of fathers, and rigid attitudes of mothers toward the child, were associated with high limit-setting.
[ Key Words ] Preschoolers, Father-child interaction, Mother-child interaction, Limit-setting, Sensitivity

Kosaka, Chiaki (Seisen University) & Kashiwagi, Keiko (Bunkyo Gakuin University). Influences on Women's Decisions to Continue Work vs. Discontinue Employment to Raise Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.1, 45-54.
This research investigated women's reasons for continuing vs. discontinuing employment between marriage and childbirth. Participants were 1,062 married mothers of young children, and the main results were as follows. First, factor analysis of the reasons for continuing or discontinuing work produced six factors: gpriority of family role,h gwork worth doing,h gself-supporting tendency,h gobjection to maternal employment by husband and husbands' parents,h ghusband's share of household work and child care,h and gmother's parents' support and social support for child care.h Second, highly educated couples rated the factors of gpriority of family roleh and gobjection to maternal employment by husband and husbands' parentsh significantly lower, compared to less educated couples. Women who lived with their parents rated the gwork worth doingh factor items significantly higher than did women who lived far from their parents. Third, discriminant analysis using the six factors suggested that the factor gobjection to maternal employment by husband and husbands' parentsh had the strongest influence on women's decisions to continue vs. discontinue employment.
[Key Words] Maternal employment, Discontinuing work, Childrearing, Mothers, Discriminant analysis

Yato, Yuko (Japan Science and Technology Agency/Mukogawa Women's University). Mother-Infant Joint Attention and Maternal Utterances During Play with Toys: A Comparing 7-and 12-Month Olds. HE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.1, 55-66.
The present study investigated mothers' utterances to their infants in a setting of joint attention. Twenty-three mother-infant dyads were videotaped in their homes playing with toys, at two infant ages (7 and 12 months). The sum total of mothers' utterances increased between 7 and 12 months of age, while the names (denominations) of toys in their utterances also increased in number. In addition, there was an age difference in the joint-attention patterns in which maternal utterances were observed most frequently. Mothers talked most frequently about toys at both of the two infant ages, but there were some differences in their speech contents. Specifically, they provided 7-month old infants with emotional and subjective information about toys, and 12-month old infants with objective information. These changes in mothers' utterances, in terms of infant development, may be related to maternal scaffolding.
[ Key Words ] Joint attention, Mother-infant interaction, Maternal speech, Play with toys, Longitudinal research

Fujisaki, Ayuko (Liberal Arts and Sciences, Osaka University of Economics and Low), Kurata, Naomi (Osaka City Social Welfare Training and Information Center) & Asao, Takeshi (Graduate School of Human Culture, Nara-Women's University). Children's Understanding of gTalkingh vs. gActionh Robot Dogs. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.1, 67-77.
In this study, 53 pairs of 5-6 year-old children were videotaped playing with a robot dog (gAIBOh or gDOG.COMh) for five minutes, and interviewed about their understanding of a dog's gmind and life.h DOG.COM spoke in human words and AIBO is characterized by electronic sounds and smooth movements. The results showed that children communicated well with the robots. Age group comparisons indicated that 6-year-olds spoke to the robots more frequently and a larger number of 6-year-olds referred to AIBO's mental state. In comparing the two types of robots, children interacted with each robot in a different way but responded similarly in the interviews. Half of the children responded that the robot dogs were alive, and depending on the questions over 90% of the children attributed mental states to the robots. These findings suggested the possibility that children perceive robots as having a new type of existence distinct from that of both living beings and inanimate objects.
[ Key Words ] Joint attention, Mother-infant interaction, Maternal speech, Play with toys, Longitudinal research

Miyamoto, Emi (ATR Network Informatics Laboratories), Lee, Mingyi (ATR Network Informatics Laboratories) & Okada, Michio (ATR Network Informatics Laboratories). Robots as Social Agents: Developing Relationships Between Autistic Children and Robots. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.1, 78-87.
Recent studies on robotics have focused on social relationships between people and robots and shown the value of robotic platforms as therapy tools for children with autism. Some researchers reported that autistic children were interested in and respond socially to robots, but it was difficult to evaluate whether children treated robots as human-like social agents. The present study investigated how autistic children developed relationships with robots as social agents. We observed the children longitudinally, interacting with robots at a school for handicapped children, and analyzed the performances of the autistic children, who had persisted in the intentional actions of the robots. It was apparent that children were sensitive to the intention of robots and modified their fixed patterns of actions through interaction with the robots. These findings indicate that robots can facilitate social responses and that autistic children can develop social relationships with robots.
[ Key Words ] Autism, Social relationship, Intention, of Teacher Education.

Tsuneda, Miho (Graduate School of Education, Hokkaido University). The Role of Caregiverfs Supportive Behavior in the Development of Joint Attention in Early Infancy. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.2, 97-108.
This longitudinal case study examined the role of a caregiverfs sharing to share attention with an infant, in the development of joint attention behavior. A mother-infant pair was observed in natural settings when the baby was 2-9 months of age. Analyses focused on the relation between maternal coordination of the infantfs attention, pattern of gaze, and emotional expression. Mother-infant interaction went through the following five phases: 1) showing own face to each other, 2) overall control of infantfs gaze by mother, 3) emergence of joint visual attention, 4) confusion of coordinated joint engagement to objects, and 5) achievement of joint attention focusing on inner mental objects. In this process the motherfs supportive behavior changed along with the infantfs ability to control his own posture. This transformation of maternal behavior brought about the new interaction pattern. The results indicate that a caregiverfs supportive behavior can play an important role in the development of an infantfs joint attention behavior.
[ Key Words ] Infancy, Joint attention, Care giverfs supportive behavior, Mother-infant interaction, Longitudinal research.

Higata, Atsuko iGraduate School of Education, Hiroshima Universityj & Saito, Seiichi iFaculty of Human Development, Kobe Universityj. Time Perspective, Recollection of Life Events, and Mental Health in Adolescence. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.2, 109-119.
The time perspective of adolescents, regarding the future, involves both anxiety and hope. This study examined the relationship between time perspective and mental health, and factors that promote the reconstruction of time perspective by high school and university students. Adolescents with a positive time perspective of the past through the future were generally found to be in good mental health. However, among those with a future perspective, high school students were not in better mental health while university students were in better mental health. The results suggested that future time perspective has a different effect on mental health, depending on onefs level of development. Adolescents with a positive time perspective reported a strong and well-balanced concern for life events of the past, present, and future. They were also realistic in reconstructing past life events and recognizing future events.
[ Key Words ] Time perspective, Mental health, Life event, Adolescent, Late adolescence

Shibayama, Makoto (Kamakura Womenfs University). A Qualitative Study of Parentsf Adjustment Processes for the Division of Taking Children to and from a Day Nursery. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.2, 120-131.
A qualitative analysis concerned how dual-earner couples negotiated who took their children to and from a day nursery. Data from records and interviews conducted at a private day nursery in Tokyo from March to August, 2001 yielded the following major findings. Couples were classified into five types: (‡T) mother-centered; (‡U) couple-shared; (‡V) father-centered; (‡W) dependent-on-maternal-grandmother type with subtypes (a) parents-grandmother and (b) mother-grandmother; and (‡X) hired babysitter type. These types corresponded to two different adjustment processes between couples. In the first process, most wives thought that parents should drop off and pick up children, and decided procedures after consultation with their husbands and leading this consultation. This process was observed among the ‡U, ‡V, and ‡W (a) couple types. In the second process, most wives thought that dropping off and picking up children was their job, and decided on this procedures without consulting with their husbands. This process was observed among the‡T, ‡W(b), and ‡X couple types.
[ Key Words ] Dual-earner couple, Child care, Taking child to and from day nursery, Adjustment process, Qualitative analysis

Uemura, YuheiiGraduate School of Cultural Studies and Human Science, Kobe Universityj. The Relationship Between Self-Acceptance and Acceptance of Others in Late Adolescence. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.2, 132-138.
The purposes of this study were to (1) describe the personalities of late adolescents who were unbalanced in acceptance of self and others, (2) confirm that adolescents with high acceptance of both self and others had adaptive and mature traits, and (3) discuss these results from the viewpoint of developmental psychology. Adolescents (N=124) completed the Acceptance of Self and Others Scale, and the Individual and Social PN Orientedness Scales. The results showed that participants who reported high self-acceptance and low acceptance of others tended to have higher self-actualization but lower social adjustment. In contrast, those who scored low in self-acceptance and high in acceptance of others had lower self-actualization and a stronger tendency toward over-adjustment. In addition, adolescents reporting high self-acceptance and high acceptance of others were more adaptive and mature than other adolescents.
[ Key Words ] Adolescence, Self-acceptance, Acceptance of others, Individual orientedness, Social orientedness

Nada, Tetsuya (Graduate School of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu University) & Maruno, Shunfichi (Faculty School of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu University). Internalization of an Effectual Strategy in Collaborative Problem-Solving. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.2, 139-149.
This research examined frequencies of error-bias as an index of internalization (Ratner, Foley, & Gimpert, 2002) as third grade children performed an gerrand taskh pre-test, collaborative session, and post-test (Radziszewska & Rogoff, 1991). To examine the degree of error-bias, the task in the collaborative session was divided into three activities (planning, determination, and execution), based on the sequence of problem-solving activities. The results showed that error-bias was observed in the determination activity, and those participants who showed error-bias (gbias grouph) in the determination activity improved the most in their performance. These results suggested that the bias group internalized an effectual strategy to find the shortest route to a solution, and consequently used this strategy on the post-test. In addition, qualitative analysis showed that in collaborating with others, children in the bias group found the effectiveness of self-corrective activities. They reexamined the better route themselves before making a final decision, and used such self-corrective activities in their collaborations.
[ Key Words ] Collaborative problem-solving, Internalization, Source-monitoring error, Errand task, Strategy

Aso, Ryota (Graduate School of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu University) & Maruno, Shunichi (Faculty of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu University). Development of Temporally Extended Emotional Understanding in Preschool Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.3, 163-173.
This study investigated how childrenfs emotional understanding differs depending on whether (1) the central person in a time-sequence story is oneself or another person, and (2) the type of object that causes the negative emotion in the story is a human or an object. In Experiment I, participants between the ages of 3 and 5 years inferred the causes of emotional occurrences described in four picture stories. In Experiment ‡U the experimental conditions were closer to reality, so that 4- and 5-year old participants could actively and freely associate the understanding of temporally extended emotions with the current emotion, in four different puppet shows. The results showed first that whatever the main character was in the story (self vs. others), preschoolers could infer the cause of emotional occurrences, regardless of their age. In addition, children in the younger age group understood that temporally extended emotions affect the current emotion, if the cause of the emotion was a human.
[ Key Words ] Emotional understanding, Difference in subjects, Difference in causal objects, Preschoolers

Mizokawa, Ai (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University). Young Childrenfs Understanding of False Sadness. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.3, 174-184.
This study examined whether young children understand that it is possible to express sadness even when one does not really feel sad. The participants, 40 4- and 6-year old children, listened to 8 stories in which it was appropriate for the protagonist to hide his/her real emotions (negative or positive). Hiding of emotions was based on either pro-social or self-protective motivation, and the protagonist instead expressed other emotions (happiness or sadness). Participants were asked questions about the protagonistfs real and expressed emotions, and the emotions another story character inferred that the protagonist felt. The results showed that 6-year olds recognized real and apparent emotional expressions more accurately than did 4-year olds, in almost all cases. These findings were consistent with the results of previous studies. In the present study, the most important finding was that the ability of 6-year olds to recognize othersf false expression of sadness because of self-protective motivation differed from that of 4-year olds. However, the results also showed that it was difficult even for 6-year olds to distinguish between real and apparent expressions of emotion, when the protagonist expressed false sadness because of pro-social motivation.
[ Key Words ] Emotional understanding, False sadness, Appearance-Reality distinction, Early childhood

Katoh, Takashi (Graduate School of Education, Naruto University of Education) . Social Support and the Internal Working Model of Caregivers. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.3, 185-195.
This research examined the relations between social support, subjective well-being, and an Internal Working Model (IWM). Caregivers (N = 278) completed a questionnaire. The results showed that caregivers belonging to an gup-to-dateh IWM group received sufficient support from other important people and a wider support network, compared with caregivers from other groups. Hierarchical multiple regression that assumed subjective well-being to be a mediating factor examined the structure of the influences that supported an IWM. The results showed that support from an important person and a support network did not have a direct relationship with lower gAnxietyh in an IWM, but it did have a direct relationship with lower gAvoidanceh in an IWM.
[ Key Words ] Internal working model, Caregivers, Support network, Subjective well-being

Nishiyama, Osamu (Okayama Prefectural University-Junior College1)), Tomita, Shohei (Chugokugakuen University) & Tazume, Hirotsugu (Kamakura Women's UniversityjD A Causal Structure Analysis of Ego Identity and Occupational Cognition of Junior College Students in the Early Childhood Care and Education Course. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.3, 196-205.
The purpose of this study was to identify the causal relations between ego identity and occupational cognitions, by use of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). It utilized a Multidimensional Ego Identity Scale (MEIS; Tani, 2001) from the viewpoint of trait theory. A questionnaire was administered to 1,083 junior college students immediately before graduation from a program in early childhood care and education. The results of SEM suggested that (1) sense of identity increased studentsf understanding of childcare work, and feeling of fitness to work in childcare; (2) feeling of fitness increased anticipation of enhanced feelings of satisfaction, interest, and commitment with regard to childcare work; and (3) interest increased commitment and intention to continue with childcare. The discussion focused on a psychosocial viewpoint, and the results suggested topics for future research.
[ Key Words ] Ego identity, Occupational cognition, Childcare worker training, Junior college students, Structural Equation Modeling

Kaminaga, MoyuruiGraduate School of Cultural Studies and Human Science, Kobe Universityj. Pubertal Development and Eating Disorders. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.3, 206-215.
This study investigated the relationship between pubertal development and adolescentsf eating disorders, as mediated by acceptance of pubertal development, body satisfaction, behaviors to decrease weight, and behaviors to avoid exposure of onefs own body to others. The participants were 503 junior high school students (252 boys, 251 girls). Participants were asked about pubertal development, acceptance of pubertal development, body satisfaction, behaviors to decrease weight, behaviors to avoid exposure of onefs body to others, height, and weight. The main results were as follows. For boys, there was no relationship between pubertal development and eating disorders. For girls, lower acceptance of pubertal development was related to low body satisfaction, and low body satisfaction led to more behaviors to decrease weight and avoid exposure of onefs body to others. Behaviors to decrease weight and to avoid exposure of onefs body to others predicted girlsfeating disorders.
[ Key Words ] Pubertal development, Eating disorders, Adolescents, Body satisfaction, Gender differences

Nishino, Yasuyo iNagoya University). Self-Worth and the Effects of Classroom Alienation and Teachersf Attitudes on Emotional Problems. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.3, 216-226.
Japanese junior high school students and 6th grade elementary school students (N=933) participated in a questionnaire survey regarding emotional problems. The study first tested a model in which self-worth mediated the effects of antecedent factors (alienation in the classroom, and teacher attitudes) on emotional problems. The data indicated that classroom alienation was a strong predictor of emotional problems, whereas teacher attitudes did not have a direct influence on emotional problems. In addition, multi-sample analysis revealed a gender difference in this model. The data also indicated that self-worth buffered the influence of classroom alienation on emotional problems. It appears that children with greater self-worth had less emotional problems, despite feeling more alienated.
[ Key Words ] Emotional problems, Self-worth, Classroom alienation, Teacher attitudes, Buffering effect

Fujita, Aya iOita Prefectural College of Arts and CulturejD Turn-Taking Behavior of Preschool Children Playing a Fishing Game: Analysis of the Criteria and the Leader in Turn-Taking Behavior. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.3, 227-235.
Preschool children played a fishing game in pairs, sharing a single fishing pole in = 104, 52 pairs; mean age of younger pairs = 5 years; mean age older pairs = 5 years 11monthsjDAnalysis of videotapes of the 10- minute games indicated that the older pairs took turns with the pole by using clearer criteria than did the younger pairs. This age difference was especially notable among girls, as the older children with the fishing pole led in the turn-taking behavior more often than did children in the younger pairs. These findings suggested that older children, particularly girls, are more considerate of others in a game situation compared with younger preschool children.
[ Key Words ] Turn-taking behavior, Peer relationships, Preschoolers, Game situation, Play

Toyama, Noriko iTsuda Collegej & Obayashi, Michiyo iNakajima Elementary SchooljD Childrenfs Awareness of Rights to Privacy and to Know. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2007, Vol.18, No.3, 236-247.
Three experiments examined childrenfs awareness of rights to privacy and the right to know. In Experiment 1, 4th, 6th, and 8th graders, and undergraduate students, judged whether three types of individual information should be disclosed in a classroom newspaper. The 4th graders, like the older children and college students, distinguished between public vs. personal matters. That is, public matters like school activities were not assumed to be private, whereas personal items such as a diary and petty cashbook were assumed to be kept from the public view. In Experiment 2, the same four age groups evaluated whether a student should show his ggoodh or gbadh personal diary to a teacher, and whether a salesclerk should reveal her customerfs telephone number to a ggoodh or gbadh person. Elementary school children tended to respond that the ggoodh diary could be shown, and that the telephone number could be given to a ggoodh person. In Experiment 3, 4th graders and the older participants all showed awareness that even gbadh personal matters should be disclosed if such disclosure is recognized as being in the public interest.
[ Key Words ] Childrenfs rights, Privacy rights, Right to know, Social cognition, Social judgment