Hatakeyama, Miho (Hokkaido University of Education) & Hatakeyama, Hiroshi (Kyoto Notre Dame University). A Developmental Study of Empathy, Moral Judgment, and Social Information Processing in Preschooler's with Relational Aggression. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.1, 1-11.

Participants in this study were 101 preschool children (5-year-olds: 16 boys, 18 girls; 4-year-olds: 18 boys, 24 girls; 3-yearolds: 13 boys, 12 girls), and 4 preschool teachers. The preschoolers' relational aggression scale scores were used to identify High (n=35) and Low (n=40) groups. Empathy, moral judgment, and social information processing were assessed in the two groups, using questions developed from an integrated model of emotion processing and cognition in social information processing (Lemerise & Arsenio, 2000; Arsenio & Lemerise, 2004). Among 5-year-olds in the High aggression group there were significantly higher empathic-cognition scores than among the 3-year-olds in the Low Aggression group. There were no significance differences between the High and Low groups in emotion-sharing scores. These results suggest that children in the High group had higher levels of social competence.
yKey WordszRelational aggression, Empathy, Moral judgment, Social information processing, Preschoolers

Kato, Mayuko (Graduate School of Human Sciences, Osaka University / Japan Society for the Promotion of Science), Onishi, Kenji (Graduate School of Human Sciences, Osaka University), Kanazawa, Tadahiro (Graduate School of Human Sciences, Osaka University), Hinobayashi, Toshihiko (Graduate School of Human Sciences, Osaka University), & Minami, Tetsuhiro (Faculty of Psychology, Koshien University). Two-Year-Old Toddlers' Prosocial Responses to a Crying Peer: Social Evaluation Mechanisms. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.1, 12-22.

This study investigated toddlers' responses to a crying peer, to assess whether their responses were affected by the features of the peer and one's relationship with the peer. Two-year old toddlers were selected as participants because at that age young children begin to show a prosocial response to a crying peer and cry frequently. The behavior of 10 toddlers was videotaped during free-play time at a nursery school. Episodes in which a toddler cried and was responded to by a nearby toddler were examined. Using a generalized linear mixed model, we analyzed the nearby toddlers' responses to determine whether they varied according to the features of the crying toddler. Toddlers were more likely to respond prosocially to peers who seldom cried or attacked than frequent criers or attackers. In addition, toddlers were more likely to respond prosocially to a familiar toddler than to an unfamiliar one. These findings suggest that social evaluation of features of a crying peer and the child's relationship with the crying peer affects prosocial behavior in a group childcare setting.
yKey WordszProsocial behavior, Crying, Aggression, Peers, Toddlers

Ikeda, Yukiyo (Senzoku Junior College of Childhood Education) & Okawa, Ichiro (University of Tsukuba). The Relation between Day Nursery and Preschool Teachers' Thoughts about Job Stressors and Their Mental State Regarding Work: Work Duties and Work Environment as Mediating Factors. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.1, 23-35.

This study investigated the relation between day nursery and preschool teachers' thoughts about job stressors and their mental condition with regard to work. We asked 119 day nursery teachers and 114 preschool teachers to fill out a questionnaire, and conducted a path analysis on their data. Consistent with our hypothesis, day nursery teachers and preschool teachers' own thoughts about their work duties were found to mediate their mentality towards work. According to the results, "pride as a professional" and "relationship of trust with children and their guardians" brought about positive effects in terms of teachers' self-efficacy. "Shared understanding at work" reportedly tended to reduce burnout in day nursery teachers but not among preschool teachers. In addition, although job-related stress was reduced when teachers found work challenging and had a sense of job satisfaction, a collaborative working environment and understanding shared among teachers at work reduced stress in day nursery teachers but not preschool teachers. Our results suggest that stressors and job stress-related factors are occupation-specific, even though both day nursery teachers and preschool teachers are classified generally as childcare workers.
yKey WordszChildcare worker, Job stress, Cognition of work, Preschool, Day nursery, Mediation effect

Shima, Yoshihiro (Nagoya University), Ueshima, Natsumi (Nagoya University / Japan Society for the Promotion of Science), Kobayashi, Kunie (Aichi Shukutoku University), & Obara, Tomoko (Aichi Konan College). What Information Do Mothers Use in Mother-Infant Interactions? : The Effects of Internal Working Models of Attachment. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.1, 36-43.

Mothers access various kinds of information sources when they decide what to do with their infants. In this study, we investigated whether their access of information sources differs according to their internal working models of attachment. Participants were 29 mothers of 9-month old infants. We presented 10 video clips of 3- and 9- month olds with various emotions, and interviewed them about the reasons for what they did toward the infants in each video clip. Their answers were categorized and subjected to regression analysis with internal working models of attachment ("anxiety" and "avoidance"). The results showed that (1) for 3-month old infants, participants who were high in "anxiety" and low in "avoidance" referred more to infants' behavior, (2) for 9-months old infants, participants who were high in "anxiety" referred more to infants' emotions, while those who were high in "avoidance" referred more to their own subjectivity. These results indicated that mothers who are high in "anxiety" tend to access information sources of infants while those who are high in "avoidance" tend not to pay attention to information sources of infants.
yKey WordszMother-infant interaction, Internal working models of attachment, Video clips, Maternal subjectivity

Sakamoto, Atsushi (The University of Tokyo / The Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). Discourse in Post-Lesson Conferences for Primary School Lesson Studies: Comparing the Effects of Teaching Experience in Total with Experience at a Specific School. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.1, 44-54.

This study examined the influence of a school's culture of teaching on teacher development, analyzing the relationship between years of teaching experience and post-lesson discourse. We focused on the 'representation of practice' (Little, 2002) and proposed two hypotheses to study the effects of number of years teaching, both in total and at a specific school. At the school, teachers met regularly to witness a demonstration research lesson given by one teacher, after which they held a discussion about the research lesson. Data were gathered from records of 6 post-lesson conferences and via questionnaires about participants' memories of these conference discussions. The number of years at one's current school was significantly correlated with the number of statements about possibilities and problems of research lesson a teacher uttered during the post-lesson conference. It was also correlated with the number of statements teachers recalled as uttered by others during the post-lesson conference about problems, possibilities, and alternatives regarding the research lesson. The results indicated that research on teacher development should consider the influence of the in-school culture in which teachers reflect, practice, learn, and develop expertise.
yKey WordszTeacher Development, Representation of Practice, In-school Lesson Study, Teachers' Discourse, In-school culture of teaching

Fukase, Yuko (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University) & Okamoto, Yuko (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University). The Process of Mutual Relationships with a Maternal Person Based on Reminiscences of Elderly People. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.1, 55-65.

In Erikson's theory, a balance of trust vs. mistrust creates the basis for subsequent psycho-social development, and a mutual relationship with a maternal figure is an important factor in trust vs. mistrust. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 elderly participants who were 66-86 years old (mean age=74.88, SD=5.34). Participants had spent the same amount of time with a maternal figure in early childhood and had lost that maternal figure when the participants were middleaged. The maternal figure in each elderly person's reminiscences was not necessarily his or her mother. If the participant sensed the debility of the maternal figure before the maternal figure approached death, then after the maternal figure was dying the participant would internalize memories of a good maternal figure. That followed one's recovery from grief and regret while bereaving for the maternal person, because of the participants' caring for the maternal figure. As an elderly person, each participant remembered having a good mutual relationship with the maternal figure.
yKey WordszElderly, Maternal figure, Progress of relationship, E.H. Erikson, Reminiscence

Nakano, Masashi (Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba) & Nagasaki, Tsutomu (Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba). The Development of Narrative Coherence in Preschoolers: Analysis of Accounts about the Experience of Making Cake. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.1, 66-74.

This study examined the development of personal narratives among 3 ? 6 year-old preschoolers. The experimenter and children baked cakes, and children gave accounts of this experience to their mothers, in expressions such as "The experimenter spilled the eggs." Children's narratives were analyzed in terms of their coherence. According to the results, 3 year-old children described few events continuously, whereas 4 year-old children gave accounts of multiple events in temporal sequence. Children at ages 5?6 years gave narrations of events in terms of both causal and intentional relations. These results indicated that through the preschool period there is development in the meaning of experiences. Similarity in developmental changes has been noted in across cultures, suggesting a common factor in development. Narrative development in early childhood therefore is closely linked to development of self-recognition and understanding of the other's mind.
yKey WordszNarrative, Discourse, Narrative coherence, Language development, Preschoolers

Minakuchi, Keigo (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University) & Yuzawa, Masamichi (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University). Segmentation of Sounds of English Words on Memory Span Tasks among Japanese Graduate and Undergraduate Students. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.1, 75-84.

This study examined how Japanese graduate and undergraduate students perceive and segment English sounds (consonants and vowels) with in words. Sixty students were provided with a memory span task in which they repeated aloud English words. There were words with five types of phonological structures: CV, CVC, CVCV, CVCC, and CVCVC. The followings were the main results: (1) Memory spans for CVC and CVCV, which were on the same level, were longer than those for CVCC and CVCVC; (2) The duration of spoken words by students showing a segmentation pattern of mora tended to be lengthier than those of the original sounds, or those by students showing mixed segmentation patterns of mora and syllables; and (3) Students obtaining higher scores on the TOEIC showed more segmentation patterns of syllables. These results suggest that the Japanese rhythm of mora had an enduring influence on perception and segmentation of English sounds, among Japanese students who had studied English more than six years. The acquisition of segmentation patterns of syllables may be one key to improvement of English ability.
yKey WordszEnglish Speech perception, Segmentation, Mora, Phonological working memoryt

Ogawa, Masato (Graduate School of Education, Osaka Kyoiku University) & Takahashi, Noboru (Department of School Education, Osaka Kyoiku University). The Developmental Relationship between Role Play, Pretend Play, and Theory of Mind in Young Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.1, 85-94.

Forty-six children from 3 to 6 years of age participated in two false belief tasks, role play, and pretend play in Experiment 1. The results revealed a significant correlation between false belief and role play behavior, but not between false belief and pretend play. In Experiment 2, 38 children from 3 to 5 years of age were assigned to a role play training group, pretend play training group, or a control group. After five training sessions, the role play training group, but not the pretend play training group or the control group, increased their scores on the false belief task. Based on the results of Experiments 1 and 2, it is concluded that role play, but not pretend play, is a precursor of the acquisition of theory of mind.
yKey WordszTheory of mind, Role play, Pretend play, Preschoolers

Harada, Shin (Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University). Developmental Changes in the Relationship between Narcissism and Ego Identity. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.1, 95-104.

The present study examined the relationships between narcissism and ego identity during the developmental transition from adolescence to early adulthood. Samples of 371 undergraduate and graduate students between the ages of 18? 25 years (adolescents) and 352 adults between the ages of 26-35 years (early adulthood) completed a questionnaire which consisted of narcissism scales and an ego identity scale. The results of correlation analyses showed that multidimensional narcissistic indices for two dispositions ("need for attention and praise" and "lack of empathy") were more strongly correlated with ego identity for the early adult sample than for the adolescent sample. In addition, the results of a multiple-group analysis showed that these two narcissistic dispositions predicted ego identity more negatively in the model for the early adulthood data than in the model for the adolescent data. These results indicate that diminishment of these two narcissistic dispositions is a developmental task of adolescence, and that if the young person's efforts to overcome these dispositions were to fail, the formulation of ego identity could be more difficult.
yKey WordszNarcissism, Ego identity, Developmental task, Adolescence, Early adulthood

INADA, Naoko, KURODA, Miho, KOYAMA,Tomonori, UNO, Yota, INOKUCHI, Eiko & KAMIO, Yoko: Reliability and Validity of the Japanese Version of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised.

This study of the Japanese version of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) focused on individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There were 53 participants in the ASD group (male n =42; mean age=11.2, SD =10.5 years) and the control group consisted of 40 individuals (23 mentally retarded and 17 of typical development). Clinicians scored them on the RBS-R, based on the participant's parental reports. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was .91, indicating good internal consistency. Across 15 ASD individuals, intra-class correlation coefficients on 43 items ranged from .79 to 1.00, demonstrating satisfactory inter-rater reliability. Both the RBS-R overall number of items endorsed and overall score were significantly higher in the ASD group than in the control group, demonstrating discriminant validity. Significant correlations (r =.65) between the RBS-R overall score and the total score of three items concerning repetitive behavior (from the Childhood Autism Rating Scale-Tokyo Version) demonstrated good concurrent validity. These results suggest the Japanese RBS-R is a valid and reliable instrument for evaluation of repetitive behaviors by Japanese individuals with ASD, although further investigation is necessary.
yKey Wordsz Autism Spectrum Disorders, Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (Japanese version), Reliability, Validity

KURITA, Tokika, MAEHARA, Yukio, KIYONAGA, Yutaka & MASATAKA, Nobuo: The Effects of Social Interaction Training on ADHD Children of Foreign Nationals: A Collaborative Puzzle Task Involving Executive Functions.

This research explored the effects of social interaction training with a collaborative puzzle task on children of foreign nationals with ADHD in Japan. The collaborative puzzle task was designed to minimize the need to use language and to require cooperation with another person. The task involved the executive function that is considered to control a variety of goal-directed behaviors in everyday life. An intervention was carried out for two elementary school students of foreign nationals with ADHD twice a week for two months. The results showed that the intervention enhanced cooperative behavior and reduced the impulsive wandering behavior of children. However, it did not improve the performance of the traditional executive function tasks that reflect competence in cognitive and attentional control. The current findings indicate that the collaborative puzzle task enables children with ADHD to train the "hot" executive function that is important for control of emotional and motivational reactivity in social situations, and which is distinct from the "cool" executive function related more to cognitive and attentional regulation.
yKey Wordsz Social skills, ADHD, Foreign students, Executive function, Cooperation

YAMANE, Takahiro: The Relationship between Mothers' Construction of the Meaning of Their Children's High-Functioning Developmental Disorders and View of the Disability.

The present study examined how the mother of a high-functioning developmental disorder (HFPDD) child makes sense of her child care and the child's disability in her life. It also looked at the relationship between the mother's meaning of child care and the child's disability, and her recognition of the child's disability, from the perspective of new theories of grief. Narratives about the meaning of the experience of having child with HFPDD and the recognition of the disability were obtained through semi-structured interviews with 19 mothers of HFPDD children. The main findings were as follows. First, mothers were categorized into six types according to the meanings of child care and the child's disability:"growth-positivity,""ambivalence,""inactivity,""identity,""resignation,"and "insensitivity."In addition, giving positive meaning to child care and the child's disability in the mother's life was related to finding significance and social value in her child and the child's disability, and to less difficulty and conflict in her conception of the child's disability.
yKey Wordsz High-functioning developmental disorder, Meaning-making, Acceptance of disability, Parent of disabled child, Lifespan development

KURIYAMA, Yoko & OI, Naoko: A Study of Value Intentions in Japanese University Students.

Two studies were conducted to analyze students' value intentions, which were conceptualized as the core of identity formation. Study 1 employed semi-structured interviews to compare 42 freshmen and 24 senior students, and Study 2 consisted of follow-up interviews with 30 of the 42 freshmen at the time of their graduation. Based on relevant episodes in each verbatim script, eight value patterns were conceptualized and constructed into three value orientations. These were reality-oriented (composed of active behavior and hedonism), self-oriented (consisting of intellect, effort and achievement, and self-conformity), and society-oriented (interpersonal relations, benevolence, and social conformity). The value pattern of interpersonal relations was salient for freshmen. Critical and empirical events that tended to undermine students'confidence in their value intentions, perception of parents' values, and religious experiences were all examined to clarify the characteristics of students' value intentions. Experiences in the university environment that contributes to establishment of the core of identity were discussed, focusing on value intentions as a dynamic and evolving system.
yKey Wordsz Value intentions, Japanese university students, Semi-structured interview, Identity formation

SATO, Ayumi & UCHIYAMA, Ichiro: The Effects of Shared Book Reading on Mothers' Behavior with Infants: A Longitudinal Intervention to Increase Reading Frequency.

This longitudinal study examined mother-infant interactions in free-play situations when infants were 9- and 12 months old. Twenty-eight pairs of 9-month old infants and their mothers were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The first group was a shared book reading condition (n=14) in which mothers were asked to share books every day and were given picture books regularly from the time of the first observation (9 months of age) until the second observation (at 12 months). Control group mothers (n=14) were given no instruction. The first result was that mothers' praise and children's smiling occurred more frequently in the shared book reading group than in the control group, when children were 12 months old. This suggests that mothers in the shared book reading group sensitively attuned their behaviors to children's social signals. The second finding was that children's simultaneous smiling and looking at their mothers were also more frequent in the shared book reading group than in the control group at 12 months old. This result suggests that children in the shared book reading group tended more to share emotions with their mothers.
yKey Wordsz Shared book reading, Intervention, Mother-Infant behavior, Infancy, Longitudinal study

YOSHITAKE, Naomi, MATSUMOTO, Satoko, MUROHASHI, Hiroto, FURUSHO, Junichi & SUGAWARA, Masumi: The Effects of Positive Internal Characteristics and Social Relations on Life Satisfaction in Middle and High School Students.

Positive internal characteristics and social relations have been investigated for their effects on global life satisfaction in adolescence. However, their relative importance to life satisfaction and developmental differences in their effects on life satisfaction have not been uncovered. The present study tested a model which assumed that internal characteristics and social relations were directly related to life satisfaction, and that at the same time social relations were associated with internal characteristics even after controlling for the effects of gender and parents' educational backgrounds. Responses on self-report measures by 7th grade (n=254) and 10th grade (n=368) students were utilized in SEM analyses. The results supported the model, and subsequent multi-group analysis showed that the relationships and degrees of association among factors were comparable between the two cohorts. One exception to this cross-age finding was that the link between family relationship and internal characteristics were significantly stronger for 7th grade students, implying that the family environment has a more important role in enhancing positive internal characteristics in early adolescence.
yKey Wordsz Life satisfaction, Positive internal characteristics, Social relations, Adolescence, Structural Equation Modeling

YAMAGUCHI, Maki: The Development of Number Concepts and Strategies of Equal Distribution in Students with Intellectual Disabilities.

Fifteen junior high school students with intellectual disabilities (<7 mental age) participated individually in an experiment in which they were given a task related to number concepts and equal distribution. The main results were as follows: (1) Number concepts of students with intellectual disabilities closely corresponded to students' mental age regardless of their chronological age. However, the way they solved problems was different from that of children without intellectual disabilities. (2) Some students had simple computational skills even though their mental ages and number concepts were both at an early childhood stage. (3) With increased mental age, children became better at the equal distribution task. (4) There was a difference in distributive strategies depending on the child's number concept. These findings suggest that children with intellectual disabilities learn informal mathematical skills in a unique way.
yKey Wordsz Number concepts, Equal distribution, Distributive strategies, Intellectual disabilities, Informal mathematical knowledge

NAKASHIMA, Nobuko: Developmental Changes in Children's Understanding of Declines in Physical and Mental Functions Associated with Old Age.

IIn this study of children's understanding of aging, five groups (5-, 6-, 7-, and 8-year olds, and college students) predicted how 6 traits (running speed, resistance to colds, physical force, function of heart , bone strength and memory) change between the ages of 21 (young adulthood) and 80 (late adulthood). Participants answered either "It declines" or "It improves" for each trait. The results showed that: (1) children began to realize at about age five that physical functions decline with age, and at around age six they had the same level of understanding of these traits as college students; (2) while young children up to age 7 barely understood that memory declines with aging, from 8 years of age they began to show a clearer understanding; and (3) development in understanding of memory decline is related to awareness of the relationship between memory and body (or brain). Cognitive factors contributing to this understanding were discussed from the standpoint of development in naive biology and understanding of the mind-body relationship.
yKey Wordsz Conceptual development, Naive biology, Aging, Mind-body relationship, Early childhood

TODA, Mari & WATANABE, Kyoko: Social Information Processing and Development of Interpretative and Reactive Behavior toward Ambiguous Attacks.

This investigation concerned the normative development of social information processing (SIP) during the process of puberty. Japanese students (N =699) from 5th to 11th grades responded to hypothetical vignettes based on SIP assessments. Hostile attributions and aggressive responses decreased between grades 5 and 11, while evoked negative emotions peaked in grade 7. Cluster analysis revealed that 4 groups were identified in terms of combination of attributions, evoked emotions, and response behaviors. As for students above grade 7, the group that displayed hostile attributions, negative emotions, and aggressive responses scored significantly lower on satisfaction than did the other groups, but there was no group difference in satisfaction with school. The results indicate that early adolescents tend to have more negative emotions toward a target person than other age groups when they suffer mild harm, even if they understand intellectually that the target person could be blameless. In addition, the data suggest that negatively distorted SIP could be related to undesirable family interactions rather than to school life.
yKey Wordsz Social information processing (SIP), Hostile attribution, Puberty, Evoked emotion, Normative development

SUGIMOTO, Hideharu & HAYAMIZU, Toshihiko: Assumed Competence, Image of Getting a Full-Time Job, and Time Perspective among University Students.

This study examined the relationship between assumed competence based on undervaluing others, and negative images of getting a full-time job, which influences the difficulty of career choice. University students (N =339) completed scales that measured self-esteem, assumed competence, images of getting a full-time job, and time perspective. Combining the tendency to undervalue others and level of self-esteem, we classified the participants into four competence types: omnipotence, assumption, self-esteem, and atrophy. The main results were as follows. Students who were classified as an assumption type were more likely than those classified in the self-esteem type to have a negative image of getting a full-time job, and to have a negative time perspective on experiences from the past to the future. The results imply that for the students classified as the assumption type, undervaluing of others is generalized to their negative image of getting a full-time job. In addition, their negative image of getting a full-time job plays a self-defensive role in maintaining their minimal self-evaluation.
yKey Wordsz Image of getting a full-time job, Assumed competence, Time perspective, Career choice, University students

Emura, Saki (Graduate School of Education, Kagawa University) & Okubo, Tomoo (Kagawa University). The Relationship between Subjective Adjustment to the Classroom and School Life in Elementary School Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.3, 241-251.

The goals of this study were to (1) develop a subjective adjustment scale for elementary school children from the viewpoint of person-environment fit, (2) examine the reliability and validity of the scale, and (3) use the scale to investigate the relationship between school life and subjective adjustment. In Study 1, factor analysis of the data from the initial set of 18 items in the subjective adjustment scale produced 3 main factors: "sense of comfort," "feelings of acceptance and trust," and "sense of fulfillment." The reliability and validity of the feelings of class adaptation scale were confirmed. In Study 2, to examine the relationship between school life and subjective adjustment, multiple regression analysis was performed with school life as the independent variable, and subjective adjustment as the dependent variable. The result of the study showed that the relationship between feelings of class adaptation and the factor of school life differed by classroom..
yKey Wordsz Subjective adjustment, Person-environment fit, School life, Elementary school children, Classroom teacher

Sunagami, Fumiko (Chiba University), Akita, Kiyomi (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo), Masuda, Tokie (Sacred Heart Professional Training College), Minowa, Junko (Kawamura Gakuen Woman's University), Nakatsubo, Fuminori (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University) & Yasumi, Katsuo (Tokyo Seitoku College). Practical Knowledge about Preschool Clean-up Time: Comparisons of Teachers' Narratives about Outdoor and Indoor Clean-up Time. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.3, 252-263.

This study investigated the practical knowledge used by teachers during clean-up time. The results suggested the following. (1) Teachers worked together when using certain strategies, respecting children's play, planning how to speak to children, and providing information about the next activity, in both outdoor and indoor situations. (2) Teachers were concerned about their distance from children in outdoor situations, because distances were greater than in indoor situations and thus sometimes required changes in location. (3) In outdoor situations, teachers communicated their respect for children's play by initiating clean-up activities after ascertaining that the children were satisfied with their playtime. (4) The structural characteristics of preschools affected the balance between how teachers communicated their respect for children's play and how teachers conducted clean-up activities in outdoor situations. (5) Teachers combined play and clean-up activities in indoor situations because it was not necessary to change locations in these circumstances. (6) During indoor situations, teachers participated in clean-up activities with children and considered and devised ways to speak to children.
yKey Wordsz Practical knowledge, Situational differences, Preschool, Clean-up time, Teachers'narratives

Nakajima, Shunji (Reserch Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Okada, Ryo (School of Education, Nagoya University), Matsuoka, Mirei (Reserch Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Tani, Iori (The Fuculty of Humanities, Tokaigakuen University), Ohnishi, Masafumi (Reserch Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine) & Tsujii, Masatsugu (School of Contemporary Sociology, Chukyo University). Parenting Styles of Parents of Children with Developmental Disabilities. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.3, 264-275.

This study compared the style of parents with developmentally disabled children, and patents of children with typical developmental. We focused on children's problem behavior (i.e., ADHD tendencies, and difficulty of adaptive behavior) in relation to parents' mental health (i.e., depressive mood and sleep disorders). Participants were 139 parents of children with developmental disorders. The SDQ, ADHD-RS, BDI-II, and PSQI-J were adopted as questionnaire measures. The results indicated that parents of children with a developmental disorder exhibited less positive involvement, less consultationaccompany style, and more rebukes, and felt more difficulty with handling their children. The strength of ADHD tendency and problem behavior of children may have contributed to such a negative parenting style. As to the mental health scores of mothers, scores for depressive mood and sleep disorder were negatively correlated with positive involvement and consultation-accompany style. They were also positively correlated to reports of rebukes and difficulty in handling children. The discussion emphasized that clinical interventions concerned with parenting styles must consider children's developmental features.
yKey Wordsz Parenting style, Developmental disorder, Problem behavior, Mental health

Nishita, Yukiko (Department for Development of Preventive Medicine, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology), Tange, Chikako (Department for Development of Preventive Medicine, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology), Tomida, Makiko (Department for Development of Preventive Medicine, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology), Ando, Fujiko (Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Aichi Shukutoku University) & Shimokata, Hiroshi (Department for Development of Preventive Medicine, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology). Openness and Intellectual Change among Japanese Middle-aged and Elderly Adults: A Six-Year Longitudinal Study. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.3, 276-286.

This study examined the relationship between the personality trait of openness and subsequent intellectual change in Japanese middle age and later adulthood. Subjects (N=1,591) comprised the second and fifth wave participants of the National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA). Openness was assessed using the NEO Five Factor Inventory, and intelligence was assessed with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Short Forms. Repeated measures Analysis of Variance revealed that elderly people who are more open at the time of the baseline measurement maintained their level of 'Information' test score for six years, whereas elderly who were less open showed a decline in their scores. The longitudinal association between openness and the 'Information' score was not found among middle-aged adults. On the other hand, in both age groups openness was cross-sectionally associated with 'Similarities,''Picture Completion,'and'Digit Symbol'tests scores, but not subsequently with intellectual change. These results suggest that openness may explain individual differences in adult intelligence, and that especially among the elderly higher levels of openness may be helpful for maintaining higher levels of general factual knowledge.e.
yKey Wordsz Openness, Intelligence, Middle-aged and Elderly Adults, Longitudinal study

Ohno, Sachiko (Shirayuri College). Men's Commitment to Family Reconsidered: Focus on the Diversity of Life Style as a Work / Life. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.3, 287-297.

Based on their balance of energy investment among work, family, and personal activities, 332 married men with 3-4 year old children were categorized into 4 lifestyle types: "job plus personal activity," "job-only," "double-standard," and "egalitarian." The relationship between men's life satisfaction and their commitment to the family was examined using hierarchical multiple regression analysis on each type. The main findings were the differences between "double-standard" and "egalitarian" which were found to be highly family-oriented. Sharing household chores with one's wife had a positive effect on a man's life satisfaction in the "egalitarian" type, while all variables about commitment to family were not significant in the "doublestandard" group. Furthermore, a wife's preference for traditional gender roles increased one's life satisfaction in the "doublestandard" but not in the "egalitarian" type. These findings suggest that men's high commitment to family does not always imply that they are free from the traditional gender bias.
yKey Wordsz Young fathers, Work/ life balance, Diversity of lifestyle, Commitment to family, Life satisfaction

Kanemasa, Yuji (Department of Psychology, Otemon Gakuin University). Commonalities and Disparities between Early Adult Romantic Couples and Middle-Age Couples in the Effects of Mutual Support on Relationship Satisfaction and Mental Health. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.3, 298-309.

This study revealed similarities and differences between early adult romantic couples and middle-age couples in terms of the effects of mutual support on relationship satisfaction and mental health. Pairs of participants were 104 early adult romantic couples and 156 middle-aged couples. The results showed that variables related to support, i.e.,"support expectations (evaluated by self)," "partner's support (evaluated by partner)," and "perceptions of partner's support (evaluated by self)," and relationship satisfaction in early adult romantic couples were higher than those among middle-age couples. Mental health in middle-age couples was better than that in early adult romantic couples. The results of a multiple-group analysis revealed that"support expectations"elicited"partner's support,"and that"partner's support" affected "perceptions of partner'ssupport" in middle-age couples. However those tendencies were not found in early adult romantic couples. In addition,"perceptions of a partner's support"predicted relationship satisfaction, and relationship satisfaction affected mental health,in both early adult romantic couples and middle-age couples. These results were discussed in terms of adult attachment
yKey Wordsz Early adult romantic couples, Middle-age couples, Support, Relationship satisfaction, Mental health

Yamagata, Kyoko (Kyoto Notre Dame University). Developmental Analysis of Notational and Procedural Knowledge in Picture-Book Reading. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.3, 310-319.

Two studies were conducted to examine children's development of notational and procedural knowledge, by using a shared picture-book reading task in connection with the ability to read Japanese hiragana letters. Forty children ages 2.5-4 years and 66 children ages 4-6 years participated in Studies 1 and 2, respectively. The results revealed three different developmental stages in the acquisition of notational and procedural knowledge: (a) 2.5-year-olds already possessed knowledge for using picture books, could distinguish letters from non-letters or pictures, and understood the directionality of following the text between pages, and the content and meaning of the text; (b) procedural knowledge for reading text and reading of specific letters developed gradually with age; and (c) once children could understand written text (i.e., between ages 4 and 6), their ability to understand the starting point for reading text on the first page improved gradually with age. The results also indicate that the ability to read letters is related to the development of procedural knowledge for reading text and letters..
yKey Wordsz Notational and procedural knowledge, Ability to read letters, Preschool-Age children, Developmental process, Picture-Book reading

Aoki, Naoko (Faculty of Human Life Sciences, Fuji Women's University). First, Second, and Third Grader's Views of Being Praised in Natural Settings: The Factors in the Settings and Those Work for Motivation. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.3, 320-330.

This study investigated the factors that enhanced motivation through praise in natural settings. In Study 1, first, second, and third graders were interviewed regarding episodes in which they were motivated by being praised. The contents of these episodes were divided into seven categories: times when children were praised, the person who praised them, the activity, background of the activity, evaluation of the activity, mode of praise, and the child's emotional experience. The more frequently reported factors in these episodes were activity, mode of praise, and the person who praised them. In Study 2, students reported the activity, mode of praise, and the person who praised them in their experiences of motivation through praise. In addition, students ranked the three factors on the basis of their importance, and explained their reasons for these rankings. Their reasons indicated that the high value of the activity, the emergence of positive emotions, the interpersonal need (i.e., need for approval or affiliation) in relation to the person who praised them, and the wording and tone of the praise, enhanced their motivation.
yKey Wordsz Praise, Motivation, Natural setting, Motivational factors

Hosotani, Rika (The Joint Graduate School in Science of School Education, Hyogo University of Teacher Education) & Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko (The Joint Graduate School in Science of School Education, Hyogo University of Teacher Education). Emotional Competence of Student Teachers and High Quality Teachers When Interacting with Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.3, 331-342.

Previously research has shown that high quality teachers are well aware of their use of emotional competence in teaching. The present study identified student teachers' emotional experiences and expressive patterns while they interacted with children, and investigated the characteristics of their emotional competence in teaching. Comparing student teachers' emotional experience, expression, and regulation with that of high quality teachers, this report also discusses implications for teacher education. Qualitative analysis of interview data demonstrated that student teachers had various emotional experiences including self-elicited negative emotions. The major expressive patterns were natural expressions, staging of emotions, and suppression of emotions. Self-elicited fear was a characteristic emotional experience of student interns, and students also reported that the fear sometimes went beyond their control. Moreover, many student teachers found it difficult to directly stage the expression of anger. It was suggested that student teachers are less aware of using their skills in expression of emotions when teaching, and that their emotional competence for teaching had not developed adequately. Teacher educators may need to facilitate student teachers' awareness of their emotional competence when interacting with children.
yKey Wordsz Emotional competence, Student teaching, Emotional expression, Emotion regulation, Emotional labor

Takahashi, Noboru (Faculty of Education, Osaka Kyoiku University), Otomo, Kiyoshi (Center for the Research and Support of Educational Practice, Tokyo Gakugei University) & Nakamura, Tomoyasu (Faculty of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu University). Development and Evaluation of a Grammar and Discourse Subscale of the ATLAN (Adaptive Tests for Language Abilities). THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.3, 343-351.

This paper reports the characteristics of a grammar-discourse test which was developed as a subscale of the ATLAN (Adaptive Tests for Language Abilities). ATLAN, which can be used via the Internet, is a collection of sub-scales used to assess different language abilities, mainly in middle childhood. In Study 1, we prepared 67 items from 8 grammar categories for elementary school children and 67 items from 12 grammar categories for preschool children. Participants were 309 children from the first to third grades and 258 preschoolers from 3-6 years of age. One hundred and twenty eight items were chosen based on the results of study 1, as an item pool for a grammar-discourse subscale of the ATLAN. In Study 2, 59 preschool children responded to the two subscales of the ATLAN, grammar-discourse and vocabulary, in addition to the LC Scale (Language Communication Developmental Scale; Otomo et al., 2008). The results of multiple regression analysis, in which the child's score of LC Scale was a dependent variable and the two ATLAN scores were independent variables, showed that 48% of the variance on the LC Scale was explained by the two ATLAN subscales. A discussion focused on the possibility of expanding the ATLAN tests.
yKey Wordsz Grammar, Language development, ATLAN, Adaptive test, Item response theory

Abe, Aya (The National Institute of Population and Social Security Research). Affluence and Poverty: Relative Poverty of Children in Japan. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.4, 362-374.

The relative poverty rate of children in Japan stands at 16%, indicating that one child out of six is growing up in poverty. However, the concept of relative poverty is not well known even among researchers, policy makers and the general public, and the consequences of growing up poor in an affluent society are not understood. This paper discusses how the notion of poverty is strongly affected by the Japanese publicfs anti-materialistic sentiment, which inhibits consideration of relative poverty as an issue. It also discusses how relative poverty leads to the social exclusion of children, and how it affects children through parental stress, isolation and time constraints.
yKeywordszChild poverty, Social exclusion, Relative poverty

Ito, Tetsuj (College of Humanities, Ibaraki University). Poverty in the Context of Equality: Families Living on the Water in Hue, Vietnam. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.4, 375-383.

Although everyone should in theory be regarded as equal in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, in fact this is not the case. Most families have numerous children, and most do not attend school due to poverty. Based on field research conducted in 2006, the life world of families living on the water is described, and the problem of poverty in the context of equality is discussed. General problems affecting these families and children include lack of birth certificates or registration and insufficient access to medical services. On the other hand, a type of grichnessh is found especially in terms of the childrenfs active expression. The question of what psychological supports are available for these people should be the focus of future research.
yKeywordszVietnam, Hue, People living on the water, Poverty in g equalityh, Psychological support

Hasegawa, Tomoko (Faculty of Human Sciences, Taisho University). Poverty and Affluence from the Perspective of the Development of Eating: Beyond Hunger and Obesity at Micro and Macro Levels. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.4, 384-394.

This paper examined the current circumstances of eating from an ecological perspective, and discussed poverty and overabundance of eating. At the macro level, it discussed poverty and obesity by describing global levels of poverty and hunger, and the over-abundance of food and obesity resulting from the dominance of food production and supply by multi-national organizations. A micro level discussion was concerned with a psychological perspective of poor Japanese eating habits and poor interactions among Japanese family members. Finally, this paper defined affluence of eating from macro and micro levels. The macro level described the democratization of food producers and consumers, the ability of consumers to select food while understanding the mechanisms of the food production system, and the creation of a new food culture. The micro level described not only children being able to eat with family or friends as an intimate member of the group, but also their experience of the delight of cooking to produce their own food.
yKeywordszDevelopment of eating, Poverty, Affluence, Hunger, Obesity

Kawano, Kenji (National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry). Poverty and Pathology of Society: Violence and Suicide. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.4, 395-403.

The purpose of this paper was to consider poverty with regard to violence and suicide. Considering anomie theory or inner impulse theory, poverty raises the probability of generating violence. However, it is possible to affect the direction of violence, according to some reports about child abuse, domestic violence, and crime. On the other hand, concerning suicide, its relation to economic fluctuation is explained theoretically. However, empirical research about the relation between suicidal behavior and shortage of social resources based on a socioeconomic situation is not consistent. Consequently, the following two features of poverty become clear: (1) it induces an inner state of mind which should be resolved to enable recovery, and (2) it deprives people of the opportunity to use the protective factors such as suitable exchanges in a family, use of support services, a stable living environment, and educational opportunities. Conversely, generating violence or suicide can be readily grasped by observing poverty. By advancing research from the viewpoint of the poverty as a niche, it is possible to understand factors which manage these social pathological phenomena.
yKeywordszViolence, Suicide, Poverty, Social resources, Interpersonal network

Miyauchi, Hiroshi (Takasaki University of Health and Welfare, Faculty of Junior College). An Introduction to Developmental Psychology as Related to Poverty and Social Exclusion. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.4, 404-414.

This paper discusses the effects of poverty according to our current knowledge about human development. The discussion is based in part on a study of gPoverty and Childrenh which was conducted by an interdisciplinary research group at the Faculty of Education of Hokkaido University, and on other findings from historical thesis and non-fiction sources. Specifically, the investigations were concerned with how poverty affects child development in their living environment, at each stage of development from the fetal period through middle childhood. Most past developmental psychology studies in Japan have excluded children and parents in gabsolute poverty.h However, considering Japanfs growing numbers of poor households, researchers may have already come across children and parents in grelative povertyh in their experiments or observations, without being aware of this poverty. This paper suggests that researchers should become more conscious of poverty and social exclusion, and proposes redefinitions of the concepts of grelative povertyh and gabsolute povertyh from a developmental point of view adapted from the social sciences.
yKeywordszAbsolute poverty, Relative poverty, Developmental stage, Social exclusion

Oh, Seon Ah (Department of International Social Studies, Maebashi Kyoai Gakuen College), Takeo, Kazuko (Faculty of Science Division I, Tokyo University of Science), Pian, Chengnan (China University of Political Science and Law), Takahashi, Noboru (Faculty of Education, Osaka Kyoiku University), Yamamoto, Toshiya (China University of Political Science and Law) & Sato, Tatsuya (College of Letters, Ritsumeikan University). Pocket Money and Childrenfs Sense about Money Matters in Japan, Korea, China, and Vietnam: Childrenfs Affluence and Structure of Human Relations. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.4, 415-427.

In this study, children in four nations were compared concerning the thinking and activities of children with regard to money. A questionnaire survey was conducted on students in the 5th grade of elementary schools, 2nd grade of junior high schools, and 2nd grade of high schools in Japan, Korea, China, and Vietnam. The questions focused on the following points: how children get money, childrenfs actual behavior and awareness of social norms (judgments of right and wrong), peer relationships, and parent-child relationships, in relation to childrenfs use of money. The results were as follows. Childrenfs experience using money was more profound and their attitudes about using money were more positive in this order: Japan, South Korea, China, and Vietnam. Japanese children were most aware and Vietnamese children least aware that pocket money was their own money. Japanese children, compared to Korean children, had more negative attitudes toward treating friends to foods and lending money within friends. Based on these results, a discussion followed concerning with affluence and poverty.
yKeywordszSense about money matters, Consumption world, Structure of human relationships, Affluenceh

Ueda, Reiko (Okinawa Prefectural College of Nursing). Child Development and the Environment of Community: A Developmental-Ecological Approach. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.4, 428-438.

Children are born immature as human beings and need support in order to establish self-care. They learn skills, knowledge and attitudes through the imitation of and identification with their caregivers. Children thrive as members of their family and community if they are given high quality care and education. Poverty influences childrenfs health and development negatively, but gbeing poorh is different from gbeing impoverished.h Therefore, early identification of and intervention for children at risk are important to prevent children from gbecoming impoverished.h The author discusses a dynamic relationship between children and the environment of their community, based on long-term longitudinal studies in three different regions in Japan, from a developmental-ecological standpoint. The paper focusses on the following: (1) theories about the building of an effective environment of community; (2) definition of an environment of community; (3) developmental studies in three different regions in Japan; and (4) characteristics of health and behavioral problems of children in the different regions. In conclusion, a new concept of gCommunity-based Child Development (CCD)h is proposed from the developmental-ecological perspective.
yKeywordsz Community-based Child Development (CCD), Developmental-ecological approach, Long-term, longitudinal study, Early identification and intervention, Poverty and characteristics of community

Fujita, Hidenori (Kyoei University). Influences of Modern Poverty on Childrenfs Development and Schooling. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.4, 439-449.

Since the late 1990s, the problems of modern poverty, socio-economic differentials and deteriorating conditions of childrenfs life, welfare and schooling have become one of the major social and policy issues. This paper deals with this issue, focussing on the academic achievement gap and child abuse. First, it proposes a conceptual framework of the relations between the physical, psychic and socio-cultural aspects of childrenfs development and environmental factors that affect their development, and points out some developmental difficulties caused by poverty. Second, based on various statistical data, it outlines the recent realities of poverty and economic differentials, examines the factors and the mechanisms that cause the achievement gap. Third, based on several research results, it outlines a recent rising trend in child abuse, and examines its risk factors, pointing out that major risk factors of child abuse are povety, single-parent families, isolation and the fatigue of child-caring. Fourth, it shows a growing tendency for reproduction of poverty and socio-economic differerentials, and comments generally on the tasks and responsibilities of our society and policy-making.
yKeywordszPoverty, Structural complexity, Academic achievement gap, Child abuse, Socio-cultural Reproduction

Matoba, Yuki (Furusato-no-kai, gNon-Profit Organization for Self-Support Assistanceh). A Literature Review concerning Social Support for the Poor in Adulthood and Old Age in Japan. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.4, 450-459.

This paper summarizes the overall status and issues regarding support for the poor in adulthood and old age. It also offers proposals for solutions, and reviews the literature to propose issues to study relevant to the future support the poor. Using the CiNii database, and by combining by gandh logic the keywords of gyouth,h gold age,hgdisability,hgworking,hgself-reliant,h and gsupport,h with the keywords of gpoverty,hgsocial relief,hglow income,hghomeless,hgsleeping outdoors,hgin the street,h and gdestitute,h searches were made of the literature published between from 2002 to 2011. Papers were extracted with each combination of keywords, and the contents of the 88 extracted papers concerning support for the poor in adulthood and old age were classified and reviewed using the categories of gthe actual status and support of the poor from the viewpoint of life stages,hgactions toward support of self-reliance,h and gsupport for social inclusion.h
yKeywordszPoor, Homeless, Support, Mental health, Literature review

Hirata, Shuzo (Graduate School of Human Sciences, Waseda University) & Negayama, Koichi (Department of Human Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Human Sciences, Waseda University). Child Protection Institutions as Allocare Systems from the Viewpoint of Poverty. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2012, Vol.23, No.4, 460-469.

Allocare occurs when a child is raised by individuals other than a parent. This article focuses on the experiences of children living in child protection institutions and graduates of the child protection system, from the viewpoint of poverty in Japan. Residential care of children is equivalent to the institutional allocare systems provided by our society. The system has notable dysfunctions. However, some people with current or past experience receiving institutional care are working to improve their poor situation. There are strong norms in Japanese society dictating that the biological parent should also be the social parent, and these expectations could impede the promotion of allocare systems. This situation may improve in the future as people gradually become aware of the diversity of family styles, which becomes more and more apparent in light of the collapse of the contemporary nuclear family.
yKeywordszAllocare, Social protection of children, Child protection institution, Poverty