Tada, Yukiko (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University) & Sugimura, Shinichiro (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University). Children's Use of an Array-intrinsic Frame of Reference: Examination by a Reorientation Task in a Tabletop Model Space. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.1, 1-10.

Recently an array-intrinsic frame of reference has drawn attention as a spatial frame of reference for forming abstract and flexible spatial representations. An array-intrinsic frame of reference is a cognitive frame provided by the relation among the objects in a spatial layout. This study examined the development of the use of an array-intrinsic frame of reference, by comparing 18 4-year old, 29 5-year old, and 28 6-year old children, using a reorientation task designed to estimate which frame of reference children used for retrieval. Each child saw an object being hidden in a corner of a rectangular box prior to disorientation, and was asked to retrieve the object. The 4- to 5-year olds failed to sufficiently use the array-intrinsic frame of reference, and many of their incorrect retrievals were based on an environmental frame of reference. Additionally over trials, the 4- to 5-year olds often used several frames of reference, whereas 6-year olds tended to consistently use the arrayintrinsic frame of reference. Nevertheless, 6-year olds did not retrieve solely based on an array-intrinsic frame of reference. These findings suggest that 4- to 5-year olds could use an array-intrinsic frame of reference, and that children ages 6 and older could use it with more sophistication.
yKey WordszFrame of reference, Spatial orientation, Spatial cognition, Cognitive development, Preschoolers

Shiwa, Taiko (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University). The Obstructive Effect of Visual Representations on the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task in Young Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.1, 11-21.

The Dimensional Change Card Sort task (DCCS task) is used to assess young children's executive function. On the DCCS, children are first shown two target cards, each of which is affixed to a sorting tray. They are asked to sort test cards, each of which matches one target card on one dimension and the other target card on a second dimension. Regardless of dimension, shape or color, 3- year olds in past research have continued to sort the cards by the first dimension despite being given a new rule on every trial and despite having to sort cards based on the second dimension on other occasions. Forty 3-4 year olds were tested, to evaluate the hypothesis that children's paired-associates learning of 2 objects on the target card and the test card did not occur successive learning. The experiment, albeit with limited control, showed that children succeeded in the standard DCCS task without target card by inferring the switch of two dimensions and in other DCCS versions children were able to learn new paired objects by blocking the previous learning. Results are discussed in relation to theory of mind and children's language abilities.
yKey WordszDimensional change card sort task, Young children, Executive function, Visual representation, Paired-associates learning

Nozawa, Sachikoi Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyoj. The Development of Toddlers' Self-Assertion Strategies with Peers. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.1, 22-32.

This study examined developmental changes in self-assertion strategies used by toddlers in peer interactions. At a daycare center, 10 children in a one- and two-year-old class were observed during free play once each week for a year. The longitudinal trend of children's use of each strategy was analyzed by using a latent curve model. In addition, the developmental trajectory of each strategy was closely examined for each child. The results suggested that (1) assertion by vocalizing without words was observed more often at age 1 than at older ages, (2) assertive strategies accompanied by negative emotions (including aggression, crying and negative tone utterances) increased with age up to 24 months and then decreased, and (3) verbal strategies without negative tones, and more skillful strategies, increased with age. The importance of studying negative emotions that accompany self-assertion was discussed in relation to these findings. The discussion also focused on the merits of using latent curve models and examining the developmental trajectory of each individual child.
yKey WordszPeer relations, Self-assertion, Emotion expression, Toddlers, Latent curve model

Mizokawa, Ai (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). Young Children's Understanding of the Interpersonal Functions of Apparent Crying. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.1, 33-43.

This study examined children's expectations of the interpersonal consequences of apparent crying. Twenty-eight 4 year-olds and 32 5 year-olds were presented individually with four story tasks in the following design: 2 (crying: apparent, real) x 2 (condition: harm, harmless). The story protagonist seemed to cry in the apparent crying task, and actually cried in the real crying task. The protagonist expressed crying because he/she was harmed by another character in the harm condition, and was personally motivated to elicit another person's pro-social behavior in the harmless condition. Children were asked about the protagonist's crying and about the other character's feelings and behavior. The results showed that only 4 year-olds more often judged that apparent crying in the harm condition elicited another's pro-social behavior, compared with in the harmless condition. Five year-olds judged that when the apparent crying character felt sad or the apparent crying elicited another character's empathy, the apparent crying led to pro-social behavior. These findings suggest that there is a developmental change between ages 4 and 5 in understanding of the function of apparent crying.
yKey WordszApparent crying, Understanding of emotions, Pro-social behavior, Young children

Yoshida, Mariko (Kobe University). The Ability of Preschoolers to Predict the Future: Awareness and Concern regarding the Uncertainty of the Future. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.1, 44-54.

The present study examined young children's ability to predict their own future, by means of an experiment and an interview. Preschoolers (11 3-year olds, 12 4- year olds, and 13 5-year olds) were asked to prepare items that were needed for the future, and were interviewed about issues of concern for their future. The 4- and 5-year olds prepared appropriate items for issues related to their future, but this was not true of the 3-year olds. The 4- and 5-year olds were also more concerned about their future than were the 3-year olds. There was a significant correlation between the previous two findings. The results demonstrate that even 4-year olds predict multiple possibilities for their future.
yKey WordszPrediction of future, Self, Uncertainty, Temporal extended self, Preschool children

Kikuchi, Tomomi (Ochanomizu University), Matsumoto, Satoko (Ochanomizu University) & Sugawara, Masumi (Ochanomizu University). Parental Expectations towards Preschool : A Longitudinal Study from Age Four to Five. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.1, 55-62.

This study investigated whether parental expectations of preschool programs increase as a child becomes ready for elementary school, and how expectations for 4- and 5-year olds are related to a child's gender and behavior characteristics. Parents (280 fathers, 321 mothers) of 4-year old children participated in a survey and a follow-up survey one year later. An ANOVA revealed that fathers' expectations of better classroom attitudes increased significantly over the year, while mothers increased in expectations for better classroom attitudes and basic life habits. The findings also showed that mothers'expectations for children's intellectual ability and better classroom attitudes differed according to the child's gender, and that parental expectations for childrens intellectual ability at 5 years of age were influenced by the parents' perception of childrens behavior characteristics by age four years. Parental perceptions of children's behavioral characteristics seemed to influence their expectations of preschool programs.
yKey WordszParental expectations, Preschool, School transition, Child behavior, Longitudinal study

Ito, Takashi (Hokkaido University). Time-Series Analysis of Young Children's Sitting Behavior at a Japanese Nursery School. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.1, 63-74.

Teachers in Japan often have their children sit down simultaneously, to foster a whole-class participation structure. This study analyzed changes in the sitting behavior of 3-4 year old children after they entered a public nursery school. The process of preparation for a birthday party was videotaped monthly over a three-month period, and participants' speech and behavior was extracted from the video. Analyses indicated that the time needed to start the party became shorter over the three-months. The sitting behavior of each child suggested that two distinct changes contributed to the quicker preparation. First, children who were reluctant to take their seats when they first entered the nursery school became able to sit down immediately when their chairs were set. Second, children who often changed their posture from sitting to standing and vice versa became able to refrain from standing. These results suggest that through group experiences at nursery school childrenchange the meaning of "standing" from a neutral behavior to a socially prohibited behavior.
yKey WordszNursery school, Sitting behavior, Whole-class participation structure, Time-series analysis, Postural change

Sakakihara, Hisanao (Osaka University). Developmental Modification of Relationship Disturbance between an Autistic Child and Identified Other : Development and Aspects of an Intersubjective Relationship. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.1, 75-86.

It has been shown in recent years that helping autistic children interact with other children is beneficial for their development. However, such research has not tracked the changes of both these autistic children and the other people with whom they live. The present study clarified the development of relationships between an autistic child and specific others. It was a case study of an autistic boy from age 10:5 to 11:11, and utilized records of the boy's activities and those of a child-nurturing supporter. The results showed that there were four levels of child-supporter interaction, “unidentified outsider,” “trusting object,” “sought object,” and “attachment object.” As for the supporter-child interaction, three levels were distinguished and became stratified. In addition, there were three kinds of changes in their relationship development:“synchronous-continuous change,” “stable-cumulative change,” and “chain of changes.” These data suggest a clear similarity in relationship development between the autistic child and a specific other, compared with that between an infant and caregiver.
yKey WordszAutism, Relationship disturbance, Relationship development, Inter-subjectivity, Attachment

Ueno, Masaki (Graduate School of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University) & Okuzumi, Hideyuki (Faculty of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University). Developmental Changes in Judgment of the Actions of Stepping-Over or Passing-Under. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.2, 101-108.

This study investigated developmental changes in choices of action, particularly with regard to participants' leg length. Each of 128 children and 18 adult participants was asked to walk beyond a rope by either stepping over it or passing under it. The rope height was changed up and down from a point half of each participant's height. The highest rope height over which a participant stepped was called one's ‘transition point.’ Additionally, we called the highest stepping-over rope for which individuals did not touch the rope the ‘success point.’ Dividing each of these heights by the person's leg length, we calculated a ‘transition ratio’ and a ‘success ratio.’ The transition ratio and success ratio value became almost equal after age 7. The transition ratio value of males was higher than that of females. It follows from these results that stepping-over or passingunder was chosen based on the relation between leg length and the rope height. Humans apparently gain such a perception at age 6 or 7. The discussion also considered that 4-6-year old children can perceive their leg length and physical ability, and that the lower transition ratio of females is related to their avoidance of the risk of falling down.
yKey WordszBody-scale perception, Motor behavior, Developmental change, Gender differences, Stepping-over and Passing-under

Goshiki, Toru (Shizuoka University). The Effect of Other's Gaze Direction on the Orienting Reactions of 3- to 5-Year Olds, Using an Action as a Marker. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.2, 109-119.

This research investigated the gaze effect among 3- to 5-year olds. The gaze effect is observed among young children including newborn babies, when using the direction of gaze by the participants themselves as a measurement marker. The study attempted to use an action as the marker by employing a cueing paradigm. The gaze effect was observed among 5-year olds but not among 3-year olds. This result demonstrates that a transition occurs from a state without a gaze effect to a state with it, between 3 and 5 years of age. A computational model was constructed on the assumption that the causes of this transition were (1) an increasing shift of attention with age and (2) a rapid developmental expansion in the scope of attention occurring around age of four. The model was simulated on a computer that produced data similar to that of the experiment, appearing to confirm the validity of the assumed computational model.
yKey WordszGaze effect, Constructive approach, Young children, Cueing paradigm

Nada, Tetsuya (Graduate School of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu University) & Maruno, Shun'ichi (Faculty School of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu University). How Stable Is Knowledge Acquired in a Collaborative Construction Process? THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.2, 120-129.

This study verified that knowledge is reconstructed through awareness (noticing the different ideas of other people) and selfreflection (comparing and examining these differences), and that such knowledge is stable. Third graders performed a pretest, collaborative session, post-test, and delay-test sequence of tasks. On all the tests, we presented different situations to clarify whether knowledge improvement was due to reconstructed knowledge or to refined preexisting knowledge. In the collaborative session, 2 factors (awareness and self-reflection) were manipulated, resulting in 4 conditions. The results showed that the degree of knowledge improvement was stable even in the situation which required reconstructed knowledge, and that only in the condition whereby the other person's different ideas were presented and there was self-reflection.
yKey WordszInternalization process, Knowledge construction, Reflection, Collaborative Problem-Solving, Delayed task

Asakawa, Atsushi (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University; Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) & Sugimura, Shinichiro (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University). The Specific Relationship between Numerical Ability and Finger Dexterity in Early Childhood. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.2, 130-139.

An experiment was conducted on 68 children, ages 4-6 years, to clarify the specific relations between their numerical abilities and finger dexterity. Multiple regression analysis showed that performances by participants on arithmetic tests were strongly influenced by their performances in finger dexterity. In addition, their performance on vocabulary tests was most strongly influenced by their abilities in rhythmic movement. These findings suggest that numerical abilities in 4-6 years old is more strongly related to finger dexterity than to other movement skill, and that finger dexterity is more related to numerical abilities than verbal ability. The results are discussed in terms of the localizationist and the functional hypotheses.
yKey WordszNumerical ability, Finger dexterity, Vocabulary, Rhythmic movement, Young children

Fukuyama, Hiroshi (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University) & Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University; Japan Science and Technology Agency). The Relationship between Declarative Pointing and Understanding of Shared Experience among 1-Year Olds. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.2, 140-148.

Infants start to actively point at objects of interest from around their first birthday. This behavior, called “declarative pointing,” has been thought to function to redirect others' attention towards an object to express interest in sharing that object with others. However, it remains unknown whether infants' use of declarative pointing is actually based on the understanding that they can share experiences with others. We investigated whether 1-year olds (younger group n =34; older group n=28) changed their pointing behavior according to others' attentional status, and whether they chose target objects based on experiences previously shared with others. The results showed that the older infants stopped pointing soon after the experimenter paid attention to the target object. Moreover, infants who had stopped pointing following the experimenter's attentional shift chose the target object more frequently than they chose other objects. Such choices are construed as based on an understanding of experiences previously shared with the experimenter. The discussion focuses on the developmental relations between declarative pointing and infants' understanding of shared experience.
yKey WordszInfant, Declarative pointing, Shared experience, Joint attention

Takata, Toshitake (Miyagi-Gakuin Women's University). Developmental Changes in the Independent and Interdependent Construal of Self : A Longitudinal Analysis Around Adolescence. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.2, 149-156.

This paper examined two longitudinal studies, the first of which analyzed responses of 68 participants on an independent and interdependent self-construal scale (Takata et al., 1996) from late childhood through adolescence. The second longitudinal study included 152 participants between late adolescence and young adulthood. These investigations indicated that interdependence decreased between late childhood and early adolescence, increased from early adolescence to middle / late adolescence, and again decreased between late adolescence and young adulthood. Such developmental trends were consistent with those of shown in a cross-sectional study (Takata, 1999), and Structural Equation Model analysis revealed that one's level of interdependence at one developmental stage had positive effects on that during the next stage. Longitudinal independent scores, however, changed neither between late childhood and late adolescence, nor between late adolescence and young adulthood. This was in contrast with the results of a cross-sectional study that revealed a decrease from late childhood to early adolescent, and an increase between late adolescence and young adulthood. In sum, these findings suggest that in Japanese culture interdependent self-construal is actively internalized through the adolescents' reconstruction of self.
yKey WordszIndependent self-construal, Interdependent self-construal, Longitudinal analysis, Adolescence, Japanese culture

Kawata, Manabu (Faculty of Education, Hokkaido University). A Developmental Analysis of “Virtual Acid Responses” in Infancy. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.2, 157-167.

This study examined Virtual Acid Responses (“VAR”) as representatives of the mechanism of identification in infancy. VAR is a very ordinary phenomenon which occurs in perception of another person's eating something sour. Individuals who tasted a pickled plum express sourness facially when seeing a person eating a plum with a neutral facial expression. In this case, a baby would experience VAR as if she had eaten the pickled plum herself. Forty-three infants (younger group ages 5-9 months, n=22; older-group ages 9-14months, n=21) participated in this study. Infants in the experimental group (Lemontastinggroup, or “LE”) tasted a lemon and then were presented with a situation where the experimenter tasted a lemon while making a neutral facial expression. Control group infants (Non-lemon-tasting group, or NLE) did not taste the lemon but instead ate a small piece of soft-rice-cracker, and were then presented the same stimulus as the experimental group infants. The reactions of infants were coded into nine behavioral categories. The key findings were that (1) LE babies showed significantly more numbers of categories compared to NLE babies; (2) LE babies in the younger group tended to show frowning and lip-movements, although LE babies in the older group tended to show reaching and vocalizing; and (3) reactions related to VAR in the LE group were equal or more obvious compared to those of NLE babies presented with aversive facial expressions by adult model.
yKey WordszVirtual Acid Responses, Identification, Infant, Understanding others, Sense of taste

Mizokawa, Ai (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) & Koyasu, Masuo (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University). Understanding False Beliefs, Hidden Emotions, and Social Interactions among Five- and Six-Year Olds. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.2, 168-178.

This study investigated correlations between understanding of mental states and the social interactions of 5- and 6-year old children. Participants (N=102, 46 boys and 56 girls) took false belief tasks and hidden emotion tasks to assess their understanding of mental states. Teachers rated children's social interactions in terms of sympathetic behavior and peer relationships. The results indicated that, controlling for age, gender, and vocabulary scores, understanding of false beliefs was significantly associated with sympathetic behavior and peer acceptance. In addition, children with both low ability to understand false beliefs and high ability to understand hidden emotions rarely showed sympathetic behavior, and they were likely to have difficulty in forming high quality peer relationships. These findings are discussed in terms of the integration of understanding false beliefs and hidden emotions as a factor contributing to the development of social interactions.
yKey WordszTheory of mind, Understanding of hidden emotion, Social interaction, 5-year olds, 6-year olds

Matsuoka, Mirei (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamastu University School of Medicine), Okada, Ryo (Japanese Society for Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities, School of Contemporary Sociology, Chukyo University), Tani, Iori (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamastu University School of Medicine), Ohnishi, Masafumi (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamastu University School of Medicine), Nakajima, Shunji (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamastu University School of Medicine) & Tsujii, Masatsugu (School of Contemporary Sociology, Chukyo University). Development of a Parental Child Rearing Scale: Developmental Changes and Relations to ADHD. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.2, 179-188.

Items for a parental child rearing scale were developed by several clinical psychologists and pediatricians who had experience with parent training and had worked with parents of children with developmental disabilities. A questionnaire survey was taken by more than 7,000 parents and caregivers of preschool, elementary school, and middle school children. Factor analysis of their data revealed a 5-factor solution: positive rearing, consultation/care, scolding, difficulty in upbringing up, and difficulty in care. Positive rearing and consultation/care were negatively related to ADHD tendencies, whereas scolding, difficulty in bringing up, and difficulty in care were positively related to ADHD tendencies. In addition, subscales of parental child rearing style, except for positive rearing, changed non-linearly as the children's age increased. The discussion focused on the use of the Parental Child Rearing Scale.
yKey WordszParenting styles, Clinical interventions, Parent training, ADHD, Developmental changes

Watanabe, Hitomi (Doshisha University) & Uchiyama, Ichiro (Doshisha University). The Relation of Context-Specific Identities to Life Course Differences in Single Working Women. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.2, 189-199.

This study examined 5 contexts (home, leisure time, workplace, lessons, and friendship) in terms of their importance for the identities of 152 single working women. The results showed a big difference in the importance of “home” rather than “workplace” between women who work continuously and those who leave work. This result suggests that the declining number of women who see “home” as important is related to the contemporary increase in working women. Interestingly, although contexts seen as important differed for each individual, there were no differences in their identity scores in such contexts. Finally, it seems that context-specific factors including identity in the context of “home” and “workplace” relate to life course differences. In future research, an examination is needed of the complex relationships between factors such ascontext-specific identities, their influences on identity formation, and life course differences.
yKey WordszSingle working women, Identity, Contexts, Life courses

Goshiki, Toru (Shizuoka University) & Watanabe, Shizuyo (Graduate School of Education, Shizuoka University). Interference between Enumeration of Small Numbers and Linguistic Processing by 5-Year-Olds and Adults. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.3, 205-214.

Enumeration of small numbers of items can be performed by “subitizing,” an instantaneous apprehension of the numerosity of a group, instead of one-by-one counting. Subitizing is thought to be an almost non-linguistic type of processing, although it has been shown that subitizing and linguistic processing interfere with each other. This paper examined relations between subitizing and linguistic processing. Irrelevant language streams, assumed to impede linguistic processing by subitizing, were supplied auditorily. Participants were 24 five-year-old children in Experiment 1 and 16 adults in Experiment 2. In addition, we used stimuli composed of meaningless and meaningful figures as objects for subitizing, and compared both to explore the process of subitizing and linguistic coding interference. The results showed that for children there was interference between subitizing and either (a) linguistic processing of irrelevant language streams or (b) meaningful stimuli. On the other hand, both of these were needed for interference to occur for adults. The findings suggest that (1) we concurrently handle subitizing, processing of irrelevant language streams, and coding, (2) there are limits in capacity for subitizing, and (3) adults have a larger capacity than 5-year-old children.
yKey WordszEnumeration, Subitizing, Five-year-old children, Linguistic processing, Irrelevant sound effect

Takiyoshi, Michika (Graduate School of Education, Tohoku University) & Tanaka, Mari (Graduate School of Education, Tohoku University). Self-Understanding among Adolescents with Pervasive Developmental Disorders. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.3, 215-227.

Adolescents with Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD; n=22) and normally developing adolescents (n=880) participated in interviews to evaluate their self-understanding (Damon & Hart, 1988). Their responses were classified according to a Self-Understanding Model for People with PDD (SUMPP), which was constructed on the basis of 3 perspectives: domains, human relations, and positivity / negativity. The main results were as follows: (1) participants tended to develop negative self-understanding through interactions with others and positive self-understanding when they did not have relationships with anyone; (2) adolescents with PDD understood themselves well in the “action style” domain, suggesting that their interest was important for maintaining positive self-evaluation; (3) they understood themselves well with regard to one-way relationships with others, suggesting an association with impairment in social interactions of the “passive” or “active but odd” types (Wing, 1997); and (4) some adolescents with PDD described themselves with regard to current social issues and events.
yKey WordszPervasive Developmental Disorders, Self-understanding, Adolescence, Self

Nakamichi, Keito (Faculty of Education, Tokoha Gakuen University). The Influence of Domains of Causality on Young Children's Counterfactual Reasoning. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.3, 228-239.

Experiment I examined young children's (N=74) development of counterfactual reasoning. An age (3-, 4- and 5-year olds) by domain of task (physical, psychological, biological) factorial design was utilized. On each task, participants were presented with stories describing a certain causal relation, and asked counterfactual thinking questions about how the result changed if the cause was different. According to the results, four- and 5-year olds performed better than the 3-year olds, and the physical task was more difficult than the psychological and biological tasks. The results show that young children's development of counterfactual reasoning differed depending on the domain of causal relations. Experiment II examined 3- to 5-year old children's (N=30) knowledge of causal relations. The 3- to 5-year old children's knowledge was not different according to the domain. The data suggest that counterfactual reasoning ability improved between 4-year olds to 5-year olds, and that some constraint other than the presence of knowledge influenced this ability.
yKey WordszPreschoolers, Counterfactual reasoning, Inference, Domain, Causal relations

Shinohara, Ikuko (Aichi Shukutoku University). Longitudinal Relations among Maternal Mind-Mindedness and Children's Understanding of Other People's Beliefs and Emotions. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.3, 240-250.

Maternal mind-mindedness (MM) is the tendency to treat an infant as an individual with a mind (Meins, 1997). Maternal MM was assessed by video based measurement when her children were 6 months old (N=38) . To assess mothers' use of internal state language with her children, mother-infant pairs were observed in free play interactions at 6 and 9 months of age. Children's understanding of other people's desires, beliefs, and emotions were tested at 36 months (N=29) and 48 months (N=31). Children's verbal ability was assessed at 48 months. Mothers' MM was significantly correlated with children's emotion understanding and verbal ability at 48 months. Path analysis showed that maternal MM positively predicted children's emotion understanding and verbal ability via mothers' rich comments on infants' internal states that observed at 6 months of age. On the other hand, mothers who had a moderate level of MM were more likely to have children who passed desire task at 36 months and false belief task at 48 months. These findings suggest that maternal MM in infancy predicted children's development of understanding of other person's mind. However, MM had different effects on children's comprehension of other's emotional and cognitive states.
yKey WordszMind-mindedness, Theory of mind, Emotion understanding, Longitudinal study, Infancy

Nagahama, Narumi (Otokuni Poni no Gakkou) & Takai, Naomi (Kyoto Notre Dame University). Development of Self-Regulation in Young Children Competing for Toys. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.3, 251-260.

This study investigated the development of self-regulation in early childhood, focusing on three aspects of self-regulation: self-assertion, self-inhibition, and interpersonal skills. Children ages 3 to 5 years (N=120) were asked how they would cope in certain scenarios when competing for a toy. When the protagonist and another character found a toy at the same time, 5-year old children tended to regulate the relationship between the self (protagonist) and the other child, but 3-year old children did not show this tendency. When one child held the toy, 4- and 5-year old children tended to request the toy from the other. These findings suggest that 4- and 5-year old children exhibit different responses to scenarios relevant to selfregulation.
yKey WordszEarly childhood, Self-regulation, Self-assertion, Self-inhibition, Interpersonal skills

Yamamoto, Naoki (Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo). Longitudinal Observation of the Acquisition Process for Rolling-Over Movement in Infancy. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.3, 261-273.

Rolling-over movement in infancy has been discussed in terms of neurological factors. To redefine rolling-over movement in relation to perception and individual kinematic properties, this study used longitudinal observations to investigate two infants' acquisition of rolling-over movement. One infant frequently kicked the supporting surface at an early stage, and this kicking movement became accompanied by an extension of the neck, with growth. The other infant frequently twisted his upper body at an early stage, and this twist movement came to involve the entire body, with growth. Thus, the developmental process varied by each infants' characteristic movements. But at the stage when they acquired rolling-over movements, both infants could turn widely from a supine position along a visual line. In addition, each infant performed rolling-over movements by using movement patterns observed during a later stage. These results suggest that the processes of acquiring rollingover movements are dynamic, as infants explore the relationship between one's orientation to the environment and physical movements.
yKey WordszInfant physical development, Rolling-over movement, Orientation, Longitudinal observation

Terakawa, Shinako (Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tottori University), Tamaru, Toshitaka (Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tottori University), Ishida, Hiraku (Japan Science and Technology Agency, Gifu Shotoku Gakuen University Junior College), Kobayashi, Katsutoshi (Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tottori University), & Koeda, Tatsuya (Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tottori University). The Effect of Preschoolers' Peer Relationships on Their Sharing Behavior. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.3, 274-285.

This study examined the process by which relationships among peers become closer, and the effect of these relationships on strategies for sharing candy when conflicts could easily occur. Children ages 5 (n=48) and 6 years (n=52) were grouped in same-sex and same-aged sets of four children unfamiliar with one another. Peer interactions were observed through a series of play sessions under a caregiving scenario, whereby the caregiver conducted systematic observations of the children. The results showed that the quality of peer relationships assessed over two sessions by observations of children's free play progressed to higher levels of quality between the first session and the second. In the first session, peer interactions among the four group members were rarely observed. In the second session, however, the movement and pretend play of 5-year old groups of four became synchronized, and 6-years old groups often structured their complex social pretend play sequences based on a common theme and rules. When asked to share candy, 6-year olds who had engaged in complex and cooperative play in the second free play session were more likely to interact with each other than those who had not engaged in such play.
yKey WordszPreschool children, Social development, Peer relationships, Play, Sharing

Miyoshi, Akiko (Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba; Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). Growth of the Virtue Called “Competence” and Later Development of Industry Based on Identity: A Biographical Comparison of Japanese Novelists Junichiro Tanizaki and Ryunosuke Akutagawa. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.3, 286-297.

From the standpoint of Eriksonian theory, this study examined the growth of a virtue called competence, and the effects of competence on the development of industry based on identity, by analyzing two cases which were extreme opposites. The Japanese novelist Junichiro Tanizaki and Ryunosuke Akutagawa were both born in the Meiji Era in Tokyo, achieved good records at school, and became popular novelists while still young, yet their competence virtues were opposites. Why was their virtue of competence opposite despite their very similar careers? The results of a comparative analysis of their biographies showed that Tanizaki was unconditionally loved, disciplined with tolerance, and that he developed firm competence based on his previous virtues. On the other hand, the early growth of Akutagawa's virtues was impeded by an environment with strict discipline but without mutual regulation, and he developed a precocious conscience. Therefore, Akutagawa could not show initiative, his virtue of “purpose” was limited, and ultimately he could not develop a sense of competence. Tanizaki continued to display industry based on the identity of a novelist, while Akutagawa could not choose a novelist's identity and continued to display compulsive output based on his precocious conscience.
yKey WordszCompetence, E.H.Erikson, Junichiro Tanizaki, Ryunosuke Akutagawa, Biographical analysis

Terasaka, Akiko (Kyushu University). Multidimensional Characteristics of Anger in Childhood and Early Adolescence. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.3, 298-307.

Anger has affective, cognitive, and behavioral components. In addition, chronic anger is known to underlie aggressive behavior. This article delineated the multidimensional structure and characteristics of anger, including chronic anger, among children and early adolescents. Chronic anger was conceptualized as hostility and irritability, and items for these two concepts were employed in the survey as well as Anger Experience and Anger Expression items from the Multidimensional School Anger Inventory. Study 1 targeted elementary school students in grades 5-6 and tested the construct validity of anger subscales through correlations with teachers' behavior ratings. Study 2 examined the same group of students three years later, when they were in grades 1-2 of junior high school. The multidimensional structure of anger was confirmed at both times of measurement, and chronic anger was correlated with destructive expression. The results also showed that in junior high school students exhibited a higher level of anger in every aspect except for Positive Coping, compared to elementary school children. Correlations between anger variables and teachers' behavioral ratings suggested that boys and girls have different ways of expressing anger.
yKey WordszAnger, Aggression, Childhood, Early adolescence

Ogane, Hironobu (Department of Psychology, Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University). Emotions of Mothers Using Day Care for Mothers and Disabled Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.3, 308-317.

Maternal support is essential for the early growth and development of disabled children. Therefore, it is important to understand the mother's psychological state. The present study examined the feelings of mothers (N=52) who were using care center for disabled children. Their feelings were classified three ways: “at the beginning of entrance to the center,” “time while attending the center,” and “at the time of finishing at the center.” Quantification methods of type III and cluster analysis were performed. As a result, 4 categories were extracted: “sense of release from self-reproach after notification of child's disabilities,” “feeling difficulties with childcare,” “seeking a better way to develop parent/child relations,” and “seeking of parenting efficacy.” The mothers had various conflicts concerning the parental care or the children's disabilities. The four categories were considered in that the there was an interaction between mothers' views of childrearing and their conceptions of disability.
yKey WordszDay care center for mothers and disabled children, Support for mothers, Mother's view of childrearing, Self-conception of disability, Social support

Kawamoto, Hideo (Faculty of Philosophy, Toyo University). Problems in Developmental Systems. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.4, 339-348.

A reorganization of experiences subsists in each phase of human nature. To consider the modes of such a reorganization of experiences, I discuss the mechanism which organizes experience itself and the methods which are advantageous in the treatment of developmental disorders. Part 1 considers three difficult problems: (1) how the observation reaches the developing system itself, (2) what abilities are formed in the process of development, and (3) what mechanism defines the stage of development. In Part 2, I suggest that generative models are included in developmental processes, based on facts of the nervous system and a theoretical viewpoint. These considerations suggest possible changes in medical interventions in the treatment of developmental disorders.
yKey WordszDisorder, Developmental systems theory, Abilities, Controls, Nervous system

Taga, Gentaro (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo). Early Development of the Brain and Behavior. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.4, 349-356.

Regarding the development of the brain in the fetus and young infant, we review recent findings in developmental neuroscience: anatomical changes in macroscopic structure and network formation, spontaneous and stimulus-induced activity, and changes in functional activation. As a basis for understanding developmental changes in behavior, we propose three basic principles of the brain development. (1) The fetal brain initially generates spontaneous activity; neural networks are thereby formed in a self-organized manner. External stimulation then induces activity which modulates networks of the brain. (2) The brain initially generates general activity and then the activity is differentiated into specific ones engaged in particular functions. (3) The brain produces activity over multiple time scales, from real time to long-term. The structure and function of the brain synchronously emerges from interactions among activities across multiple time scales. In conclusion, brain development is a dynamic process, and a stage-like development of behaviors emerges from dynamic interactions among the brain, body, and environment.
yKey WordszBrain, Spontaneous activity, Functional differentiation, Multiple time scales

Sasaki, Masato (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo). Ambient Step and Action Development. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.4, 357-368.

The purpose of this study was to longitudinally observe the behavior of an infant (0 to 1 year-old) in relation to nine kinds of steps in his home environment (Figure 1). Steps-related actions were analyzed through video recordings made by his mother. The nine kinds of steps consisted of the edge of a baby-mattress on the floor, a door rail, a step to the bathroom, a step to the lavatory, a bed, a sofa, the baby's father's lap, a child chair, and the stairs. The infant acquired the skills of perceptual exploration, speed regulation, and postural flexibility which had originated from various falling experiences afforded by these steps. Each of the different kinds of steps afforded a unique action sequence and movement development (see Figure 23). The material, size, shape, and surrounding layout of the steps were taken into account to explore their meanings. We classified these action sequences into three kinds of step-action system: (A) falling system, (B) anchor system and (C) jump system (see Figure 24). And superimpose the mark of three systems on Figure 23 (see Figure 25). Based on these analysis, the issues of the emergence of a new stage of awareness of the environment and the significance of being surrounded by steps in the environment were discussed.
yKey WordszInfant, Steps, Falling, Action flexibility, Environment-Action system

Nakagaki, Akira (Faculty of Education and Integrated Arts and Sciences, Waseda University). The Significance and Potential of Piaget's Developmental Stage Theory. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.4, 369-380.

The purpose of this paper was to elucidate the significance and potential of establishing developmental stages of cognitive development, as an introduction to and explication of Piaget's developmental stage theory. First, Piaget posited five criteria for developmental stages and established four stages, based on the development of intellectual operations which are realistic frameworks that constrain a person's judgment and reasoning. Second, the formal operational stage was characterized by the whole structure in formal operations, and the implications of this wholeness was clarified by investigating what kind of logicomathematical structures were contained in it, and how this wholeness was constructed from the whole structure in concrete operations. Finally, as the basis for understanding the significance and potential of Piaget's stage theory, three developmental problems were discussed: the problem of developmental continuity / discontinuity which is one of the main classic themes in developmental psychology; the problem of domain-generality / domain-specificity which is an issue in the study of theory theory; and the problem of generality and / or universality of formal operations which was raised by the editors of this special issue.
yKey WordszDevelopmental stage, Piaget's theory, Intellectual operation, Formal operations, Whole structure

Akagi, Kazushige (Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University). The Meaning of a Developmental Stage Theory in Studies of Developmental Disorder. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.4, 381-390.

This paper reconsidered the meaning of developmental stages in the study of developmental disorders, especially in the case of autism spectrum disorder. First, “The Theory of Hierarchies and Stages on Reversible Operations in Human Development (Tanaka, 1980)” was reviewed from the viewpoint of developmental stage theory. Second, the significance of the theory of mind deficit theory was reviewed from the standpoint of developmental stage theory. It was found that theory of mind deficit theory consisted of domain specificity and the denial of qualitative change. Third, in explaining the mechanism of symptoms in autism spectrum disorder, it was important to take into account the developmental relationship. Finally, the developmental relationship makes it possible to open a new direction in practices to enhance several abilities that constitute developmental linkages.
yKey WordszDevelopmental stage, Autism spectrum disorder, Theory of mind, Developmental relationship

Takagi, Kotaro (School of Social Informatics, Aoyama Gakuin University). Vygotsky's Concept of “Age Levels” and Its Implications for Contemporary Sociocultural Psychology. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.4, 391-398.

In his essay titled “The Problem of Age,” L.S. Vygotsky (2002a) attempted to divide children's developmental changes into some age levels and describe the psychological features of each level. On the surface, this more or less classical approach to developmental change seems inconsistent with contemporary understandings of Vygotsky's theory, because its unit of analysis is too individualistic and culturally general. A close inspection of the essay, however, shows that Vygotsky avoided simple individualism and overemphasis of the culturally general nature of the human mind, by treating the link between personality and the social environment as a partial connection between two relatively independent systems. This unique approach may actually lead to new possibilities for a developmental stage theory in the context of contemporary sociocultural psychology.
yKey WordszL.S. Vygotsky, Age levels, Personality, Social environment

Ueno, Naoki (Environmental and Information Studies, Tokyo City University). Object-Centered Sociality and Forms of Exchange in Wildfire Activities. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.4, 399-407.

This paper clarified how wildfire activities tie together (as with the Open Source movement), and also focused on objectcentered sociality and forms of exchange. In doing so, I attempted to reformulate the concept of learning. A "wildfire activity" is a collection of distributed and local activities that occur in various places at the same time and tie together, exactly as happens with a real wildfire. A typical example of wildfire activity is peer production that extends beyond institutionalized organizations, e.g., the editing of Wikipedia and the development of Linux. However, wildfire activity is not limited to activities on the Internet, and also occurs in the activities of the Red Cross, skate-boarding, and the revitalization of local communities.
yKey WordszWildfire activities, Object-centered sociality, Forms of exchange, Open Source, Learning

Watanabe, Tsuneo (Department of Environment Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University). Stage Theories of Personality Development : The Enigma of the “Second Birth”. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.4, 408-417.

Focusing on the development of the self, the inner side of the personality, this study elucidated the enigma of the “second birth” which was once believed to be an important turning point in the development of the personality. First, we reviewed Neisser's theory of “five selves,” one of the most representative theories of the self. This review suggested that among the five selves, the “private self” has not been empirically investigated to date. Second, the study of the “I-am-me” experience was introduced. This experience had been discussed in German youth psychology as a second birth, and several Japanese psychologists are currently investigating this phenomenon. Third, by comparing the private self and "I-am-me" experience, it was concluded that the latter experience might originate from a conflict between the conceptual self and the private self. When “I-am-me” experiences occur simultaneously with the advent of adolescence, the experience might be recalled as a second birth. Finally, this paper discussed the first-person psychology of personality development, which is necessary to evive the theme of the second birth.
yKey WordszDevelopment of self, Second birth, Private self, “I-am-me” experience, First-person psychology of personality development

Yamada, Yoko (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University). Reconsidering “Development” and “Developmental Stage” from the Perspectives of Lifespan Development and Narrative Theory. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2011, Vol.22, No.4, 418-427.

Developmental psychology typically represents age as a horizontal axis on which positions are determined on the basis of the presumed linear progression of time. It also represents competence as a vertical axis on which positions are determined on the basis of the performance of different valued skills. This conceptual framework has persisted even though lifespan developmental psychology addresses the entire life of an individual, including the process of decline during older age. In addition, the fundamental concepts of developmental psychology and lifespan developmental psychology are both based on assumptions of individualism, the linear progression of life, the privileged status of quantitative measurement, and the irreversibility of time. In this paper, I suggest the need to shift the paradigm applied to human beings to one rooted in a narrative approach. I further propose a Generative Life Cycle Model (GLCM) based on contextualism, which includes the need for an integrated meaning of life, the value of qualitative narratives, and the cyclical nature of time.
yKey WordszDevelopmental theory, Narrative, Life cycle, Contextualism, Time