ABSTRACT
THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (2010, vol.21)




Aso, Ryota (Graduate School of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu University) & Maruno, Shunichi iFaculty of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu Universityj. The Development of Emotional Understanding: Inferences about the Present Situation and Others' Thoughts. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.1, 1-11.

The present study investigated the development of temporally extended emotional understanding. It was assumed that understanding based on inferences related to the present situation (i) was transferred to inferences about othersf thoughts (ii). (i) referred to inferences about others' emotions derived from cues, i.e., attribution as an emotional cause after receiving an external cue. (ii) referred to inferences about the thoughts of "the other who remembered the past after receiving a cue," whereby the cue was not considered to be an emotional cause. To test this model, 60 3-, 4-, and 5-year olds responded to stories in which they had to understand the emotions of a story character either through (i) or (ii). Participants gave inferences and explanations about the story character's emotions. The results showed that while 3-year olds could reach a temporally extended emotional understanding only through (i), (ii) was possible after 4 years of age.
[ Key Words ] Emotional understanding, Causal attribution, Cueing, Inferences, Preschoolers



Kawasaki, Miho (Kyoto University). Learning to Solve Mathematics Problems: The Impact of Incorrect Solutions in Fifth Grade Peers' Presentations. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.1, 12-22.

The present research examined how elementary school children learned from other children's solutions to mathematics problems. Participants were 170 fifth-grade elementary school students. The children solved mathematics problems that they had not yet learned, according to a pretest. Upon completion of the tasks, one participant presented his/her solution to the class, and then their teacher explained the correct solution. In the Correct-Correct condition, one of the children presented a correct solution ; in the Incorrect-Correct condition, one of the children presented an incorrect solution. Finally, children solved similar problems on a post-test. The results showed that the Incorrect-Correct condition was especially beneficial for those who had used the same solution as that presented by a peer. This finding suggested that contrasting a correct solution and an incorrect solution was helpful for children who used one of these solutions, because it promoted meta-cognitive understanding of the correct solution.
[ Key Words ] Peer relations, Elementary school, Problem-solving, Mathematics, Meta-cognition



Sonoda, Naoko (Kurume University) & Maruno, Shunichi (Kyushu University). Developmental Change in Strategies for Weight Seriation, from Perceptual Operations to Transitive Inferences. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.1, 23-35.

This study examined developmental changes in transitive inferences by analyzing strategies for solving a weight seriation task. Participants (134 children ages 5-12 years, and 17 university students) performed under two experimental conditions. In Condition A, participants could use kinetic perceptual cues. In Condition B, participants were not allowed to use such cues, and therefore could only employ formal transitive inferences. The results clarified the change between the stage of perceptual operations to the stage of using formal transitive inferences. Seven-year olds could solve the task in Condition A, but only children from age 12 were able to solve the task in Condition B. In addition, to employ a formal transitive inference participants had to compare elements in two forms (lighter and heavier) with a fixed anchor. Finally, university students selected from a variety of strategies for different tasks. These results were consistent with the overlapping waves model iSiegler, 1996j.
[ Key Words ] Weight seriation, Transitive inference, Perceptual operation, Strategy, Cognitive development



Takata, Toshitake (Miyagi-Gakuin Women's University). An Observational Study of Social Comparison by Kindergarten Children in Japanese Culture. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.1, 36-45.

Kindergarten children (68 boys and 67 girls) were observed in a naturalistic setting, to clarify the contents and functions of social comparison activity in Japanese culture. Each social comparison statement or behavior was categorized for content iability, possession, status, activity, or trait) and form (referencing, cognitive clarity, direct evaluative, indirect self evaluative, indirect other evaluative, similarity, competitive, or modeling). The results indicated that (1) older preschoolers, especially girls, were more engaged in a referencing form of social comparison; (2) they engaged considerably in the evaluative form of social comparisons, direct or indirect; and (3) boys engaged in comparison more with the competitive function and less with the similarity function, compared with girls. These findings were discussed in terms a Japanese cultural view of self..
[ Key Words ] Social comparison, Kindergarten, Japanese, Referencing function, Evaluative function, Modeling



Sugai, YokoiGraduate School of Human Life Science, Japan Women's Universityj, Akita, KiyomiiGraduate School of Education, University of Tokyoj, Yokoyama, MakikoiGraduate School of Education, Nara University of Educationj & Nozawa, SachikoiGraduate School of Education, University of Tokyoj. A Developmental Study of Pointing during Joint Picture Book Reading: A Longitudinal Study Comparing Picture Book Reading and Building Block Construction Settings. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.1, 46-57.

This research examined the development of children's pointing behavior and joint attention during mother-child reading of picture book reading. Twenty children and their mothers were studied longitudinally at ages 18, 30, and 36 months. The study compared pointing behavior between picture book reading settings and building block settings. The main findings were as follows. First, the frequency of mother-child interaction was greater in the picture book setting than in the building block setting. Second in the picture book setting the frequency of child's pointing gradually decreased between 18, 30, and 36 months of age. It was suggested that this downward trend for pointing would continue in children over the age of 36 months. Finally, in the picture book setting, mothers and children pointed not only to pictures and letters on the page but also to objects in the real world, which led to discovery of new objects. These results revealed the important characteristics of pointing during joint picture book reading.
[Key Words] Pointing, Joint attention, Picture book reading, Building block construction, Mother-child communication



Ujiie, Tatsuoi Nagoya Universityj, Ninomiya, Katsumii Aichi Gakuin Universityj, Igarashi, Atsushii Fukushima Universityj, Inoue, Hiromitsu iChiba College of Health Sciencej, Yamamoto, Chika iCollege of Nagoya Bunri Universityj, Shima, Yoshihiroi Nagoya Universityj. Parental Behavior and Children's Perceptions as Mediators of the Effects of Marital Conflict on Children's Depressive Symptoms. THE JAPANASE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.1, 58-70.

This study examined how marital conflicts affected depressive symptoms of middle school children, based on a sample of children and their parents in Aichi and Fukushima Prefectures (N=2,038 trios). In previous studies two alternative types of mediating models had been proposed and tested alternatively: (1) a marital conflict spillover parental behavior model, and (2) a child perception/reactivity model. The present study incorporated these two mediating models into a single model. The results indicated that parental marital conflict indirectly affected children's depressive symptoms. Marital conflicts affected parents' harshness toward their children, and the effects of parental harshness were mediated by children's perception of the parents as cold. Previous studies had shown that children's sex mediated the influence of marital conflict on children's depression, but the present study suggested that the predictive model applied to both girls and boys.
[ Key Words ] Middle school children, Depression, Spousal relationship, Parent-child relations, Marital conflict



Itoh, Tomoko (Graduate School of Education, Waseda University; Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). A Developmental Analysis of Modes of Reasoning on the Bayesian Drawing-of-Lots Problem Using Number Format, Frequency Format and Probability Format. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.1, 71-82.

Junior high school students and university students responded to the Bayesian Drawing-of-Lots Problem using three formats of information: a number format iItoh, 2008j, a frequency format, and a probability format based on Gigerenzer's ie.g., 1991j criticism of the heuristics and biases approach ie.g., Kahneman & Tversky, 1973j. A developmental analysis showed that regardless of formats:i1j correct answer rates were low;i2j few participants committedg base-rate neglect";i3j even university students often committedg joint occurrence," i.e., confusion of PiH|Dj with Pi H&Dj; andi4j there was a developmental difference in levels of answers between junior high school students and university students. The results suggested that the fundamental reason for difficulty with the Bayesian problem was in the structure of the problem, i.e., a participant competence factor. Difficulties may not have been due to performance factors such as how problems were represented although Gigerenzeri e.g., 1991j suggested that difficulties were due to such factors.
[ Key Words ] Bayesian problem-solving, Problem format, Operations to quantify probability, Competence factor, Performance factor



Shojima, Sachiko (National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health). A Mother's Retelling of Experiences about Her Childfs Desire to Live with Another Gender. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.1, 83-94.

This paper presents a case study of a mother ("M") whose child ("A") told her that she had a gender identity disorder and wished to live as a male after undergoing sex reassignment surgery. Longitudinal interviews were conducted 3 times over an 18-month period, beginning two years after A's coming-out. The perspectives adopted for analysis were (1) the process by which M retold her experiences with A, (2) M's self-narrative in retelling her experiences with A, (3) M's reconstruction of the narrative during the interviews. The A-M relationship improved across the 18-month period of interviews. Overall, the process of M retelling her experiences was related to a reorganization of her life experiences, and addressed the fundamental issue of her existence as A's mother. In generating M's narrative, the existence of others (peer and interviewer) was important. It appeared that M's retelling of remorse reflected her lifespan development as a mother, rather than sequential stages of parental adjustment. In addition, the role of the interviewer was understood as helping to elicit M's narrative.
[ Key Words ] Mother-daughter relations, Narrative, Transgender/Gender Identity Disorder, Coming-out, Life-span development



Nakashima, Nobuko (Niigata University). Young Children's Understanding of Changes in Physical Appearance Associated with Old Age. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.1, 95-105.

This study investigated children's understanding of changes in physical appearance in old age, e.g., wrinkles, gray hair, and hair loss. Participants were four- (n=26) and 5-year-olds (n=33), and adults (n=24). Most 5-year-olds (but not 4-year olds) understood that people were likely to exhibit changes in wrinkles and hair in old age, more than the changes in body size typically observed between childhood and early adulthood. In addition, most 5-year-olds and adults, but not 4-year olds, chose internal bodily causes (e.g., decreased vital power to grow hair) rather than artificial external causes (e.g., losing hair by cutting) or psychological causes (e.g., hair loss due to anxiety) as explanations for age-related changes in old age. These results suggested that understanding of changes associated with old age changes dramatically between ages 4 and 5. These developmental changes were discussed in terms of young children's naive biology, and acquisition of vitalistic causality.
[ Key Words ] Conceptual development, Naive biology, Understanding of aging, Vitalistic causality, Early childhood



Miyazato, KaoruiThe Graduate School of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu Universityj, Maruno, ShunichiiThe Faculty of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu Universityj& Hori, KenichiroiShimonoseki Junior Collegej. The Effects of Interactions with an Adult Based on Body Movement, on Children's Metaphor Comprehension. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.1, 106-117.

This study examined the underlying reasons for children's ability to comprehend abstract metaphors in symbolic play situations. Children ages 4 to 6 were assigned to 4 experimental conditions and asked to comprehend metaphors based on non-verbal contextual cues. Under the condition of interactions based on bodily movement, children interacted with an experimenter using the body. In the condition of interactions using dolls, they interacted with an experimenter using dolls. In the moving dolls condition, they moved dolls according to a story. Finally, in the condition of watching immobile dolls, they listened to a story while watching immobile dolls. The results indicated that children could comprehend psychological metaphors more properly under the condition of interactions using the body than under the other conditions. It was suggested, with caution and based on further analysis, that emotions help children to comprehend psychological metaphors.
[ Key Words ] Metaphor Comprehension, Early childhood, Kinesthesia, Emotions, Adult-child interactions



Imao, Mayumi (Nagoya University).The Mourning Process of Young and Middle-Aged Adults with Chronic Illnesses. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21,No.2,125-137.

The hypothesis of the present study was that there would be two different types of mourning processes among young and middle-aged adults with chronic illnesses. Specifically, it was predicted that chronic illness would either result in serious emotional torment or be accepted, along with a decline in physical ability with aging. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six males and five females who had first developed symptoms of chronic kidney disease as adults (ages 39-55 years). Participants were classified into three groups according to the appearance of the mourning process and intensity of emotional torment. In addition to the two predicted types, a third type was characterized by mild denial. The existence of severe symptoms, difficulties before illness, and experiences with the illness or death of their own parents or other intimates, all contributed to differences in classification. Further research should focus on patientsf experiences with sickness or death involving intimates, as an important influence on their experience with chronic illness.
[ Key Words ] Chronic illness, Mourning, Early adulthood, Middle adulthood, Lifespan development



Shi, Xiaoling & Katsurada,Emiko (School of Humanities Department of Integrated Psychological Sciences, Kwansei Gakuin University). Distress of Mothers with Young Children, in Relation to Their Interdependent/Independent Self-Construal and Social Support. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.2, 138-146.

Maternal self-construal was regarded as a cognitive variable that influences distress, according to Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) stress model. Mothers of 2-6 year-old children (N =272) completed a questionnaire. A regression analysis indicated that independent self-construal related negatively and their interdependent self-construal positively to distress, controlling for perceived social support. However, mothers' independent/ interdependent self-construal was not related to their perceived social support. These results suggest the need for a new approach to alter mothers' self-construal to reduce their distress.
[ Key Words ] Independent/Interdependent self-construal, Mothersf distress, Parenting, Social support



Sato, Yu ( Jyuai Hospital) & Sakurai, Mio (Setagaya Educational Counseling Room). Features of Self in the Autobiography of an Individual with a Pervasive Developmental Disorder. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.2, 147-157.

The goals of this research were to reveal the inner self (inner world) and to clarify the self-concept acquisition process, based on an analysis of 311 episode segments from the autobiography of an individual with a pervasive developmental disorder. The episodes were analyzed using the KJ (Kawakita Jiro) method. The results indicated that participants' nature of self was essentially similar to the self-awareness structure of average adolescents. However, difficulties specific to developmental disorder also became apparent, e.g., vulnerable sense of self and difficulty with self-cognition in interpersonal relationships. As a result, a crisis in loss of self was frequently experienced. These data suggest the possibility that the difficulties themselves functioned as a strategy to solve crises.
[ Key Words ] Pervasive developmental disorder, Self, Autobiography, Vulnerability, Self-cognition



Mukai, Takahisa (Kyushu University) & Maruno, Shunichi (Kyushu University). Development of Concepts of the Origin of Psychological Traits: A New Framework to Perceive Conceptual Change. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.2, 158-168.

This study examined the validity and effectiveness of an alternative view of conceptual understanding. From this viewpoint, in contrast with the traditional view, concepts come into existence only when the concept and the contextual situation are constructed in an integrated and mutually consistent manner. An experiment was conducted with children in elementary school grades 2-6, to determine whether different concepts about the origin of psychological traits arise according to task conditions (a "switched-at-birth" task and "foster child choice" task). The results showed that for the foster child choice task (unlike the switched-at-birth task) most of the lower and upper elementary school children considered both nature and nurture as the origin of traits. The tentative conclusion based on these data was that conceptual understanding of the origin of traits was constructed temporarily and changed constantly in a manner consistent with the context. Further discussion concerned the efficacy of this new view of conceptual change, i.e., that concept and context are constructed in an interdependent and mutually consistent manner.
[ Key Words ] Conceptual change, Developmental change, Context, Elementary school children, Psychological traits



Ishikawa, Takayuki (Department of Child Education, Seibo Jogakuin Junior College). Guilt and Adjustment of Elementary School Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.2, 200-208.

This study assessed the guilt and school adjustment of 4th-6th grade Japanese children iN =367j. Children were asked how they would feel in guilt-inducing incidents, comparing two different situations (interpersonal vs. rule-breaking) and two different behavioral patterns (joining the action vs. taking a bystander attitude). Children reported that they would feel guiltier joining the action than taking a bystander attitude, in both situations. Fourth graders felt more guilt than 6th graders for both behavioral patterns, and females were more likely to feel guilt than male children at all grade levels. There was also a positive correlation between school adjustment and guilt, across all grades and both genders, whereas a correlation between guilt and the sub-scale category ofg classmate relationsh was found for only sixth graders. These results suggest that children who are prone to feel guilty are likely to be better adjusted to school.
[ Key Words ] Elementary school childrenCGuiltCSchool adjustmentCInterpersonal relations, Rule-breaking



Kosaka, Yasumasa (Wako University). Romantic Relationships and Ego Identity Formation among University Students and Their Lovers. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.2, 182-191.

University students (N=212) responded to 40 questions regarding the effects of romantic relationships, 18 questions about their degree of ego identity formation, and 18 questions about their loversf degree of ego identity formation. Results of an Analysis of Variance indicated that the degree of ego identity formation was related to "restrictions of time," while degree of ego identity formation in their lovers was related to "self-expansion," "fulfillment," and "limitations of communication with others."
[ Key Words ] Romantic relationships, Ego identity, University students



Nakagawa, Ai (Minatogawa College, Hyogo University of Teacher Education) & Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko (Hyogo University of Teacher Education). The Effects of Experience on Students' Infant-Directed Behavior and Speech. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.2, 192-199.

This study compared the infant-directed behavior and speech of female university students who were experienced (n=16) vs. inexperienced (n=14) with babies. Speech and physical behavior directed at a four month-old baby and at an adult were recorded and analyzed. Experienced students displayed a larger variety of infant-directed behavior, and were better able to keep the infant from fussing, compared with inexperienced students. The experienced students also used a larger variety of words that are commonly used by mothers, e.g., imitating the baby's voice and talking for the baby. In addition, infant-directed speech was characterized by significantly higher frequency sounds and was slower, compared to adult-directed speech. These results suggest that students' interactions with babies (behavior, words, and speech) depend on their past experiences.
[ Key Words ] Infant-directed behavior, Infant-directed speech, Behavioral analysis, Speech analysis



Ishikawa, Takayuki (Department of Child Education, Seibo Jogakuin Junior College). Guilt and Adjustment of Elementary School Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.2, 200-208.

This study assessed the guilt and school adjustment of 4th-6th grade Japanese children iN =367j. Children were asked how they would feel in guilt-inducing incidents, comparing two different situations (interpersonal vs. rule-breaking) and two different behavioral patterns (joining the action vs. taking a bystander attitude). Children reported that they would feel guiltier joining the action than taking a bystander attitude, in both situations. Fourth graders felt more guilt than 6th graders for both behavioral patterns, and females were more likely to feel guilt than male children at all grade levels. There was also a positive correlation between school adjustment and guilt, across all grades and both genders, whereas a correlation between guilt and the sub-scale category of "classmate relations" was found for only sixth graders. These results suggest that children who are prone to feel guilty are likely to be better adjusted to school.
[ Key Words ] Elementary school childrenCGuiltCSchool adjustmentCInterpersonal relations, Rule-breaking



Massaki, Manami (Dai 5 Haketa Elementary School) & Shibayama, Makoto (Otsuma Womenfs University). Ethnography of Childrenfs Self-Regulative Behaviors in Gymnastics Classes: Differences between Children Who Go to Japanese Schools and International Schools. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010,Vol.21,No.3,221-231.

Previous research has shown that children develop self-regulative behaviors through infancy. The purpose of this fieldwork was to show different types of self-regulation among children participating in gymnastics class activities. Three children at an international school and five children at a Japanese school (ages 6-9 years) were observed 23 times between July 2006 and March 2007. The foreign-born international schoolchildren displayed more varieties of self-assertion than did the Japanese schoolchildren, and also exhibited strategies in the form of self-assertive behavior categories. On the other hand, nativeborn Japanese pupils used self-regulative behaviors in a wider variety of situations than did international school pupils. The Japanese children exhibited self-assertive and self-inhibitive behaviors that were recognizable as both self-assertion and selfinhibition.
[ Key Words ] Self-regulation, Ethnography, Japanese schoolchildren, International schoolchildren



Ogawa, Ayako iGraduate School of Education, Kyoto Universityj & Koyasu, Masuo iGraduate School of Education, Kyoto Universityj. The Relationship between the Levels of Explanation of Anotherfs False Action and Executive Function in Young Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010,Vol.21,No.3,232-243.

Recent studies on childrenfs theory of mind have revealed that development of executive function (EF) is a factor which contributes to childrenfs developing understanding of false-beliefs. Perner et al. (2002) showed that performance on the conflict inhibition task was correlated with not only performance on the false-belief prediction task but also performance on the false-belief explanation task. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Japanese preschoolersf ability to explain the other personfs wrong action on the standard unexpected transfer task and their capacity with the executive function. Seventy children, ages 3 to 5, were given the false-belief prediction and explanation task, a receptive vocabulary task, and executive function tasks. The results showed that high working memory capacity enabled children to explain another personfs wrong action adequately. In addition, low conflict inhibition capacity enabled a child to not inhibit story information about an objectfs location.
[ Key Words ] False-belief, Explanation question, Executive function, Working memory, Conflict inhibition



Shiwa, Taiko iGraduate School of Education, Kyoto Universityj. The Distinction between Young Childrenfs Understanding of Intentions and False-Beliefs on a Word-Learning Task. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010,Vol.21,No.3,244-253.

The present study investigated whether Japanese 3-, 4- and 5-year-olds were better at tracking a speakerfs intentions and her / his false-beliefs. At question was whether children were better at learning a novel word on a word-learning task, compared with their predictions of another personfs action on a false-belief test. The results revealed that on a word-learning task children chose the correct toy based on a strong connection between the speaker and her / his novel toy, without using a representation of the speakerfs false-belief, because they were able to infer her /his communicative intention as their common goal in the context of language communication. As 3- and 4-year-olds were significantly better at tracking a speakerfs intentions than a speakerfs false-beliefs and an actorfs intentions ian actorfs false-beliefsj, their understanding of speakerfs intentions in the domain of language communication was distinguished from their understanding of an actorfs intentions in the domain of action prediction. However, childrenfs ways of understanding a speakerfs false-beliefs were not different from their ways of understanding an actorfs false-beliefs.
[ Key Words ] Word-learning task, False-belief, Representation, Communicative intention



Mizumoto, Mikii Graduate School of Literature, Aoyama Gakuin Universityj & Yamane, Ritsukoi Department of Education, Psychology and Human Studies, Aoyama Gakuin Universityj. Mother-Daughter Distance and the Psychological Adjustment and Autonomy of Emerging Adult Daughters. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21,No.3,254-265.

The mother-daughter relationship can be a particularly close relationship, and this paper focuses on the development of female emerging adults who are gaining autonomy. Pairs of female university students in=173j and their mothers in=149j participated in a questionnaire survey about the effect of the distance between mothers and their emerging adult daughters on the daughterfs psychological adjustment and autonomy. The girls were first categorized into four types based on a profile of their distance from mothers and daughtersf autonomy itermed as connected, dependent, detached, and autonomous typesj. Regarding these types, there were not only quantitative features such as near vs. far, but also qualitative features related to daughtersf agency in the distance, and related to daughtersf autonomy and adjustment. Next, disparities in perceptions of the distance between mothers and daughters were examined. The data suggested individual differences in relation to emotional bonds and their effects on girlsfautonomy and adjustment, and developmental aspects of the motherdaughter relationship in relation to changes in daughtersf autonomy.
[ Key Words ] Emerging adulthood, Mother-daughter distance, Autonomy, Psychological adjustment, Disparity of perception of distance



Fukase, YukoiGraduate School of Education, Hiroshima Universityj& Okamoto, YukoiGraduate School of Education, Hiroshima Universityj. Psychosocial Tasks of the Elderly: A Reconsideration of the Eighth Stage of Eriksonfs Epigenetic Scheme. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010,Vol.21,No.3,266-277.

This study investigated the eight psychosocial tasks of the epigenetic scheme in a sample of elderly Japanese, and compared the tasks to those outlined by Erikson, Erikson, and Kivnick i1986j. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on 20 Japanese i11 males and 9 females, age range=65 ? 86, mean age=74.15, SD =5.59jusing the same method as in Erikson et al. Qualitative analyses revealed that all psychosocial tasks of the elderly were structured as positive isyntonicj, negative idystonicj, and neutral. The following psychosocial tasks were revealed: integrity vs. denial / regret iVIIIj, grandgenerativity vs. distance between generations / denial of influence by younger generation iVIIj, relationship continuity vs. relationship cessation when in crisisi VIj, firm self vs. wavering selfi Vj, pleasure vs. inferiority complexi IVj, challenge vs. loss of purposei IIIj, internal / external ego autonomy vs. renouncement of ego autonomyi IIj, and appreciation vs. mistrust iIj. These findings suggest that although there are variations among elderly individuals, they change the meanings of their various activities and relationships to emphasize maintenance over progression of activities / relationships. In addition, they review their life experiences to create a new self.
[ Key Words ] Elderly, Psychosocial task, Epigenetic scheme, E.H. Erikson, Ego integrity vs. despair



Ishimoto, Yuma iGraduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University /General Education Center, Itami Cityj. The Influence of a Sense of Ibasho on Psychological and School Adjustment in Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010,Vol.21,No.3,279-287.

This questionnaire study focused on two dimensions of Japanese ibasho isense of interpersonal rootednessj: ?sense of authenticity" and ?sense of self-usefulness." Relationships between the participants and their families, friends, classmates and lovers were examined with regard to sense of ibasho , psychological adjustment and school adjustment. Participants were 188 university students and 384 junior high school students. Factors of ibasho which influenced psychological adjustment and school adjustment depended on the type of relationship. In family relationships, ibasho had a positive influence on junior high schooli but not collegej studentsf psychological adjustment. In addition, sense of ibasho had a positive impact on junior high school studentsf school adjustment across most of their relationships, but did not have such an influence on university studentsf school adjustment. In junior high school, a sense of authenticity in family relationships exerted a positive influence on boysf school adjustment, while sense of authenticity in relationships with friends had this influence only on girlsf school adjustment. Thus, ibasho appears to vary in its influence according to different relationships, as well as by age and gender.
[ Key Words ] Ibasho , Authenticity, Self-usefulness, Relationship with friends, School adjustment



Yamauchi, Hoshiko iGraduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University; Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Sciencej. The Effect of the Mothersf Emotional Traits on Adolescents: From the Perspective of a Dual Process Theory of Emotion. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010,Vol.21,No.3,288-296.

The first mechanism by which emotional traits of mothers affect those of their adolescent children is through learning at a cognitive level. Here, mothersf cognitive appraisal styles, which precede emotional elicitation, affect their childrenfs cognitive appraisal styles through linguistic interaction. The second mechanism is through learning at the behavioral level, whereby mothersf emotional traits directly affect adolescentsf emotions through associative learning from mothersf emotional expressions. Structural equitation modeling of data from 97 pairs of high school students and their mothers i194 participantsj showed that learning at the cognitive level occurred for four emotions ianger, sadness, anxiety, and shamej. However, learning at the behavioral level did not occur for any particular emotion. The results indicate that adolescentsf emotional traits develop through linguistic interaction with their mothers, based on cognitive appraisals. The data seem to support the development of a new approach to prevent maladaptive emotional traits.
[ Key Words ] Emotional trait, Cognitive appraisal, Dual process theory of emotion, Structural equitation modeling



Uchida, Nobukoi Graduate School of Humanities and Science, Ochanomizu Universityj& Kobayashi, Ayui Graduate School of Humanities and Science, Ochanomizu Universityj. The Development of Young Childrenfs Understanding of Stranger Danger:A New Developmental Approach to Safety and Prevention Education. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.4, 311-321.

Protecting children from kidnappers is an upmost issue for society. The goal of this study was to examine which cognitive functions are related to childrenfs ability to detect danger and protect themselves from crimes such as kidnapping. In Experiment 1, preschoolers were shown a series of stories in which a child was asked to come, for various reasons with either a stranger or a familiar person. The urgency level of the story was also varied, from high to low. Results showed that there was a significant difference between four-year olds and five-year olds. The four-year olds could not detect the strangerfs evil intention and made decision on the basis of the urgency, and hence were unable to avoid the risk of being kidnapped. In contrast, five-year olds inferred the strangerfs intention and were able to avoid the risk. The age difference can be attributed to a qualitative developmental difference in childrenfs cognitive functions, including meta-cognition, display rules, and planning ability. In Experiment 2, we attempted to teach children how they should behave to avoid the risk of being kidnapped. Results indicated that when they were taught carefully, even four-year olds could understand why they should not follow a stranger. In designing a prevention program to teach young children how to avoid risks in everyday life, it is important to provide instructions that are suitable for childrenfs cognitive level.
[ Key Words ] Preschoolers, Stranger danger situation, Safety-prevention program, Kidnapping, Cognitive development



Shimizu, Yuki iFaculty of Education, Saitama Universityj. Do Children Give Priority to Danger Avoidance or Prosocial Behavior? : A Fundamental Study on the Design of Safety Education. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.4, 322-331.

This study examined the development of strategies which children use between five and eight years of age, when faced with a dilemma of exhibiting prosocial behavior or avoiding a dangerous stranger. Participants were 85 children who were individually shown stories depicting a situation in which they were asked for help by a stranger. Results showed that children of both age groups (five- and seven-year olds) gave priority to danger avoidance. However, they were vulnerable to approaches made by strangers when the strangerfs request was consistent with the childfs desire. In addition, a positivity bias among young children formed the basis for their compliance with the strangerfs request. These results have implications for the safety education of children in the transitional period between preschool and elementary school.
[ Key Words ] Danger perception, Prosocial behavior, Safety education, Stranger danger



Ejiri, Keiko iIbaraki Christian Universityj. The Development of How Children Deal with Stranger Danger: A New Approach to Safety Education Based on Developmental Psychology. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.4, 332-341.

This study explored the development of childrenfs ability to cope with so-called stranger danger situations. Participants were 4- and 5-year old preschoolers and 6- and 7-year old school children (N=166). They were each shown four picture-stories of children in encounters with familiar and unfamiliar adults. After each story was presented, participants were asked what they would do if they were the child in the story, and why. Responses to the questions were analyzed, and the results indicated that 4- and 5-year old preschoolers were still vulnerable to dangers posed by strangers, although some of them showed wariness and understanding of the danger. In addition, 6- and 7-year old school children understood the potential dangers posed by strangers and knew how to avoid them. These findings are discussed in relation to prevention programs for preschoolers and school children.
[ Key Words ] Prevention program, Stranger danger, Safety education, Cognitive development, Child development



Sugimura, Tomokoi Fukuoka University of Educationj. Eyewitness Recall of a Real Life Event: The Effect of Verbal Descriptions on the Accuracy of Facial Identification by Young Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.4, 342-352.

This study investigated whether the phenomenon of verbal overshadowing iSchooler & Engstler-Schooler, 1990j was observable in the accuracy of facial recognition by young children. Children ages 3-6 years i18 boys and 19 girls, M=5:4j watched a live event in which a female storyteller and a male assistant performed a picture-story show. Approximately 24 hours after witnessing the event, the children were asked to recall what the event was like and were given facial identification tests for the two targets, under either description or control conditions. In the description condition, participants gave a verbal description of features of the face and hairstyle preceding the facial identification tests. The data showed that children in the description condition tended to be less accurate in facial recognition and that their descriptions of the person were uninformative. These results are discussed in relation to cognitive processes underlying the verbal-overshadowing effect and practical issues related to eyewitness testimony by young children.
[ Key Words ] Young children, Eyewitness memory, Facial identification, Verbal overshadowing



Okamoto, Yoriko (Shohoku College), Sugano, Yukie (Aoyama Gakuin Womenfs Junior College), Shoji, Reika (University of Yamanashi), Yagishita, Akiko (Graduate School of Cultural Studies and Human Science, Kobe University), Aoki, Yayoi (Matsuyama Shinonome Junior College), Ishikawa, Ayuchi (Aichi Prefecture Child Guidance Center), Kamei, Miyako (Research and Education Center for Life Span Development, Shirayuri College), Kawata, Manabu (Faculty of Education, Kagawa University) & Takahashi, Chie (Faculty of Regional Science, Tottori University). Parentsf Concerns for the Safety of Their Children: A Longitudinal Study from the Prenatal Period through Early Elementary School. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.4, 353-364.

How do parentsf concerns about the safety of their children change as children grow up? Ten mothers were interviewed longitudinally from their period of pregnancy through their childrenfs early elementary school years. Narratives from the interview were analyzed. In Analysis 1, narrative themes were first identified. We then explored how mothers think about their children as victims or offenders, and how the mothers bring reality to their concerns over time. In Analysis 2, each narrative was analyzed qualitatively. The results showed that mothers focused on criminal incidents from their period of pregnancy through the childfs first year of life, as well as on accidents, peer conflicts, and sibling conflicts from ages 1-5 years, and on criminal incidents again in the early elementary school years. These results also showed that narratives about incidents for school age children were different from those for the prenatal period. Finally, the discussion focused on the hardness of children in their transition to elementary school.
[ Key Words ] Child safety, Child-rearing, Transition to elementary school, Longitudinal study



Naka, Makiko iGraduate School of Letters, Hokkaido Universityj. Childrenfs Descriptions of Positive and Negative Feelings: Use of Emotional Words under Safe and Unsafe Conditions. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.4, 365-374.

Feelings and emotions are essential elements of an event, even in a forensic context. The aim of this study was to explore how children come with age to describe feelings in situations that are relevant to child protection and child safety. A total of 127 children, ages 3-12 years, were presented with depictions of scenes in which dolls underwent difficulties such as being bullied, left alone, scolded unfairly, etc. Children were then asked to describe the dollfs feelings. Although one-third of preschoolersf responses were gdonft know,h children became able with age to describe feelings in terms of internal states, mentioning behavior iHe is in troublej and intentions iHe wants to get out of troublej, and by asking questions iWhy was he caught in trouble?j Expressions of negative emotions isad, unhappyj were more diverse compared to expressions of positive feelings ihappy, funj, in accordance with previous research. Limitations of possible applications of the results to forensic investigative interviews were discussed.
[ Key Words ] Emotion words, Affective development, Preschoolers, School children, Forensic interview



Fujii, Yoshihisa iCenter for Liberal Arts Education and Research, Iwate Prefectural Universityj. A Developmental Study on Crime Anxiety and Crime Prevention Consciousness in Elementary School Students. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.4, 375-385.

This research reports the development and evaluation of a Crime Anxiety Scale and Crime Prevention Consciousness Scale, which were considered to be useful for crime prevention education in elementary school. School children in four elementary schools in Iwate Prefecture and three schools in Tokyo participated in the studyi N=1292; 662 boys and 630 girls; 4th to 6th gradesj. The 30-item school child version of the Crime Anxiety Scale was developed by item analysis and factor analysis. It consisted of three subscales:g anxiety about suspicious people,hg anxiety when going outdoors,h andg anxiety about crime situations.h Next, a 30-item Crime Prevention Consciousness of School Cchildren Scale was developed. It consisted of 6 subscales:g risk aversion,hg crime prevention counter-measures when outdoors,hg crime prevention countermeasures at home,hg communication,hg carelessnessh andg attention.h A study using the scales indicated the following. First, the level of crime anxiety and crime prevention consciousness of girls was higher than among boys. In addition, as the school grade increased these levels of anxiety and consciousness became significantly lower. Second, there were correlations between levels of crime anxiety and crime prevention consciousness. Path analysis suggested that for boys a general rise in level of crime anxiety led to a raise in crime prevention consciousness, such as observation of onefs surroundings. However, among girls only high crime anxiety when they went outdoors was connected with increased crime prevention consciousness.
[ Key Words ] Elementary school, Crime prevention education, Crime anxiety, Crime prevention consciousness



Negayama, Koichi iFaculty of Human Sciences, Waseda Universityj. Reactions of Children and Parents to an Earthquake, from the Viewpoint of eKowakaref (Mutual Autonomy). THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.4, 386-395.

This research analyzed the immediate reactions of 315 children i176 boys, 136 girls; 166 first-bornj aged 0 -16 years imean=6.1, SD =2.4j to a major earthquake in January 1995 that killed more than 6,400 people. It examined childrenfs ability to avoid hazards from sudden natural disasters. The earthquake onset was at 5: 46 AM; 75.2“ of the children were reportedly asleep in the same room with their parent isj at the moment and 10.5“ were alone. Parents were surprised by the earthquake, but many childrenfs reactions were much weaker. About 30“ of them reported little or no surprise, and even slept through the moment. Younger children had less of a reaction, and a frightened reaction was more notable after 7 years of age. Parentsf typical reaction was to make bodily contact by embracing or lying over their children, and many grasped the hands of older children. The reactions of the children and parents were interpreted as developmental indicators of childrenfs autonomous coping and Kowakareimother-offspring mutual autonomyj.
[ Key Words ] Earthquake, Coping, Development of autonomy, Parental protectiveness, Kowakare



Miyata, Mieko (Faculty of Integrated Arts and Social Sciences, Japan Womenfs University). Research on Childrenfs Recognition of a Crisis, and Escape When They Encounter a Dangerous Person. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2010, Vol.21, No.4, 396-404.

Safety of children from crime has become an urgent need in Japanese society. In particular, criminal acts against elementary school children have increased. Therefore, police and regional authorities are taking various measures and safety education is now starting to be promoted in schools and at home. However, data are lacking on the characteristics or tendencies of children, e.g., how they recognize an uncomfortable feeling or assess risks from strangers, how they react when they encounter an unexpected scene of pre-criminal or criminal acts, and when they believe urgent action is required. Given that we have little information on whether or not there are developmental or sex differences in recognition of crises, safety education research has begun to be disseminated. The present research focused on the behavioral characteristics of children in emergencies, including recognition of strangers and crisis escape strategies. The main emphasis was on what makes children uncomfortable and how they understand a crisis. New directions for safety education are suggested by the present data.
[ Key Words ] Crime, Safety education, Developmental stage, Emergency behavior, Risk recognition, Child safety