Okamoto, Natsuki (Kyoto University of Education). Development of Language Use and Education: Stratification of Meaning and Story-making. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.1, 13-19
To bridge the mutual separation between fundamental studies and the clinical studies, or the gap between developmental principles and educational methodology, we propose a pragmatic developmental model of language. The model is represented in the form of space that expands and deepens with developmental processes. The space is comprised of three axes. The first is the stratification of meaning, i.e., technical term meaning vs. symbolical connotation. Second is the pattern of understanding, i.e., causality vs. story-making in narrative construal. The third consists of goal domains of language usage, i.e., self-formation vs. construction of knowledge. We view the development of language use as an expansion of both poles on each axis. This language development model has implications for the reform of educational methods.
[ Key Words ] Language use, Meaning, Stratification, Connotation, Causality, Narrative, Story-making

Hamada, Sumio (Faculty of Letters, Nara Womenfs University). The Institutionalization of Developmental Psychology and Individualization of Human Beings. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.1, 20-28.
The study of developmental psychology has made great progress over the past few decades. For example, the Japan Society of Developmental Psychology now has ten times as many members as it did at the time of its foundation in 1989. Expectations for progress have increased and many people have entered the profession of developmental psychology, which has brought about its institutionalization in society. These trends seem acceptable at a glance from the standpoint of the JSDP, but its institutionalization might lead to a narrowing of its framework as cut off from the essential world of humanity in which we conduct our scientific inquiry. For example, we might tend to reduce our understanding of the development of children to their abilities and traits, yet lose sight of how they live in the real world. As to the credential system for clinical developmental psychologists, we should transcend its focus on individual ability, lest our current emphasis on the individualization of human beings cause us to lose our sense of shared humanity. In sum, the task for developmental psychology is to go beyond the framework of individualization, seeking a new paradigm to understand humanity.
[ Key Words ] Individualization, Institutionalization, Paradigm of developmental psychology

Takeshita, Hideko (School of Human Cultures, The University of Shiga Prefecture). mplications of the Supine Position in Human Infants for Child Development and Childrearing: A Comparative Developmental Perspective of Behavioral Studies. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.1, 29-41.
From an epigenesist viewpoint which emphasizes the role that developmental plasticity plays in evolution, Gottliebfs hypothesis of behavioral neophenotypes suggested that genetic assimilation may provide a general model to conceptualize the evolution of new species. The role of heterochrony was also considered as an important factor for the modification of ontogeny. A discussion was presented to suggest the developmental and evolutionary implications of the supine position of human infants for (1) the large size of neonates, (2) the emergence of gchildhoodh and caregiving by multiple caregivers, (3) the gtrade-offh in mother-infant interaction, (4) general movements, (5) self-contact behaviors, and (6) manipulation of objects. Greenspan and Shankerfs hypothesis was also considered, to suggest the importance of the development of emotional organization and mother-infant communication, and accordingly the supine position, in order for representation to emerge in human ontogeny. Lastly, using a four-dimensional ultrasonography with human and chimpanzee fetuses, ongoing comparative developmental research conducted by the authors was presented to promote an understanding of the early development of behaviors and the implications of the development of these behaviors for the cognitive and emotional development and evolution of both species.
[ Key Words ] Supine position, Communication, Behavioral neophenotype, Functional/emotional development, Representation

Saito, Kozue (Faculty of Literature, Kokugakuin University). The Possibility of Visual Methodology for the Study of the Developmental Psychology: Watching the Insight Achieved within the Field. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.1, 42-54.
It seems that the visualised data (photographs, videos, films) used in the study of the developmental psychology has enormous accumulation. This has occurred because of technical improvements since the 1970s. However, within developmental psychology domain, theorizing about visual media has not yet explored deeply. It is especially on the consideration of the visual media use as the methodology of the researcher than the elucidation of the cognitive development of visual media. It seems that it is reducing the possibility of the visual media unfairly as a result of this. It is urgent to consider the visual media as connected with the developmental phenomenon and to be concerned with not merely placing the visual media as a tool of the assistance of the data making. I refer to the method of usual people and the other science disciplines which have already invited new development of the visual media usage. I propose possibility of the key positioning of and the theorization of the visual media in the near future of the developmental psychology.
[ Key Words ] Visual methodology of developmental psychology, Visual media literacy, Visual epistemology, Intermediality, The story of the researcher

Tachibana, Hiro (Aichi Toho University). Functional Asymmetry in an Infantfs Manual Activity: A Longitudinal Study from Birth to One Year. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.1, 55-65.
In Study 1, the manual activities of an infant from birth to 1 year of age were observed by her mother. The infant showed functional asymmetries before she began reaching, which were assumed to be the basis for manipulation. The functional asymmetries were consistent throughout the observation period, and were not related to the dominance of the reaching hand. Right-hand dominance was related to a sequential factor, while left-hand dominance was related to a spatial factor. Stronger lateralization was observed in skillful and manipulative activities on the same day. Study 2 investigated developmental changes of dominance in pointing and patting. Although right-hand dominance in patting was consistent, left-hand dominance in pointing changed going into the toddler period. The results suggested that level of manipulation was an important factor for lateralization, as related to the level of manipulation and onset of hemispheric specialization.
[Key Words] Laterality, Manual asymmetry, Infancy, Manipulation, Longitudinal study

Kubo-Kawai, Namiko (Kokoro Research Center, Kyoto University) & Sakata, Yoko (Aichi Shukutoku University). Aging Effects in Disengagement of Attention from Face Stimuli. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.1, 63-73.
Two experiments examined aging effects in disengagement of attention from face stimuli. In Experiment 1, 10 undergraduate students (Mean age21.2 years) and 13 older people (Mean age68.8 years) were first presented a normal human face stimulus in the center of the monitor screen. Then the face stimulus was removed and replaced by presenting a target on the right or left side of the screen. As soon as they detected the target, the participants were to press the keyboard button on the same side of the screen as the target. Four different time intervals were used to investigate the facilitation effects for disengagement of attention. In Experiment 2, the same participants as Experiment 1 were exposed to one of three facial expressions (neutral, happy, or anger) and told to press the keyboard button in the same manner as in Experiment 1 when the target appeared. In Experiment 1, older people tended to react faster to the face stimulus disengagement than the other stimulus. In Experiment 2, the two age groups showed the same reaction to the three facial expressions.
[ Key Words ] Disengagement of attention, Aging effects, Face stimuli, Facial expressions, Adult development

Sugano, Yukie (Aoyama Gakuin Womenfs Junior College), Okamoto, Yoriko (Shohoku College), Aoki, Yayoi (Matsuyama Shinonome Junior College), Ishikawa, Ayuchi (Aichi Prefecture Child Guidance Center), Kamei, Miyako (Graduate School of Humanities, Tokyo Metropolitan University), Kawata, Manabu (Faculty of Education, Kagawa University), Shoji, Reika (Graduate School of Humanities, Tokyo Metropolitan University), Takahashi, Chie (Faculty of Regional Sciences, Tottori University) & Yagishita-Kawata, Akiko (Graduate School of Cultural Studies and Human Science, Kobe University). Maternal Accounts of Negative Feelings toward Their Children: A Longitudinal Study. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.1, 74-85.
Parent-child relations comprise a dynamic process characterized by conflict and affiliation. Based on this perspective, 24 mothers were interviewed about times when they felt negatively toward their children, from the time of the childfs birth through age two. Narrative accounts were analyzed for mothers who developed negative feelings during this period. Mothersf perspectives were based on the conflict between their childrenfs development, their principles of childrearing, and their own resources. Two different processes were notable in relation to child development. At first, mothers did not understand their childrenfs behavior well. But when the children were a year old, mothers treated them as children with personalities. In addition, the mothers were protective of their children during the first year, whereas in the second year they began to consider it their responsibility to be socialization agents of their children.
[ Key Words ] Child-rearing, Negative feelings toward child, Accounting, Maternal perspective, Longitudinal study

Tomita, Shohei (Department of Children Studies, Chugokugakuen University). Development of the Mind to Enjoy Wonderment in Early Childhood: Analysis of Reactions to Magic Tricks. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.1, 86-95.
Study 1 analyzed young childrenfs facial expressions, search behavior, and verbal answers when they watched magic tricks. Participants were 3-year olds (n29), 4-year olds (n34), and 5-year olds (n33). The results were as follows. Three-year oldsf facial expressions did not change much even while watching the magic trick, and they did not display search behavior. There were more pleasurable expressions and search behavior among the four-year olds, and even greater pleasure expressions and search behavior among 5-year olds. In Study 2, 86 children who had participated in Study 1 performed a fantasy/reality distinction task. Children who had shown pleasurable expressions when they saw the magic trick in Study 1 correctly recognized the fantasy/reality distinction in Study 2.
[ Key Words ] Imagination, Fantasy, Magic, Fantasy/reality distinction, Early childhood

Park, Shinyoung (Ube Frontier College) & Sugimura, Shinichiro (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University). A Three-Layer Model of Parental Reflection in the Rearing of Young Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.2, 99-111.
The present study clarified the structure of cognitive processes among parents (N259) of 3- to 5-year old children. Reflection, a new concept addressed by this study, appeared to be closely related to the concepts of metacognition and self-reflective observation. A gparental reflection modelh consisted of three types of reflection: Reflection on Onefs Self (PR); Reflection on Children by Parents (CR); and parentsf Reflection on Themselves Through Other People (OR). Specifically, OR refers to parentsf reflections based on talking to other parents or observing other peoplefs children. A questionnaire, which included the Parental Reflection Scale (PRS), was constructed to include the three types of reflection and other scales including self-consciousness/self-reflection, parent-child relationship, maternal awareness, and child care attitudes. Factors analysis of the PRS revealed a two-factor structure for PR and OR, and a three-factor structure for CR. Based on these findings, a new hierarchical three-level model was devised to explain the influence of lower level reflections on higher level reflections; validity was confirmed by Structural Equation Modeling. Reliability was high for the sub-scales (PR, CR, and OR) of the PRS. The reliability and the validity of this scale were confirmed by the relations between the PRS and other scales.
[ Key Words ] Parenting, Parental cognition, Parental reflection, Preschoolers, Structural Equation Modeling

Nonaka, Tetsushi (Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Groupe de Recherche Apprentissage et Contexte). A Childfs Play with Toy Blocks: Describing the Surface Layout of the Environmentt. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.2, 112-124.
Using video clips collected for a video encyclopedia of infancy (Sasaki, 2008), a case study was conducted on the changing processes of a toddlerfs behavior. Naturalistic observations were conducted of the child gathering toy blocks in a container, between the ages of 14-24 months. This investigation of the environment surrounding the toddlerfs behavior revealed that properties of the surface layout affected his postural variations that made possible goal-directed action of gathering blocks in a container. In addition, the boyfs behavior was regulated in such a way to maintain an invariant affordance relationship between detached objects and the child. Analysis of changes in his activities indicated that that awareness of meaningful properties of the environment allowed actions to be selected among those that are afforded to flexibly deal with context-conditioned variation.
[ Key Words ] Detached objects, Posture, Affordances, Flexibility, Layout

Ishimoto, Yuma (Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University^General Education Center, Itami City), Kukawa, Maho (Faculty of Human Development, Kobe University), Saito, Seiichi (Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University), Kaminaga, Moyuru (Himeji College of Welfare and Nursery), Norisada, Yuriko (Mukogawa Development Support Research Center), Higata, Atsuko (Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University) & Moriguchi, Ryuhei (Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University). Relations between Friendship Styles, Psychological Adjustment, and School Adjustment among Adolescent Females. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.2, 125-133.
This study focused on two dimensions of friendship styles: conformity with friends and psychological distance. Junior high school girls (n96) and high school girls (n122) completed a questionnaire about conformity, psychological distance, psychological adjustment, and school adjustment. The results were as follows. For both junior high and high school students, surface friendships with a high level of conformity and wide psychological distance were associated with lower psychological adjustment and school adjustment. For both junior high and high school students, respectful friendship with a low level of conformity and close psychological distance were associated with better psychological adjustment and school adjustment. In junior high school, close friendships with a high level of conformity and close psychological distance were associated with better psychological and school adjustment. In contrast, high school students with close friendships had poorer psychological adjustment.
[ Key Words ] Adolescent, Friendship , Conformity, Psychological distance, School adjustment

Tada, Yukiko (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University) & Sugimura, Shinichiro (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University). Childrenfs Reorientation in a Small-Scale Environment: The Use of Geometry and Landmarks and the Effects of Body Movement. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.2, 134-144.
The present study examined how to use spatial information for reorientation during two disorientation tasks, involving either viewer or space rotation, within a small rectangular space (45.0cm~67.5cm) on a table. Thirty-two adults participated in Experiment 1, and searched for the correct corner by combining geometric configuration with a local cue, on an object retrieval task. In Experiment 2, 3- to 6-year old children (N60) used a salient landmark rather than the geometry of the apparatus, and did not combine information to find a hidden object. Regarding the two disorientation tasks, adults more frequently made use of geometric cues in the space-rotated situation than in the viewer-rotated situation, but childrenf performance did not differ between the two disorientation tasks. These results suggested that 3- to 6 year-old children may construct a spatial representation based on landmark information for reorientation, whether or not they have been moved themselves, when they use a table-top model. This finding was contrasted with that of preschoolersf use of locomotor space in previous studies.
[ Key Words ] Geometric module, Spatial orientation, Spatial cognition, Cognitive development, Preschoolers

Kondo, Aya (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University). Developmental Changes in the External Source Monitoring Abilities of Preschool Children: The Role of Self-Introduction Task. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.2, 145-154.
The present study investigated preschoolersf external source monitoring abilities in identifying two source persons. Three- to 6-year old children listened to a set of target words read by two speakers (a male and a female) under two conditions (self-introduction condition in which the speaker read sentences of his/her self-introduction including the target words; word condition in which the speaker read only the target words). Some target words were common to both sources, whereas others were unique to each source. Following the acquisition phase, participants were given a recognition test and a source monitoring test in which they identified the source of each sentence or word by means of four alternatives (i.e., male voice only, female voice only, both, neither). Results showed that 3-4 year olds made more source monitoring errors than did 4-5 and 5-6 year olds. In addition, 4-5 and 5-6 year olds were more accurate under the self-introduction condition than in the word condition.
[ Key Words ] Preschool children, Source monitoring, Memory development, Cognitive development

Aoki, Naoko (Faculty of Human Life Sciences, Fuji Womenfs University). The Effects of the Presence of Classmates on a First Graderfs Emotional Reactions to Being Praised. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.2, 155-164.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of settings on first gradersf emotional reactions to being praised by teachers. In study 1, the children iN30j were interviewed regarding emotional reactions when they were praised by a teacher in a one-on-one setting vs. in the presence of their classmates. The reported emotional reaction in those two settings demonstrated four patterns: positive emotions in both settings, positive emotions in both settings and negative emotions only in the presence of friends, positive emotions in the one-on-one setting and negative emotions in the presence of friends, and stronger positive emotions in the presence of friends than in the one-on-one setting. In study 2, a different sample of 23 children were asked whether they preferred being praised one-on-one vs. in the presence of their classmates, and the reasons for their preference. Students who chose a one-on-one setting preferred quiet environments, while students who chose the setting with classmates mentioned the possibility of being praised by friends.
[ Key Words ] Praise, Emotional reaction, Social context, First graders, Classrooms

Nada, Tetsuya (Graduate School of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu University) & Maruno, Shunfichi (Faculty School of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu University). Internalization of an Optimal Strategy in the Collaborative Process of Knowledge Construction. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.2, 165-176.
Previous research (Nada & Maruno, 2007) demonstrated an internalization process by which children reconstruct their own ideas through (1) awareness, noticing different ideas of others, and (2) self-reflection, comparing and examining the differences. Repetition of this sequential process leads children to realize the utility value of other peoplefs different ideas, and necessity of knowledge reconstruction. Eventually, children can independently execute an optimal strategy. In the present study, third graders performed an gerrand taskh in a pre-test, collaborative session, and post-test sequence (Radziszewska & Rogoff, 1991). Children interacted with an experimenter eight times during the collaborative session; it was assumed that internalization required children to realize the effectiveness of their changed ideas by testing and utilizing them in the task. Two factors (awareness and self-reflection) were manipulated, resulting in four task conditions. The results showed that in the condition where othersf different ideas were presented and there was self-reflection, children effectively internalized an optimal strategy to solve the task through repeated interaction.
[ Key Words ] Internalization process, Reflection, Collaborative Problem-Solving, Third graders, Knowledge construction

Tomita, Shohei (Department of Children Studies, Chugokugakuen University). Preschoolersf Thinking about the Reality of Santa Claus. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.2, 177-188.
In Study 1 and Study 2 consisted of interviews with preschoolers about two representations of Santa Claus: gSanta as an adult in costumeh and gSanta who brings us presents at night.h Four year-olds tended to judge the Santa-in-costume to be real, while six year-olds tended to judge this representation as not real. In Study 3, in addition to the representations from Studies 1 and 2, we asked children about gSanta whom we meet at the department store,h gSanta who visits children's homes in the daytime,h gSanta who flies through the sky at night,h and gSanta who invites children to Santa Land at night.h The five year-olds tended to judge Santa to be real based on his facial appearance. On the other hand, six year-olds tended to judge the Santa that appears in childrenfs homes at night, in the sky, and in Santa Land to be real, and judged the Santa who visits department stores, day nurseries, and children's homes in the daytime to not be real, based on the appropriateness of the context of his appearance.
[ Key Words ] Santa Claus, Reality judgment, Contextual factors, Preschoolers, Fantasy/reality

Kobayashi, Sachiko (Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University). Depressive Symptoms, Support from Husbands, and Controllability of Stress among Mothers of Infants. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.2, 189-197.
Participants in this survey were 242 mothers of three and four month olds. The results indicated that stress about childrearing was directly related to depressive symptoms, and that depressive symptoms indirectly mediated controllability of childrearing-related stress. However, support from husbands was not related to depressive symptoms. Based on the interactions between support from husbands and controllability, it appeared that controllability was negatively related to depressive symptoms, and that this association depended on the level of support from husbands. Specifically, if controllability was low, depressive symptoms were lower when support from husbands was stronger. These results indicated that to prevent depressive symptoms it is necessary to recognize the controllability of childrearing-related stress, and when it is difficult to control such stress support from the husband is beneficial.
[ Key Words ] Support from husbands, Childrearing stress, Controllability of stress, Depressive symptoms, Mother-infant relations

Yamane, Naoto (The United Graduate School of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University). Reexamination of a Method to Assess Pitch Discrimination of Musical Sounds by Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.2, 198-207.
In Experiment 1, 3 year-old children tried to determine pitch sequences by matching them with pictures and musical sounds. The results showed that 3 year-olds had difficulty associating sounds with pictures and making choices between two stimuli. In Experiment 2, 97 children ages 2-6 were participants These children identified four musical sounds produced by Montessori bells. The children in Experiment 2 were more successful at identifying the sounds than the children in Experiment 1. Although it may not prove effective for 2-and 3-year old children, the results of Experiment 2 suggested ‚ possible new method to evaluate the pitch discrimination abilities of young children.
[ Key Words ] Musical sounds, Preschoolers, Pitch discrimination, Evaluation

Imao, Mayumi (Nagoya University). The Process of Mourning in Chronic Illnesses between Early Adolescence to Early Adulthood. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.3, 211-223.
The processes of mourning in chronic illnesses from early adolescence through early adulthood were examined in comparison with a previous study that covered a shorter time span (Imao, 2004). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine adult patients with chronic kidney disease (two males and seven females) who had presented symptoms when they were adolescents. The overall analysis of their life stories supported a stage model as more applicable than a chronic sorrow model. Further analysis revealed that their mourning processes were classified into four categories, according to contents and timing of appearance of symptoms. The results suggested first that the experience and timing of relapse and deterioration were key concepts for differentiation of the mourning process. Specifically, when deterioration in adolescence affected onefs career choice, the process of mourning seemed to play a more important role in identity development. In addition, the establishment of intimacy as a psychosocial task of adult development appeared to have a complex connection to the mourning process. Follow-up research will focus on the psychosocial development in different developmental stages and on mourning over longer time spans.
[ Key Words ] Chronic illness, Mourning process, Adolescence, Early adulthood, Lifespan development

Shirai, Toshiaki (Osaka Kyoiku University), Adachi, Tomoko (Osaka Kyoiku University), Wakamatsu, Yosuke (Shiga University), Shimomura, Hideo (The Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training) & Kawasaki, Tomotsugu (Kansai University). The Effects of Social Trust on the Transition to Society between Adolescence and Adulthood, in Terms of Citizenship. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.3, 224-233.
This study examined whether adolescentsf transition to society is promoted by social trust, i.e., their perception of society as trustworthy. Social trust has been emphasized in terms of citizenship, and based on the assumption that membership in voluntary associations is a central element in the building of society. College and junior college graduates (N8,336) ages 23-39 completed an on-line questionnaire in which social trust was measured by a sentence completion test. The findings first showed that social trust was not only the result of a transition to life in society, but also a cause of the transition. In addition, marriage, income, participantsf college rankings according to the difficulty of entrance examinations, and social capital formed during college, were all positively related to social trust. It appears that the mechanism of social trust as it promotes transition to life in society should be clarified in further research.
[ Key Words ] Transition to life in society, Social trust, Career development, Adolescence, Early adulthood

Matsumoto, Manabu (Maebashi Kyoai Gakuen College). Characteristics of Meaning of Self among People with Cleft Lip and/or Palate. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.3, 234-242.
This study surveyed individuals with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) about the meaning of self and others, under the influence of visible differences due to CLP. Exploratory life story interviews were conducted with 14 participants with CLP, at an outpatient clinic at a universityfs Department of Dentistry. The results revealed the characteristics of the meaning of self and others with CLP, across developmental stages. It appeared that the meaning of self with CLP changed from gawareness of visible difference and functional disorderh in early childhood, to gawareness of difference from othersh in later childhood, to glow self-evaluationh in adolescence, and to gunderstanding of self with CLPh in early adulthood. Further research should be conducted on variations in individual development, and specifically on building developmental support for people with CLP.
[ Key Words ] Cleft lip and/or palate, Visible difference, SelfCLife story interview

Asakawa, Atsushi (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University) & Sugimura, Shinichiro (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University). The Relationship between Finger Dexterity and Numerical Abilities of Young Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.3, 243-250.
Previous research has shown that the performance of children on arithmetic tests was predictable based on their performance on neuro-psychological tests. In this study an experiment was conducted on 5-6 year old children (N48) to clarify the relationship between finger dexterity and numerical abilities. The results showed a significant correlations between finger dexterity and numerical abilities. In addition, the findings remained significant after partialing out the effects of age and performance test scores, or age and short-term memory capacity scores. Moreover, the correlation coefficient between finger dexterity and numerical abilities was greater than the correlation coefficient between short-term memory capacity and numerical abilities. These finding suggested that the relationship between finger dexterity and numerical abilities among preschool children were stronger than was indicated by previous findings.
[ Key Words ] Numerical abilities, Finger dexterity, Finger gnosia, Preschool children

Itoh, Tomoko (Graduate School of Education, Waseda University; Research fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). A Developmental Study of Studentsf Quantification Operations for Probability on a Dice-Rolling Task. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.3, 251-263.
The present study revealed developmental processes in the operations used by students to quantify probability. Junior high school students (n32) and university students (n54) answered questions about the probability of getting particular numbers under various dice-rolling conditions. Developmental stages were identified as follows: Stage‡TA: Basic first-order quantification of probability Stage‡TB: First-order quantification of probability with additive composition Stage‡UA: Basic second-order quantification of probability Stage‡UB: Second-order quantification of probability with additive composition Stage‡VA: Quantification of basic conditional probability Stage‡VB: Quantification of Bayesian conditional probability According to the results, many junior high school students remained at stage‡TA, whereas many university students reached stage‡UA. It seemed difficult for university students to deal with any possible cases needed to reach stage‡UB. Stage‡V required further competence, reversibility of thought, although some students reached stage‡UB.
[ Key Words ] Operations to quantify probability, Developmental stages, To deal any possible cases, Conditional probability, Reversibility of thought

Iwata, Miho (Faculty of Education, Chiba University). Family Communication, Discourse, and a 5-year Old Childfs Participation in Conversations at Dinner Time, during the Childfs Transition to School. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.3, 264-277.
This study investigated family communication in the context of dinner time discourse between a 5-year old boy, his mother, and his two school-age siblings. The focus was on the childfs participation in mother-sibling conversational interactions. The results showed that the childfs verbalizations and mother-child-sibling interactions increased in frequency during the childfs transition to school. From the perspective of pragmatics, ginstructionh increased during the preschool period and the expression of greflective commentaryh increased extending over time. This suggested that not only the period of childfs entry into school but also the preschool period was a time for important family communication. In such communication, the transmission of information about elementary school facilitated the childfs adjustment to school. The child was not effective at first in participating in mother-sibling conversations, but became more capable during the transitional period at conversational interactions and continuing interactions on a theme. In general, sensitivity to the childfs growing ability to engage in discourse was more apparent in the motherfs interactions than in the siblingsf interactions with the child.
[ Key Words ] Discourse, Transition to school, Family communication, Conversation, Longitudinal study

Iizuka Yuki (Ochanomizu University). Interactions of Mothers and Low Birthweight Infants in a Reintegration Situation: Maternal Holding and Infant Behavior. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.3, 278-288.
This study examined interactions between 20 mothers and their low birthweight infants, as observed in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), and focused on how mothers held their babies and the infantsf actions. The mothers and babies had experienced separation by the use of incubators. Holding was a very important modality of interaction between mothers and infants who had experienced separation. The rate of holding was compared between the time immediately after reintegration and immediately before leaving the hospital. During the former period, the rate of horizontal holding was highest, but at the latter point in time the rate of face-to-face holding was highest. This trend suggested a process by which types of holding continued to increase. In addition, frequencies of infant actions increased between the former and latter periods. This indicated a close connection between the process in which mothers add horizontal holding to face-to-face holding, and increased in frequency of infant activities. In consideration of this association, events which occurred before and after holding were used to infer meaning from context. Horizontal holding and face-to-face holding therefore appeared to have different functions.
[ Key Words ] NICU, Low birthweight infant, Holding, Infant behavior, Mother-infant interaction

Li, Sixian (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University), Yuzawa, Masamichi (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University) & Sekiguchi, Michihiko (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University). Differences in Phonological Processing of English Words by Japanese and Chinese Preschoolers. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.3, 289-298.
In Study 1, 32 Japanese and 33 Chinese preschoolers performed phonological awareness tasks on which they were required to recognize onset sounds of one-syllable English words. The words had four different types of phonological structures: CVC, CCVC, CVCC, and VCC (Vowels or Consonants). In Study 2, 15 Japanese preschoolers and 33 Chinese preschoolers repeated aloud same one-syllable English words that were used in Study 1. The following were the main results. Japanese children were better at recognizing onset sounds of one-syllable English words than ware Chinese children, especially when the words had a CCVC or VCC structure. In addition, Chinese children were better at repeating one-syllable English words, whereas Japanese children more often failed to orally repeat one-syllable English words for which they successfully recognized onset sounds, especially when the words had a CCVC or CVCC structure. The results had implications for young childrenfs learning of English sounds.
[ Key Words ] Phonological awareness, Phonological processing , English, Preschoolers, Word repetition

Shoji, Reika (Graduate School of Humanities, Tokyo Metropolitan University). The Meaning-Making Process in Repeated Marital Conflicts among Newlywed Couples. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.3, 299-310.
This research examined coping processes used in unresolved and recurring marital conflicts. It focused on the process of making sense of conflict. Recently married women (N30) participated in a longitudinal e-mail survey and interview about their experiences with marital conflict. Descriptions and narratives were classified according to womenfs reported needs for problem resolution, as either gno need to solve,h gneed to solve if possible,h and gneed to solve.h Qualitative analysis showed that each classification group had a characteristic pattern of meaning-making. The patterns were related to reinterpretations of the conflict events, and to womenfs increased feelings of reliability and familiarity regarding their spouses. The results showed that it is important to consider the process of meaning-making of conflict events, in the study of long-term marital relationships.
[ Key Words ] Long-term relationships, Marital conflict, Married couples, Meaning-making, Longitudinal study

Kinoshita, Yoshiko (Yokohama City University). Childrenfs Judgment of the Legitimacy of Applying Majority Decisions: A Comparative Study between England and Japan.. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.3, 311-323.
This study compared how children in England and Japan judged the legitimacy of applying majority decisions in various situations. Third, 6th and 8th graders, and undergraduates (N240) participated in the study. They were presented with 13 hypothetical situations in which members of a group were having a discussion and were going to make a group decision. Participants judged whether it was appropriate to apply a majority decision in each situation, and were also asked to explain their judgments. Overall, children in both countries understood the limitations of applying majority decisions according to the situation. However, there were some cultural group differences in judgments. In general, English participants approved more of majority decision than did Japanese participants. In addition, Japanese more often gave emotional explanations than did English participants. The results were discussed from the cross-cultural perspective.
[ Key Words ] Group decision-making, Majority decision, Legitimacy judgment, Cross-cultural research, Japan / England

Sakawaki, Takako (Graduate School of Education, Waseda University) & Nakagaki, Akira (Graduate School of Education, Waseda University). Strategies and Conceptual Understanding of Permutation Operations: Focused on the Understanding of Symmetrical Relationship. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.4, 337-350.
The present study investigated the development of permutation operations in terms of both strategies for making permutations and conceptual understanding of permutations. In Study 1, 19 kindergartners, 21 2nd graders, 21 4th graders, 20 6th graders, and 20 8th graders performed tasks such as making permutations and predicting the number of possible permutations and the symmetrical relations (Nakagaki, 1979) of permutations. The results showed that conceptual understanding of permutations gradually develops as a generalized strategy for making permutations across various kinds of problems. In Study 2, the subjects were 47 5th graders. The results of Study 1 were re-examined, and the results of Study 2 confirmed those of Study 1. In previous research, differences in performance across various kinds of permutation problems were explained by quantitative differences in information processing capacity, but the present study explained them in terms of qualitative differences in conceptual understanding.
[ Key Words ] Permutation operation, Developmental stages, Cognitive development, Conceptual understanding, Mathematics

Oshima, Kiyomi (Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University). Motherfs Trust in Her Partner and the Daughterfs Mental Health. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.4, 351-361.
The present study verified how a motherfs trust in her husband affected her daughterfs evaluation of her father, and how the daughterfs evaluation of the father affected her psychological well-being. We questioned 153 couples and their daughters (daughterfs age range17|28 years, mean22.3, SD2.2), and found the following. First, stronger maternal trust in the father was associated with a more positive recognition by the daughter of her relationship with her father. This reflected the motherfs role as a go-between for the father-daughter relationship. Second, recognition of the fatherfs supportive influence helped make the daughter feel prouder of herself, happier, more satisfied, and less likely to feel depressed. In conclusion, the perception of a supportive and positive influence from the father appears to be very important to the well-being of daughters.
[ Key Words ] Husband/wife relationship, Fathering, Father-child relations, Trust, Mental health

Tanaka, Akari (Graduate School of Humanities, Tokyo Metropolitan University). The Relationship between Maternal Emotional Expressivity and Childrenfs Temperament. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.4, 362-372.
The relationship between mothersf emotional expressivity and childrenfs temperament was examined in a sample of 311 mothers of children, ages 3 to 6 years. Mothers completed questionnaires about their own emotional expression (Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire|gSEFQh) and their childrenfs temperament (Children's Behavior Questionnaire|gCBQh). The results were as follows. First, the motherfs expression of positive emotion was related to her childfs degree of self-control, while a motherfs expression of negative emotion was negatively related to her childfs degree of self-control. Second, the motherfs expression of negative emotion was related to her childfs negative emotionality, but her expression of positive emotion was not related to her childfs negative emotionality. Third, maternal expression was not related to her childfs extraversion/ surgency. Finally, each aspect of temperament (self-control, negative emotionality, extraversion/surgency) was mutually and negatively related. The results suggested that mothersf emotional expressivity reflected their role as a regulator of childrenfs emotions. The discussion focused on the role of the environment as an influence on childrenfs temperament.
[ Key Words ] Children, Mother, Temperament, Self-control, Emotional expression

Kobayashi, Sachiko (Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University) & Kitagawa, Tomoko (Wakayama Mental Health Welfare Center). Effects of Mastery on Postnatal Depressive Symptoms in Mothers: The Relationship between Coping and Mastery. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.4, 373-381.
This research examined the effects of mastery on the depressive symptoms of mothers, from the viewpoint of coping. Mastery expresses a sense of control over various events, and was believed to be a psychological factor related to depressive symptoms of mothers. The authors conducted an investigation on depressive symptoms, mastery, coping, and stress. Of the 21 mothers who participated, nine had high mastery while five had low mastery. The results indicated that mothers with high mastery used a considerable amount of problem-focused coping, and did not readily develop depressive symptoms. In addition, these mothers attempted to expand their personal networks; hence, they acquired emotional support from more sources, compared to mothers with low mastery. Finally, it was suggested that even if mastery were high, depression increased when the situation did not improve. The discussion considered a method of intervention and support for mothers with depressive symptoms.
[ Key Words ] Mastery, Depressive symptoms, Coping, Mother, Postnatal depression

Aoki, Satoko (Doctoral Cource,The United Graduate School of Education,Tokyo Gakugei University). Determinants of Co-Parenting in Dual-Earner Couples with 3- to 6-Year Old Children: Child Care Coordination, Sharing and Planning. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.4, 382-392.
This study examined factors related to co-parenting and differences between mothers and fathers, by focusing on the teamwork between mothers and fathers in parenting. Participants were 185 dual-income couples with 3- to 6-year-old children (whether or not the couples had additional children was not considered)DPath analysis of the data for fathers showed that gawareness of the motherfs expectations for co-parenting and consultation by the motherh influenced gmutual understanding and adjustment,h gdivision of the role as the childfs playmate,h and gdivision of care of the child.h In addition, the fatherfs gdegree of positive attitude toward his parenting roleh and gpleasant working environmenth (i.e., coworkers were understanding about child care) were significant predictors of gmutual understanding and adjustmenth and gdivision of care of the child.h Maternal data were consistent with paternal data, demonstrating that gawareness of the fatherfs expectations for co-parentingh and degree of the motherfs positive attitude toward her parenting role influenced gmutual understanding and adjustments, gdivision of the role as the childfs playmateh and gdivision of care of the child.h Finally, mothersf responses indicated that gmutual understanding and adjustmenth regarding parental responsibility was important for the motherfs feeling of support by a gpleasant working environment,h in that it offered support and understanding for people who balance work and parenting.
[ Key Words ] Co-parenting, Preschool-age children, Dual-income couple, Child care, Parental attitudes

Uemiya, Ai (Department of Psychology, Hokkaido University) & Naka, Makiko (Department of Psychology, Hokkaido University). Young Childrenfs Knowledge of Truth and Lie: What They Know and How It Relates to the Behaviour of Telling a Lie. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.4, 393-405.
This study examined the relationship between various levels of the understanding of lies and the action of telling a lie. Children ages 3-6 years (N73) performed five tasks: (1) identification-participants judged whether a statement was a lie or the truth; (2) discrimination-children explained the difference between lies and truth; (3) definition-they explained the meaning of lies and truth; (4) lie/mistake-children discriminated between lies and mistakes; and (5) behavior-examined whether children could tell a lie as they were instructed. The results showed that older children correctly identified statements as a lie or truth, understood that lies and truth were differentCand told a lie as they were so instructed. However, they could not explain the difference between and the notions of lies and truth. Additionally, younger childrenfs lies were not plausible enough to deceive others.
[ Key Words ] Preschoolers, Cognitive development, Conceptual understanding of lies and truth, Lying

Takeo, Kazuko (Tokyo University of Science), Takahashi, Noboru (Osaka Kyoiku University), Yamamoto, Toshiya (Waseda University), Sato, Tatsuya (Ritsumeikan University), Pian, Chengnan (China University of Political Science and Law) & Oh, Seon-Ah (Maebashi Kyoai Gakuen College). Developmental Changes in Parent-Child Relationships, as Mediated by Money as a Cultural Tool. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.4, 406-418.
This study examined developmental processes of parent-child relations, in terms of the give and take of money between children and others. A questionnaire survey was conducted on students in the 5th grade of an elementary school (N134), 2nd grade of a junior high school (N225), and 2nd grade of a high school (N173) in Osaka, Japan. The questions focused on the following points; how children get money, childrenfs actual behavior and consciousness of social norms (judgments of right and wrong), peer relationships, and parent-child relationships, in relation to childrenfs usage of money. The results showed the childrenfs developmental processes of independence from their parents, and the formation of a social self. With age, they increased in their economic strength, purchasing activity, and earning activity, shifted from give and take of money under parental authority to use of money in peer relationships, and became independent of their parentsf consciousness of normsDThese data indicated that the developmental process of children-parent relationships is embedded in collaborative activities, as mediated by cultural tools and artifacts.
[ Key Words ] Money, Pocket money, Parent-child relation, Peer relations, Cultural tool

Kanakogi, Yasuhiro (Graduate School of LettersCKyoto University), Moriguchi, Yusuke (Interfaculty Initiative in Information StudiesCUniversity of Tokyo) & Itakura, Shoji (Graduate School of LettersCKyoto University). The Developmental Link between Introspective Ability and Second-Order-False-Belief Understanding: The Role of Recursive Thinking. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.4, 419-427.
Researchers have investigated young childrenfs awareness of their own mental activity, but have not examined the factors contributing to the development of this introspective ability. The present study tested the hypothesis that recursive cognition about childrenfs own mental states from other peoplefs points of view (second-order false-belief understanding) was related to the development of introspective ability. In an experiment, 7-9 year old children (N52) performed an introspection task and a second-order false-belief task. The results showed that children who passed the second-order false-belief task performed better on the introspection task than those who failed. This finding supported the hypothesis that understanding of second-order mental representation was related to the development of introspective ability. The discussion focused on possible interactions between these abilities, emphasizing the social-cognitive function of recursive thinking.
[ Key Words ] Introspective ability, Second-order false-belief task, Recursive thinking, Theory of mind

Okada, Ryo (Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Nagoya University). Narcissism and Psychological Health in Adolescence: A Meta-Analysis. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.4, 428-436.
Previous studies have reported conflicting findings about relations between narcissism and the psychological health of adolescents. A large-sample meta-analysis examined these relations, and the relations between narcissism and self-esteem. The index of narcissism was limited to the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. The index of psychological health included depression, anxiety, neuroticism, loneliness, and subjective well-being (life satisfaction and positive/negative affect). Relevant studies were obtained by electronic database, literature, and manual searches. This resulted in a sample of 35 studies from 29 articles about psychological health and 74 studies from 48 articles about self-esteem. The estimated population correlations were approximately 0.2 for psychological health and 0.3 for self-esteem. These values suggested that relations between narcissism and psychological health and self-esteem were both relatively weak. Further examination is necessary concerning different aspects of narcissism and psychological health.
[ Key Words ] Narcissism, Psychological health, Self-esteem, Adolescence, Meta-analysis

Ichiyanagi, Tomonori (JSPS Research Fellow, Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo). How Do Students Listen to Othersf Comprehensions of Text in Classroom Discussions? Studentsf Interaction and Immediate Recall. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2009, Vol.20, No.4, 437-446.
The present study examined how children expressed their own comprehension of text and how they listened to othersf comprehension in classroom discussions. Elementary school 5th grade children in two classrooms (Class A: n34, Class B: n33) took part in observations and immediate recall tasks. The results included three main findings: (1) utterances of students who used the words in the text or referred to othersf contributions stimulated other students to listening during discussions; (2) during discussions, teachers allowed students to return to the text, read it, and anticipate it again with specific queries; (3) students interacted actively when teachers revoiced studentsf utterances that were not clearly connected with the text. The frequencies of the studentsf utterances that included words of text or were connected with othersf utterances differed between the two classes. These differences suggest that ground rules for classroom discussion were shared among students and affected their speaking and listening styles.
[ Key Words ] Reading comprehension, Listening to others, Text, Revoicing, Ground rule