Itoh, Tomoko iGraduate School of Education, Waseda Universityj. Development of Bayesian Reasoning in a Drawing-of-Lots Problem. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.1, 2-14.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental processes of mental operations, as a competence factor for Bayesian reasoning on a drawing-of-lots problem. The main results were as follows. First, junior high school students passed only problems with a first-order quantification of probability iNakagaki, 1989jCwhile university students were able to pass problems with a second-order quantification of probability. Next, glikelihood neglecth was apparent in participantsf responses rather than gbase-rate neglect.h Finally, participants did not appear to use the representativeness heuristic in their reasoning iTversky & Kahneman, 1974jCand even university students lacked competence in Bayesian reasoning ithird-order quantification of probabilityjD
[ Key Words ] Quantification of probability, Competence factor, Mental operation, Base-rate neglect, Bayesian reasoning

Yamazaki, Hiroe iGraduate School of Education, University of Tokyoj. Functional Nesting Structure of Posture and Movement in Development of Reaching from a Prone Position in Infancy. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.1, 15-24.
This case study focused on the development of postural dynamics for reaching by an infant from a prone position. This transitional process was examined from a functional perspective. A total of 155 acts of reaching from a prone position were observed on 9 separate days between the ages of 5 and 8 months, and were analyzed from both quantitative and qualitative points of view. First, all acts were classified into three types, based on whether each reaching act had the function of supporting the upper body. The frequency and rate of appearance of each type were analyzed quantitatively for the nine days. Second, coordination of body parts was analyzed qualitatively for each day. The results showed that the infantfs reaching changed from having two functions iboth touching the object and adjusting the supporting surfacej to having only the one function of touching the object. It appeared that an increase in flexibility of coordination of body parts was behind this change. In addition, this study showed that by creating and utilizing instability and in uplifting the upper body and extending the arms, infants may achieve new postural dynamics leading to crawling.
[ Key Words ] Reaching, Postural dynamics, Flexibility, Physical development, Infancy

Kikuchi, Tomomi iOchanomizu University, Graduate School of Humanities and SciencesjD The Mutual Adjustment Process Between Children and Ecology in the Transition from Preschool to Elementary School. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.1, 25-35.
Developmental niche theory iSuper & Harkness, 1986j posits that children actively interact with their surroundings rather than being influenced passively by a fixed environment. Based on this theoryCthe present study observed the dynamic interplay between children and their environment during the transition from preschool to elementary school. To relate the niche to school cultureCniche theory was redefined using the term gschool developmental nicheh and adjustment processes between children and the environment were studied at a preschool and elementary school. Data were based on weekly observations of children over a nine month period before and after the April transition to elementary school along with interviews with their preschool teachersCfirst grade classroom teacherCand mothers. The results showed that children interacted differently according to their specific nicheCand differed in their level of active participation in the interplay. This suggests that ecological aspects of the school developmental niche constitute a challenge to a smooth transition to elementary school.
[ Key Words ] Transition to elementary schoolCDevelopmental nicheC AdjustmentCSchool cultureCEcology

Seno, Yui (Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya Universityj. Inhibitory Control and the Development of Childrenfs Ability to Give Appropriate Information. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.1, 36-46.
The present study examined the development of the ability of 3- to 6-year-old children (N=105) to give information appropriately to others. In a game, each participant was allowed to see where the target was hidden in one of the two cups, while the childfs partner (a collaborator or competitor) was not. In the collaborative situation, the collaborator asked the child if he/she knew the location of the target object. If a child gave information to the collaborator, the child was given the target. In the competitive situation, the competitor asked children the question in the same way as in the collaborative situation. But if children gave information to the competitor, the target was taken by the competitor. The results showed that most 3 year-olds pointed to the location of the target immediately in both situations. However, 5-6 year-olds gave information appropriately to the collaborator and not to the competitor partner. There was a significant correlation between performance in the hiding game, and that in the inhibitory task which required a novel response in the face of a conflicting prepotent response. These findings suggested that inhibitory control may be an important contributor to childrenfs understanding of the otherfs mental state.
[ Key Words ] Collaboration, Competition, Communication, Preschool children, Inhibitory control

Kondo, Aya iHiroshima University, Graduate School of Educationj . Developmental Changes in the External Source Monitoring Ability of Young Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.1, 46-55.
The present study examined the ability of young children to monitor two external sources. In Experiment 1, 5- and 6-year-olds and adults listened to a list of words spoken by two sources, a male and a female. Some words in the list were common to both sources, whereas others were unique to one source. After approximately two minutes participants were given a recognition test, and a source monitoring test in which they were asked to identify the source of each word as one of four alternatives (male voice only, female voice only, both voices, neither voice). Children made more source monitoring errors than did adults, and they had the greatest difficulty identifying sources of the words which had been given by both sources. In Experiment 2, the materials and procedures were identical to those in Experiment, except that the words were presented both as visual images (picture cards) and as sounds (a female voice). The results of Experiment 2 were almost the same as in Experiment 1.
[Key Words] Source monitoring, 5 year-olds, 6 year-olds, Memory development, Cognitive development

Nakai, Daisuke (University of Tsukuba, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences ; Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) & Shoji, Ichiko (University of Tsukuba, Comprehensive Human SciencesjD Trust for Teachers and School Adjustment: A Study of Junior High School Students. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.1, 57-68.
The present study investigated the relations between studentsf trust for teachers and school adjustment. A sample of 457 junior high school students completed questionnairesC and the results were as following. (1) Studentsf trust for teachers influenced not only the student-teacher relationship but also other aspects of school adjustment including gwillingness to learning,h gfuture direction,h gattitude toward school rules,h and gattitude toward school activities.h (2) At each grade level, studentsf trust for teachers had a different influence on adjustment to school life. In seventh grade, a gsense of securityh toward teachers consistently influenced how they adapted to school. (3) In the eighth and ninth grades, in addition to gsense of security,h gdistrusth and gevaluation of role accomplishmenth also had an influence. (4) At all three grade levels, in relation to studentsf trust for teachers, gsense of securityh had the greatest influence on school adjustment. (5) School adjustment depended on the pattern of studentsf trust for teachers, e.g., a gtrust type,h grole dominance type,h gdistrust dominance type,h and gambivalent type.h
[ Key Words ] TrustC School teachersC Junior high school studentsC School adjustmentC Student-teacher relationships

Deno, Minako (Graduate School of Human Sciences, Osaka University). Attachment Organization and Traumatic Symptoms among Early Adolescents in Residential Institutions. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.2, 77-86.
This research examined the effects of attachment style on traumatic symptoms in early adolescence (N146, Age Mean13 years 4 months, SD10 months). The participants who had experienced object loss were in 10 residential institutions for children. Girls scored higher on traumatic symptoms than did boys, and anxious/ambivalent attachment style scores were positively related to traumatic symptoms for both genders. In addition, the traumatic symptoms of older boys were higher than younger boys, and anxious/ambivalent attachment style scores aggravated their traumatic symptoms. Boys who entered residential institutions at a younger age tended to have higher traumatic symptom scores, whereas only girls who scored high for anxious/ambivalent and avoidant attachment styles aggravated their traumatic symptoms. These results supported previous research findings, and suggested that gender may have an important role in activating the attachment system and in the attachment systemfs influence on traumatic symptoms in early adolescence.
[ Key Words ] Early adolescence, Attachment, Trauma, Residential institution, Gender difference

Aramaki, Misako (Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University) & Muto, Takashi (Shiraume Gakuen University). Factors Related to Negative and Positive Feelings about Child-rearing: A Survey of Mothers of Young Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.2, 87-97.
The purpose of this study was to investigate negative and positive feelings towards child-rearing, and factors relating to these feelings. Mothers with preschool children in the Tokyo area participated in a questionnaire survey (N733). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that mothersf feelings about child-rearing included a sense of being burdened, anxiety, and positive feelings. Three main findings were as follows. (1) The sense of burden of child-rearing was related to the childfs age (greater burden from younger children), support from the husband, mothersf working arrangement, and the childfs type of preschool (kindergarten vs. day care). (2) Child-rearing anxiety was related to support in the form of information about child-rearing. (3) Positive feelings towards child-rearing was related to support from their husband, preschool teachers, or friends. These results suggest that mothersf sense of burden, anxiety, and positive feelings are related to both common and unique factors.
[ Key Words ] Burden of child-rearing, Child-rearing anxiety, Positive feelings towards child-rearing, Social support, Mothers of preschoolers

Miyoshi, Akiko (Graduate School of Contemporary Psychology, Rikkyo University). An Analysis of Novelist Junichiro Tanizakifs Choice of a Negative Identity. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.2, 98-107.
Erikson (1968) proposed negative identity as one major aspect of identity diffusion, and suggested three crises that may induce negative identity: 1. identity crisis, 2. Oedipal crisis, and 3. a crisis of trust. This study examined the life of Japanese novelist Junichiro Tanizaki as a case example of negative identity, and revealed the psychodynamic mechanisms of a person who chose a negative identity. Tanizaki was determined to become a novelist, but he remained an unknown writer for some time, and experienced identity diffusion. In addition, Tanizaki 1. had feelings of guilt when he remained faithful to his intention to become a novelist, 2. experienced latent guilt from an Oedipus complex, and 3. remained in a state of profound regression with a sense of guilt about his own existence. These factors brought about in him a change from an essential wholeness to totalism. In effect, negative identity was the only possible way for him to take the initiative in his life as he completely denied any sence of guilt. The concept of negative identity allows us to more fully understand Tanizaki both as a novelist and in his private psychological life.
[ Key Words ] Negative identity, E.H.Erikson, Identity crisis, Guilt, Junichiro Tanizaki

Yamada, Miki (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University) & Okamoto, Yuko (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University). Individuality-Based Identity and Relatedness-Based Identity: An Analysis of the Characteristics of Adolescent Interpersonal Relations. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.2, 108-120.
The purpose of this study was to understand adolescents in terms of individual-based identity and relatedness-based identity. In Study 1, university students answered a questionnaire regarding their identity. Based on an analysis of these data, a scale was constructed consisting of 15 items related to individuality based identity and 13 items related to relatedness based identity. Differentiation of these two aspects of identity was shown to be difficult. In Study 2, university students completed the questionnaire derived from Study 1, and the scalefs validity and reliability were confirmed. A semi-structured interview containing questions related to interpersonal relations was conducted with 20 of the participants from Study 2, to clarify differences between the 4 groups of items formed by cluster analysis. The gKJh(Kawakita Jiro) Method was used to organize the interview data, and revealed 3-5 categories. The results indicated that in individuality based identity one has little assimilation with others, and seeks wide interpersonal relationships. In contrast, in relatedness based identity one perceives others as independent from oneself and has the ability to from intimate relationships.
[ Key Words ] Individuality based identity, Relatedness based identity, Adolescence, Interpersonal relations, University students

Takahama, Yuko (Ochanomizu University), Watanabe, Toshiko (Musashino University), Sakagami, Hiroko (Tokyo Keizai University), Takatsuji, Chie (Saitama Prefectural University) & Nozawa, Sachiko (The University of Tokyo). The Transformation Process of the Mother-Child System during Toddlerhood: The Relationships between a Motherfs Framework and a Childfs Negativism. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.2, 121-131.
The present study examined changes in maternal behavior in three mother-child dyads. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews of children (all first-borns) ages 21 to 36 months old, and analyzed from the viewpoints of childrenfs problems as recognized by the mothers, and the mothersf framework. When children's negativism and self-assertion became stronger, their mothers tried to control them. However, it was difficult to control children's behavior when children reached their peak of negativism, and the psychological pressure on mothers increased. The synchrony of developmental changes in the children and mothers reduced the psychological pressure on mothers. Although the problems were different in each case, the pattern of change that emerged in mother-childfs dyadic systems was similar. These results reflected a reorganization of the system consisting of the mothersf behaviors, thoughts, and feelings.
[Key Words] Toddlers, Negativism and self-assertion, Maternal framework, Mother-child system, Longitudinal study

Takahashi, Miho (The University of Tokyo). Difficulties of Unemployed Middle-Aged Men in Their Company and Societal Connections. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.2, 132-143.
This study investigated why middle-aged Japanese men face so many difficulties with unemployment. In-depth individual interviews and a group interview were conducted to examine the experiences of unemployed middle-aged men. The study focused on their connections to companies and society. Based on qualitative analyses, a process model of unemployment was created which consisted of 3 stages: (1) absorption into the company and consequent loss after termination, (2) a succession of alienations from society, and (3) reconnection to society in many areas. These findings suggested four reasons why unemployed middle-aged Japanese men experience difficulties: (1) too much dependence on the company, (2) loss of company life, (3) exclusion and isolation from society, and (4) gradual loss of connection to society occurring in various phases. The study concluded with a discussion of the effects of difficulties due to unemployment on menfs later lives.
[ Key Words ] Unemployment, Alienation, Middle-aged men, Middle adulthood, Process model

Higata, Atsuko (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University) & Okamoto, Yuko (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University). The Relationship between Time Perspective and Mental Health in Middle Age. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.2, 144-156.
The results of a questionnaire survey indicated that the time perspective of people in their 40s was oriented toward the future, whereas people in their 50s were oriented to the present. The relationship between time perspective and mental health indicated the need to maintain a broad time orientation, in order to maintain positive mental health during middle age, The interview data suggested that feelings regarding the past, present, and future differed between people in their 40s, 50s and 60s. These group differences were related to time orientations and to the relations between time perspective and mental health. Finally, the results of this study suggested differences in the quality of acceptance of the past, satisfaction with the present, and goal directedness and hope in each age group.
[ Key Words ] Time perspective, Mental health, Middle age, Time orientation, Middle adulthood

Kimura, Minako (Aichi Prefectural University). What Makes it Difficult for Young Children to Understand the Symbolic Nature of Video Images?: A Comparative Analysis of Picture Understanding. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.2, 157-170.
This study investigated how younger children come to understand the representational nature of video images and pictures. The validity of a model consisting of three stages (non-representational, transitional, representational) was tested by an experiment. Five- and six-year old children were asked whether the actions of a person appearing on a television screen or in pictures could influence the real world, and whether the image-objects could come out of the television or picturefs surface. The latter question was included to verify whether children misunderstood the first question as being asked about the referent in the images. The results showed that children often responded as if they considered images to be real in both picture and video conditions. In fact, children knew the picture was not real, but only misunderstood the question as being asked about the referent. In the case of video-images, childrenfs responses were interpreted as typical of a transitional stage. Children in this stage could distinguish real objects from images but did not fully understand the symbolic nature of the images.
[ Key Words ] Video images, Picture, Early childhood, Representational status, Cognitive development

Ogawa, Ayako (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University) & Koyasu, Masuo (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University). The Relation between Components of Executive Function and Theory of Mind in Young Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.2, 171-182.
Recent research on childrenfs developing theory of mind (ToM) has identified the development of executive function (EF) as an essential factor that contributes to childrenfs developing understanding of false belief (Carlson & Moses, 2001; Perner & Lang, 1999). Two particular aspects of EF (conflict inhibition and working memory), contribute to ToM, but no study had shown any relationship between ToM and EF in Japan. The present study examined aspects of EF as related to understanding of false belief in Japanese young children. Seventy children, ages 3 to 6, were given two false belief tasks, a receptive vocabulary task, and six EF tasks. The results showed that working memory was significantly related to ToM, after age and receptive vocabulary were controlled. In addition, there was a strong correlation between conflict inhibition and working memory factors. These findings suggested that conflict inhibition requires a substantial amount of working memory capacity, and that working memory capacity enables young children to operate with multiple representations in one task situation.
[ Key Words ] Theory of mind, Executive function, Working memory, Conflict inhibition, Confirmatory factor analysis

Miyama, Gaku (Graduate School of Humanities, Tokyo Metropolitan University). The Needs for Itinerant Consultation Support in an Integrated After-School Care Program: A Questionnaire Study of Program Leaders in a Ward of Tokyo. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.2, 183-193.
The personnel of an after-school care program (N102) participated in a questionnaire survey about the need for itinerant consultation for integrated child care. Principal component analysis revealed that needs for itinerant consultation support resulted in five components: (l) coordination with specialized agencies, (2) constitution of care ability, (3) collaboration with parents, (4) care programs associated with handicapped children, and (5) assessment and reporting. In addition, support needs were divided into three major groups in relation to the urgency of needs: (l) fundamental needs, (2) considerable needs, and (3) improvement needs. This research showed that the understanding of support needs in terms of urgency can lead to effective support to prevent problems that occur when service recipients are the overly primary consideration, which is called gneedology.h
[ Key Words ] Itinerant consultation, After-school care, Integrated child-care, Support needs, Handicapped children

Mizokawa, Ai (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University/ Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) & Koyasu, Masuo (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University). Development of Understanding False Beliefs about Apparent Crying in Elementary School Children, in Relationship to the Acquisition of Second-Order False Beliefs. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.3, 209-220.
This study examined the age at which children understand that a display of apparent crying may create false beliefs in another person. In addition, it examined whether it is necessary to have acquired recursive thought to understand such false beliefs. Mizokawa and Koyasu (2007) showed that even 6-year olds cannot fully understand such false beliefs. In the present study, 525 children, ages 6 to 12, were given a booklet including gcrying tasksh and a gSecond-order false belief task.h Crying tasks contained two gapparent crying tasksh and one greal crying task.h In each gcrying task,h the protagonist looked as if she was crying. After each story, participants judged whether the protagonist was really crying, and whether the other character believed that the protagonist was crying. The results showed that children can understand false beliefs about apparent crying at around age 9, and there is a relationship between understanding of such false beliefs and performance on a second-order false belief task. These findings suggest that recursive thought is an important cognitive basis for understanding anotherfs emotion.
[ Key Words ] Apparent crying, Understanding of otherfs emotion, Second-order false belief, Elementary school children, Emotional intelligence

Sugimoto, Naoko (Senzoku Gakuen Junior College). Young Childrenfs Understanding of Pretense: Relations between Knowledge and Action. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.3, 221-231.
Do young children recognize that knowledge is required for pretending? In Study 1, 5- to 6-year olds predicted that other children who have knowledge of an object unfamiliar to the participants themselves can nevertheless pretend to be the object, whereas those lacking that knowledge cannot. However, 3- to 4-year olds predicted that other children who have knowledge of an object unfamiliar to the participants themselves cannot pretend to be it. In Study 2, 5- to 6-year olds demonstrated an ability to make judgments about the othersf abilities for pretense based on the otherfs false knowledge. But, 3- to 4-year olds did not demonstrate such ability. The data from this study suggested that 5- to 6-year olds understand the relationship between knowledge and action in pretense.
[ Key Words ] Early childhood, Pretense, Mental representation, Knowledge, Action

Toyama, Noriko (Tsuda College). Mother-Toddler Lunchtime Interaction at Home: Collaborative Organization of Meals as Cultural Activities. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.3, 232-242.
Forty-four mother-child dyads participated in this study, including 15 1-year-olds, 15 2-year-olds, and 14 3-year-olds. Each dyad was observed at home during lunch time, and all utterances were transcribed and categorized. The main findings were as follows. With increasing age, children made gradual progress in feeding skills. The typical way of being fed among 1-year-olds was spoon-feeding by mothers. This was gradually replaced with age by self-feeding with utensils. Among 1-year olds, stereotyped routines were frequently observed as developing in childrenfs eating behavior. Mother-child interaction was also related to childrenfs appetite level. When children were not chewing, mothers seldom responded to their childrenfs gchatting.h Instead, they let children eat foods and tried to discourage off-task behaviors at mealtime. Many mothers adjusted mealtime settings in accordance with childrenfs appetite levels. When children were chewing, mothers provided more foods and utensils and expanded childrenfs free area. But when children were not chewing, mothers narrowed their free space.
[ Key Words ] Mealtime, Socio-cultural approach, Eating behavior, Toddlerhood, Mother-child interaction

Itoi, Hisako (Faculty of Education,Tokyo Gakugei University). Young Childrenfs Analogical Reasoning of Proportion: Effects of Shapes. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.3, 243-251.
This study used analogy tasks to measure proportional reasoning in young children.@Participants were 100 children from 4 to 6 years of age. The materials were a round pizza, a square chocolate bar and small round pieces of chocolates. Children were shown a base substance, e.g., a whole pizza, from which a proportion was then removed, e.g., a half of the pizza. Children were asked to complete an analogy by removing an equivalent proportion of their target set, e.g., a whole square chocolate bar changed to half a square of chocolates. The experimenterfs pizza or chocolates were eight-segmented, and the subjectfs pizza or chocolates were four-segmented. The borders dividing the segments were clearly visible. The results showed that 4- to 6-year-old children understood proportional equivalence, even when the materials to be matched were not isomorphic. It was found that the tasks were more difficult when the eight-segment circle was presented to the children. Proportional reasoning in young children depended on the shapes. Eight-segment circles were more difficult than eight-segment squares, as children used reasoning to solve proportional analogy tasks.
[ Key Words ] Proportional reasoning, Preschoolers, Analogy, Cognitive development

Ashizawa, Kiyone (Tokyo Metropolitan University), Hamatani, Naoto (Tokyo Metropolitan University) & Tanaka, Koji (Tokyo Metropolitan University). The Functions and Structure of Support in Itinerant Consultation Services to Kindergartens. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.3, 252-263.
This study analyzed a clinical-developmental consultation service (Hamatani,2005), which was provided to kindergartens in a Japanese city. The purpose of the study was to specify the functions and structure of support in consultation. Support functions for kindergartens were compared to those for nursery daycare facilities, in reference to studies of itinerant consultation. In Study 1, the following five support functions were extracted by factor analysis of the evaluations of consultations by kindergarten teachers (N110): eteaching method and plan,f eencouragement, understanding the child,f eunderstanding parents,f and ecollaboration.f Study 2 consisted of a group interview with teachers and the principal about a typical consultation case. It was suggested that eencouragementf through eunderstanding the childf and ecollaborationf were the core functions of support structure in itinerant consultation.
[Key Words] Itinerant consultation, Kindergarten, Clinical-developmental consultation, Support function

Takemura, Akiko (Okinawa Urasoe Nursing School) & Maehara, Takeko (Faculty of Education, University of Ryukyus). Social Constraints and Coping Styles of Multiple- vs. Single-Role Nursing Students. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.3, 264-274.
This study explored coping differences that depended on social constraints, in the process of achieving goals determined by external standards. Based on the dual process model of Brandtstadter and Renner (1990), social constraints were defined as situations where multiple social roles hinder individualsf study to obtain a nursing license. Participants were two groups of nursing school students, including first those who balanced study and work (multiple-role students, n105) and secondlry those who only studied (single-role students, n142). They completed a questionnaire about accommodative and assimilative coping styles, and their psychological health. The results revealed the following: (1) multiple-role students reported accommodative coping to a greater degree than did single-role students; (2) there were no differences between multiple-role and single-role students in psychological health; and (3) high accommodative coping predicted better psychological health. These findings suggested that social constraints facilitate individualsf tendency to use accommodative coping to maintain their psychological health. In addition, the association between accommodative and assimilative coping was positive only for multiple-role students.
[ Key Words ] Social constraint, Coping, Psychological health, Accommodative coping, Assimilative coping, Nursing school students

Sun, Qin (Graduate School of LettersC Ritsumeikan University). Research on the Inhibitory Function of Elderly People with Dementia: Examinations Centering on Inhibitory and Relating Cognitive Functions. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.3, 275-282.
In this research, identity- and location-based functions of dementia were examined using Stroop and SRC tasks, and intelligent and frontal lobe functions of dementia were examined using MMSE and FAB tasks. It was shown the inhibitory, intelligent, and frontal lobe functions of individuals with dementia were deficient, compared with those of healthy elderly adults. In addition, different results between the healthy elderly group and the dementia group were shown for identity- and location-based functions. There were significant differences between the groups for some but not all sub-items of the MMSE. The dementia group had significantly lower performance on all the sub-items of FAB except dependency. These results were discussed from the viewpoint of differences and development of identity- and location-based functions. In addition, individuals with dementia were considered very low in cognitive functions such as inhibition, memory and conceptualization, compared to the healthy elderly adults.
[ Key Words ] Inhibitory function, Mini-mental state examination, Frontal assessment battery, Elderly, Dementia

Ando, Satoko (Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University) & Muto, Takashi (Department of Child Study, Shiraume-Gakuen University). The Course of Depression from Pregnancy through One Year Postpartum: Predictors and Moderators. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.3, 283-293.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the length of postpartum depression and the factors which affect the onset and recovery from it. 407 primiparous women provided longitudinal data five times: during pregnancy, at 5 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months postpartum. The factor that significantly affected depression at all five time points was onefs score on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at pregnancy. Self-preoccupation, as an indicator of vulnerability to depression, showed no significant influence on depression at 5 weeks and 3 months postpartum, which suggested that early postpartum depression was mostly affected by physiological factors. Latent growth curve modeling analysis revealed that factors which influenced the slope were the EPDS score at pregnancy, self-esteem and attachment safety, negative affection toward the infant and parenting attitude at 3 months. It was evident that about 3 months postpartum was the turning point for recovery.
[ Key Words ] Postpartum depression, Vulnerability to depression, Attachment, Longitudinal study, Latent growth curve modeling analysis

Yamauchi, Hoshiko (Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University) & Ito, Hiroyuki (Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University / Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). Parentsf Marital Relationships and Adolescentsf Attitudes toward Marriage. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.3, 294-304.
The present study examined two processes by which parentsf marital relationships affected adolescentsf attitudes toward marriage. The first was the Direct Route, in which parentsf marital relationships directly affected adolescentsf marital attitudes by a simple mechanism such as associative learning. The second process was the Modeling Route, in which parentsf marital relationships indirectly affected adolescentsf marital attitudes through the medium of adolescent courtships. Structural Equation Modeling of data from 213 university students showed that the Direct Route occurs regardless of adolescentsf evaluations of their parentsf marital relationships, while the Modeling Route occurs only when adolescents have high evaluations of their parentsf marital relationships.
[ Key Words ] Attitudes toward marriage, Marital relationship, Courtship, Modeling, Structural Equation Modeling

Shimizu, Noriko (Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University). Identity Development in Midlife: A Review of Theories and Research. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.3, 305-315.
The identity status approach has been the typical way to examine identity development during middle adulthood, and has considered adult identity development to be a repetition of adolescent identity formation. This paper reviews studies of midlife identity development using the identity status approach, and recent studies that have begun to point out some limitations of the identity status approach. One recent issue in this research area concerns how to investigate processes and mechanisms to maintain optimal identity through a series of new aging experiences. Another is to try to define the successive task of identity in the stage of middle adulthood. In conclusion, the view that adult identity develops through reconstructions is insufficient to answer the question of how different the two identity achievements are before and after the reconstruction.
[ Key Words ] Identity development, Midlife, Identity status

Matsunaga, Megumi (Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Nara Womenfs University) & Goshiki, Toru (Department of Education, Shizuoka University). The Influence of Siblings and Children of Different Ages on the Development of Young Childrenfs Theory of Mind. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.3, 316-327.
This study investigates the relationship between interaction with children of different ages and the Development of Theory of Mind (ToM). Perner et al. (1994) suggested that sibling interactions affect the development of ToM. The present study was of children with and without siblings who attended either of two types of nursery. In a nursery school with children of mixed ages the participants were 17 children without siblings and 40 children with siblings. In the other nursery, with same-age grouping, the participants were 29 children without siblings and 39 with siblings. Both groups were given two false-belief tasks, a representational-change task, and a false-photograph task. With regard to only the false-belief tasks, the results indicated that children who did not have siblings and were in the same-age-grouped nursery school fared poorly compared to those from the mixed-age nursery. The data suggested that interaction with children of different ages or siblings accelerated the development of a ToM. However, this interaction may not affect physical representations as in the false-photograph.
[ Key Words ] Preschoolers, Theory of Mind, False-belief tasks, Mixed-age groups, Sibling

Tsukada-Jo, Michiru (Department of Psychology, Chukyo University). The Development of Self-Regulation and Conflicts Over Objects between 1 Year-Olds and Mothers. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.4, 331-341.
The present study examined the development of self-regulation and mother-toddler conflict. Three mother-toddler dyads were observed at home on a monthly basis, between the ages of 12 to 24 months. Toddlersf behavior was coded when they checked with their mothers visually before pointing to objects, and for self-regulation and resistance to maternal intervention. As toddlers began to look at their mothers before pointing, they showed self-initiated inhibition of previously prohibited behavior. As mothers began to tell toddlers their behaviors were inappropriate, the toddlers became aware that their mothers were intervening. In addition, when toddlers appeared to tease their mothers, the mothers responded to them playfully, making it easy to express verbal protests and draw their focus away from the prohibited behaviors.
[ Key Words ] Self-regulation, Social cognitive development, Mother-toddler conflict, 1 year-olds, Teasing, Longitudinal research

Uemura, Kayoko (Department of Human Sciences, Bunkyo Gakuin University) & Kasuya, Hiroko (Department of Human Sciences, Bunkyo Gakuin University). Thirty-Month-Old Boysf Participation in Triadic Family Interactions, and the Linguistic Environment Provided by Parents. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.4, 342-352.
This study investigated how children participate in triadic parent-sibling interactions. Twenty families with 30-month-old target boys and older brothers were observed at home during semi-structured free play with toys. Each pair of siblings had two sessions, one with their mother and one with their father. Analyses explored the frequencies of utterances addressed to others, utterances used when children joined in conversations with others, and speech acts between siblings. Childrenfs intentions regarding conversational participation differed with mothers and fathers, and parents behaved differently with younger and older siblings. Mothers talked to 30-month-old children significantly more than to older children. Siblings produced more utterances with each other during the motherfs session, and fathers were less responsive to the target children than were mothers. Younger children made more spontaneous utterances seeking to get involved in conversations, and used longer sentences, during the sessions with fathers. These findings suggest that the linguistic environment parents provide at home gives their children an opportunity to practice communication with people who have different knowledge and intentions.
[ Key Words ] Triadic interaction, Family, Linguistic environment, Language development, 30-month-olds

Ohara, Takaharu (Graduate School, Sophia University) & Niregi, Mituki (Rissyo University). Behavior Characteristics of Children in Homes for Juvenile Training Education, and Experiences of Abuse. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.4, 353-363.
The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between the characteristics of children in Homes for Juvenile Training and Education, and their delinquency experiences, emotions, and memories of abuse. The Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 (CBCL) questionnaire was distributed to staff members of four Homes of 78 children, and to teachers of 88 children in ordinary junior high school classes. The CBCL scale scores forgStay Indoors,hgAnxiety and Depression,h gDelinquent Behaviors,h gAggressive Behaviorsh were higher for children at the four Homes than for children in ordinary junior high schools. The sub-group of physically abused children and non-abused children had higher scores for anxiety and depression than those of the other group. In the case of children in the Homes, the issue of memories of abuse is a hidden problem, but this research suggested that staff members at such Homes should pay attention to such memories and provide children with appropriate psychological support.
[ Key Words ] Child abuse, Home for Juvenile Training and Education, Delinquency, Adolescent mental health, Therapeutic parenting

Miyajima, Takashi (Graduate School of School Education, Joetsu University of Education) & Naito, Mika (Department of School Education, Joetsu University of Education). Conformity under Indirect Group Pressure in Junior High School Students: Effects of Normative and Informational Social Influences and Task Importance. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.4, 364-374.
This study investigated the effects of task importance and social influences on conformity among young adolescents. In response to a number of questions which differed in task importance, 9th graders (N218) chose one of two answer options. Two experiments examined normative (Experiment 1) and informational (Experiment 2) influences, using questions about studentsf attitudes and logical reasoning, respectively. Students in the experimental condition received options along with displays of apparently normative answers for their own age group, and after a week they returned to make choices without any normative displays. They were compared with students in a control condition who received unbiased alternatives. The results showed that students in the experimental condition tended to choose the biased alternative for attitudinal questions of both high and low importance, and they did so again a week later without normative information. Girls were more likely to choose the biased alternative than boys. The data suggest that especially under normative influences young adolescents show strong conformity that continues long-term as privately accepted attitudes. The results are discussed in terms of a self-categorization framework (Hogg, 1992).
[ Key Words ] Conformity, Social influence, Task importance, Junior high school students, Self-categorization

Shiraga, Keisuke (Graduate School of Human Science, Waseda University) & Negayama, Koichi (Faculty of Human Science, Waseda University). Longitudinal Development of Infantsf Cruising in the Home. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.4, 375-388.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the development of cruising, which had seldom been the focus of research on motor development. Naturalistic longitudinal observations were carried out in the homes of four infants, from the perspective of ecological psychology. Cruising was observed in different forms, depending on the environment. So locomotor development should be examined from a perspective of ecological psychology. Cruising behaviors were examined in terms of manual contact with objects, body direction, and duration and frequency of hand/foot motion. The results revealed a transition from quadrupedal to bipedal locomotion types in manual contact with objects. A relation between body direction and exploration behavior was found. Moreover, a bias in laterality was seen in the direction of cruising. It was suggested that the coordination of arms and lower limbs played an important role in the development of proficiency in cruising.
[Key Words] Motor development, Longitudinal research, Naturalistic observation, Affordance, Coordination

Ozu, Sotaro (Kagoshima Womenfs Junior College) & Sugimura, Shinichiro (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University). Young Children's Verbal and Spatial Responses in the Use of Conflicting Spatial Information. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.4, 389-401.
Objects arrayed on a table were first shown to each of 19 participants, ages 5 to 6 years, and then the objects were covered by an upended box. Participants next moved from the front to the right side or the opposite side of the table, and responded in verbal and spatial manners about their perspectives of the objects before and after movement. Children performed well in both manners regarding post-rotation views, despite the fact that children made many spatial errors in their pre-rotation views, and those errors coincided with their post-rotation views. The results indicated that children's difficulty with spatial tasks may be attributed to their physical use of representations in spatial manners, rather than to limitations in maintaining their own perspective.
[ Key Words ] Perspective taking, Spatial cognition, Cognitive development, Embodiment, Preschoolers

Miyazato, Kaoru (Graduate School of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu University) & Maruno, Shunichi (Faculty of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu University). Childrenfs Comprehension of Metaphors: The Effects of Interactions with an Adult. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2008, Vol.19, No.4, 402-412.
This study examined the underlying causes of childrenfs ability to use abstract metaphors in everyday situations. Participants were 4-5 and 5-6 year old children, who were assigned to three conditions: symbolic play, context, and one-sentence conditions. In the symbolic play condition, children interacted with an experimenter and comprehended metaphors based on non-verbal contextual cues. Metaphoric sentences were presented without interactions in the other two conditions, but with verbal contextual cues in the context condition. The results indicated that children could comprehend abstract metaphors better during symbolic play than under the other two conditions. Further analyses suggested that emotions help children comprehend abstract metaphors.
[ Key Words ] Metaphor comprehension, Early childhood, Symbolic play, Emotions, Interactions