ABSTRACT
THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (2013, vol.24)


Vol.24 No.1

Oyama, Tomoko (Graduate School of Letters, Hokkaido University, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) & Naka, Makiko (Graduate School of Letters, Hokkaido University). Young Childrenfs Narratives about Positive and Negative Events Nominated by Parents or Children. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.1, 1-12.

A sample of 50 preschoolers (28 five-year olds and 22 six-year olds) and their mothers participated in a study of how young children talk spontaneously about emotional events. Mothers were first asked to provide two positive and two negative events that their child had experienced, and one activity that the child routinely performed. Children were then individually asked to talk freely about five events. Three of these events were those generated by the mothers (one positive event, one negative event, and the routine activity), but children also provided one positive and one negative event about which they wanted to talk. Events suggested by mothers and positive events were more likely to be specific events, whereas negative events and events that the children provided were more often recurring events. Children talked more about the motherprovided and positive events. In particular, they provided more information about places and objects for the positive events, and about places, subjects, objects, and activities for events the mother generated. Children also used more emotionally positive words than negative words.
yKeywordszPreschoolers, Emotional events, Free recall, Narratives


Hirabayashi, Rumi (Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo Gakugei University), Kono, Toshihiro (Meiwa Special Needs Education School), & Nakamura, Kenryu (Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo). Development of Handwriting Patterns in Elementary School Children Using Digital Pens. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.1, 13-21.

Researchers have assessed handwriting speed and accuracy as a way to estimate writing difficulties. However, these measurements fail to illustrate the process of handwriting. Information, such as letter stroke finishing, or the number of characters written at one time, provides clues to possible difficulties. Digital pens can aid this type of analysis. Elementary school students (grade 1-6, N=615) participated in the study. It was found that the hovering time (when the pen is not touching the paper) before the movement between segments was longer than the time within segments, for students in the 2nd through 5th grade. It follows that there were two stages of development related to the input process of handwriting. Additionally, three particular patterns appeared to emerge during the process of writing. Pattern A consisted of gletter by letter,h while pattern B was gword by wordh and pattern C was a gcontinuoush pattern. 55.1% of the 6th grade students followed pattern B, 39.3% pattern C, and 5.6% followed pattern A. The results suggest that students who maintain pattern A in upper elementary school may have difficulties in handwriting.
yKeywordszHandwriting, Hovering time, Writing skills, Development of writing, Elementary school children


Oshima, Kiyomi (Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University). Middle-Aged Mothersf Maturity Process in Their Childcare Experiences: Interviews regarding Their Successes and Failures. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.1, 22-32.

This article examined how middle-aged mothers who have young adult children feel about their experiences with childcare. Data collected in semi-structured interviews with 22 mothers were categorized and analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach. Many mothers began to rear their children in the way they thought would be best for the children based on gmodel mothersh they had read about. They often gave their children higher priority than they gave themselves. Occasionally, overwhelmed by a sense of obligation to take care of children, they took a self-centered approach to childcare. Having gained support from people close to them, having committed themselves to helping children handle problems, and having learned from their children as well as teaching them during the years they were raising them, in middle age recognized that during those years they had gained in maturity, as their children supported their individual initiatives and sought to emulate their way of life.
yKeywordszMiddle-aged mothers, Childcare, Maturity


Kosaka, Yasumasa (Faculty of Human Studies, Wako University). Causal Relationships between Identity and Romantic Relationships among University Students: A Three Panel Study with University Students Having a Boyfriend, or a Girlfriend. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.1, 33-41.

The goal of this study was to investigate reciprocal causal relationships between identity and romantic relationship among university students having a boyfriend or a girlfriend. A three-wave panel study was conducted at approximately threemonth intervals. Structural Equation Modeling on the cross-lagged effect model used panel data obtained from 126 university students (38 males and 88 females) who completed the Multidimensional Ego Identity Scale (MEIS; Tani, 2001) and an Effects of Romantic Relationships scale (Kosaka, 2010). The results suggest that relationship anxiety had positive causal effects on identity. The investigation further suggests the ego-developmental meaning of having a boyfriend or girlfriend in adolescence. yKeywordszIdentity, Romantic relationship, Adolescence, Panel study


Tanaka, Akari (Graduate School of Humanities, Tokyo Metropolitan University). Facilitation of 3-Year-Old Childrenfs Spontaneous Emotion Regulation by Preschool Teachers. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.1, 42-54.

This study focused on preschool teachersf behaviors in childrenfs emotional settings, particularly in settings when children stumbled, to explore the role of preschool teachers in childrenfs emotion regulation. Observations were conducted of interactions between 3-year olds (N =26) and their two teachers at a preschool. The observations and interview data with teachers were analyzed by the method of psychological ethnography. Functional analysis of the teachersf behaviors revealed that their behavior involved staying out of the childrenfs way. Additional analysis of the functions of teachersf behaviors showed that the teacherfs behavior ggot children to settle down,h gcultivated a feeling of sadness and frustration,h and gchanged their manner of expressing emotions.h These findings led to the conclusion that teachersf staying out of the childrenfs way enabled children to face problems and afforded them the opportunity to regulate their emotions.
yKeywordszObservational method, Emotion regulation, Preschool teacher, Ethnography, 3-year olds


Oshima, Kiyomi (Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University). Parentsf Marital Trust, Positive Parenting, and Young Adultsf Mental Health. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.1, 55-65.

It is widely recognized that parentsf marital relationship has an influence on their childrenfs mental health, but few studies have examined whether this relation differs by the gender of the parent or child. The present study investigated how marital trust and positive parenting affect the psychological well-being of young males and females. Young adults (140 males and 153 females with a mean age of 22.4 years) and their parents completed questionnaires. The results showed that the level of marital trust among parents affected how well parents supported young adults. It was also found that sons understood the importance of their relationship with their fathers only after the father stated that the relationship was important. On the other hand, daughters recognized that they were supported by their fathers when their mothers had a strong level of trust in their husbands and the marriage. These findings suggest that the recognition of positive parenting contributes to the wellbeing of sons and daughters, and makes them less likely to be depressed.
yKeywordszMarital trust, Positive parenting, Young adults, Mental health


Kurosawa, Tai (Graduate School of Education, Tohoku University, Japan Society the for Promotion of Science) & Kato, Michiyo (Graduate School of Education, Tohoku University). Development of a Scale of Relationship-Focused Coping for Marital Couple Stress. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.1, 66-76.

Successful coping involves maintenance of relationships during time of stress, through a process called relationship-focused coping. This article reports the development of a Scale of Relationship-Focused coping, and an examination of its validity and test-retest reliability. Participants were 117 Japanese parents, contacted through two kindergartens, who were engaged in child rearing. Factor analysis confirmed three aspects associated with maintaining relationships: gescape-avoidance,h gactive engagement,h and gprotective buffering.h Frequency of escape-avoidance was negatively related to marital satisfaction. Frequency of active engagement was positively related to empathy, marital satisfaction, and well-being, but was negatively related to age. In addition, these three aspects of relationship-focused coping discriminated healthy vs. at-risk groups of parents. The scale showed test-retest reliability. These findings suggest the effectiveness of active engagement and the ineffectiveness of escape-avoidance for Japanese couples.
yKeywordszRelationship-focused coping, Marital satisfaction, Well-being, Empathy


Kuraya, Kaori (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University). How Do Children Understand the Function of Emotional Similes as Effectively Transmitting Their Emotions to Others? THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.1, 77-87.

This study examined how children understand the function of emotional similes. An emotional simile has the function of clearly and effectively transmitting speakersf emotions to others. It was verified first that adults correctly recognize this function. To examine whether children can also understand the function of an emotional simile, 265 elementary school students, including 91 2nd graders (36 boys and 55 girls), 78 4th graders (30 boys and 48 girls), and 96 6th graders (48 boys and 48girls) took part in this study. Children read stories in which the main character had an emotion (happiness, sadness, or anger), and then answered this question: gWhat will the main character say in order to transmit his/her emotion clearly and effectively to other people?h There were no grade-level differences in understanding of the function of emotional similes, but older children more often used emotional similes when they expressed their own emotions than did younger children. The results suggest that the basis for understanding the function of emotional similes is attained during childhood.
yKeywordszEmotional similes, Childhood, Emotion, Emotional transmission


Nagahashi, Satoshi (Graduate School of Education, Hokkaido University). Meaning Making by Preschool Children during Pretend Play and Construction of Play Space. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.1, 88-98.

This study explored the nature and the characteristics of the preschool childrenfs peer play from the viewpoint of the Vygotskyfs play theory. The emergent process of preschool childrenfs collaborative pretend play on the theme of a hospital was investigated for a month. The childrenfs process of constructing play space for pretend play by using play materials such as blocks was also explored through micro-genetic analysis.Children gradually began to enact proper make-believe activities and role-play scenarios related to the hospital. The Discussion focused on the interdependency between childrenfs play activity and the process of their construction of play space.
yKeywordszCollaborative play, Meaning making, Play space, Structured play activity


Saitoh, Makoto (Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University), Kameda, Ken (Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University), Sugimoto, Hideharu (College of Humanities, Chubu University) & Hiraishi, Kenji (Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University). Development of the Self among Japanese Late Adolescents and Young Adults, Based on Keganfs Constructive-Developmental Theory in Relation to Eriksonfs Psychosocial Crisis. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.1, 99-110.

This study examined tendencies development of the self among Japanese in late adolescence and young adulthood, based on Keganfs constructive-developmental theory. Japanese versions of the Subject-Object Interview (SOI) and the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (EPSI) were administered to 40 late adolescents and 40 young adults (ages=25-35 years). Most participants were found to be at a transition between stages 3 and 4 of Keganfs structural-developmental stages. A positive relationship was found between age and Keganfs stage scores, and between Keganfs stage scores and the total as well as sub-scale scores for Industry and Identity on the EPSI. These results were discussed in terms of Keganfs views on development of the self and Eriksonfs views on identity development in late adolescence and young adulthood.
yKeywordszSelf, Late adolescence, Young adulthood, Kegan, Erikson


Vol.24 No.2

Ueno, Masaki (Ashikaga Chuo School for Special Needs Education) & Okuzumi, Hideyuki (Faculty of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University). Developmental Changes in Judgment of Maximum Reachability and Optimal Distance in Hand-Reaching. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.2, 117-125.

Participants in this developmental study of hand-reaching were 25 adults and 109 children ages 4-15 years. On a judgment task, participants evaluated the reachability of a target, and the actual critical reach distance was measured. On the optimal task, participants held a target and then put it the position where it was easiest to put. The results for the judgment task showed that participants overestimated the critical reach distance, and that this error was exhibited significantly more often by young children (ages 4-12). Adults generally performed this task accurately. On the optimal task, young children put thetarget close to the critical space, whereas adults on average placed it at 60 percent of the distance of critical reach. These results are discussed in the context of participantsf body-scale/size.
yKeywordsz Hand-reaching, Body-scale perception, Developmental study, Critical space, Optimal space


Kazama, Midori (Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Tokyo Womanfs Christian University), Hirabayashi, Hidemi@(Tokyo Womanfs Christian University), Karasawa, Mayumi (Tokyo Womanfs Christian University), Tardif, Twila (University of Michigan) & Olson, Sheryl (University of Michigan). Ambiguous Parenting and Four-Year-Oldsf Understanding of Others: A Comparison between Mothers in Japan and the U.S.. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.2, 126-138.

This study investigated how ambiguous maternal parenting in Japan related to 4-year-oldsf theory of mind, emotional understanding, and inhibitory control. Japanese mother-preschooler dyads (n =105) and a comparison group of 58 American dyads were examined. Mothers completed the Socialization of Moral Affect-Parent of Preschoolers (gSOMAh) which assessed the parenting of preschool-age children. The results indicated that Japanese mothers more often reported ambiguous parenting toward their children than American mothers. Controlling for childrenfs age, verbal ability, maternal education, and other four variables on the SOMA, ambiguous parenting in Japan was negatively correlated with theory of mind and emotional understanding. In addition, eencouragingf parenting in Japan was positively correlated with theory of mind. In contrast, parenting in America was not associated with theory of mind or emotional understanding. The results also showed that there was no relation between ambiguous parenting and inhibitory control in either Japan or the U.S. These findings suggest the possibility that ambiguous parenting in Japan does not encourage the development of 4-year-oldsfunderstanding of others, due to the fact that utterances by Japanese mothers to their children are generally less clear.
yKeywordsz Ambiguous parenting, Japan / U.S. comparison, Theory of mind, Emotional understanding, Inhibitory control


Nozawa, Sachiko (Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo). Longitudinal Observations of Toddlersf Self-Assertive@Interactions with Daycare Peers. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.2, 139-149.

This study examined the development of toddlersf peer interactions, focusing on exchanges of self-assertive strategies. Ten children in a toddler class at a daycare center (1- and 2-year-olds) were observed during free play for a year. Data were analyzed for the 5 children in the class who turned 2 years old during the early part of the school year. In Phase 1 of the observations (May-August), toddlers tended to exchange non-verbal strategies and negative emotions. In Phase 2 (September-December), while they still used non-verbal strategies and expressed negative emotions, children also started to use verbal strategies to negotiate their intentions. These verbal strategies seemed to contribute to their partnersf regulation of behaviors and negative emotions. In Phase 3 (January-March), compared with the earlier phases, they more often exchanged verbal strategies without a negative emotional tone. In this latter phase, children sometimes negotiated their needs and intentions verbally to reach a mutual understanding. It is possible that toddlers contributed to peersf self-assertive strategies and to a reorganization of their self-assertive interactions.
yKeywordsz Peer relations, Self-assertion, Emotion regulation, Toddlers, Dynamic systems


Saito, Yu (Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University) & Uchida, Nobuko (University of Tsukuba). Discipline Style and Picture-Book Reading among Sharing and Authoritarian Mothers. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.2, 150-159.

This study examined the association between discipline styles and reading styles among 29 mothers of 3-6 year old children. Participants were divided into two groups according to the mothersf discipline style. The results suggested that a motherfs discipline style was reflected in her manner of emotional support. Sharing mothers (i.e., the opposite of authoritarian mothers) were more supportive, warm, and respectful of their childrenfs autonomy. They listened emphatically to their childrenfs comments and left them in the room to think alone. Conversely, authoritarian mothers responded more persuasively and gave clearer answers and clarifications. Childrenfs behaviors also differed according to the mothersfdiscipline style. Children with sharing mothers explored a picture book more spontaneously by turning pages, asking questions, and expressing surprise. This study suggests that the difference between sharing and authoritarian discipline styles is manifested in the emotional domain. The present results are also discussed with regard to language development.
yKeywordsz Mother-child interaction, Picture-Book reading, Discipline style, Emotional support, Childrenfs autonomy


Takemura, Akiko (Graduate School of Letters, Hokkaido University) & Naka, Makiko (Graduate School of Letters, Hokkaido University). Fit-Focused Secondary Control and Coping Strategies of Older Adults with Declining Health and Physical Strength. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.2, 160-170.

This study explored how older adults cope with uncontrollable life events such as serious health problems, the burden of looking after aging family members, and the loss of loved ones, based on the concept of fit-focused secondary control. In semi-structured interviews, 24 participants between 70-74 years old were asked how they had coped or were coping with uncontrollable life events. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach, which resulted in 12 concepts and four categories. Older adults who used secondary control tended to (1) recognize that their physical and cognitive decline caused an imbalance between their personal goals and resources; (2) accepted their decline by realizing that there is diversity in life courses; (3) adjusted to their decline with a realistic assessment of their remaining resources; and (4) used their social networks and recreational opportunities to cope with prolonged and uncontrollable negative life events.
yKeywordsz Aging, Fit-Focused secondary control, Adjustment, Acceptance, Modified grounded theory


Minakuchi, Keigo (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University), Yuzawa, Masamichi (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University) & Li, Sixian (South China Normal University). Japanese Preschoolersf Segmentation of English Word Sounds: Comparison with Chinese by English Word Memory Span. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.2, 171-182.

This study examined how Japanese preschoolers perceive and segment the sounds of English words, compared with Chinese preschoolers. Thirty-nine Japanese and 22 Chinese children performed memory span tasks in which they repeated aloud English words with five types of phonological structures: CV, CVC, CVCV, CVCC, and CVCVC. The following were the main results. The memory span pattern among Japanese children was consistent with the Japanese rhythm of mora, whereas the pattern for Chinese children was not consistent with the Chinese rhythm of syllables. In addition, the duration of spoken words by Japanese children as a whole was longer than that of Chinese children. Finally, Japanese children exhibited more segmentation patterns for mora than did Chinese children. These results suggest that the Japanese rhythm of mora influences preschoolersf perception and segmentation of English sounds. In contrast, Chinese preschoolers may perceive and segment English sounds for whole words.
yKeywordsz English, Preschoolers, Speech perception, Segmentation, Phonological working memory


Ozawa, Yoshio (Graduate School of Social Informatics, Aoyama Gakuin University). The Structure of Self-Narratives, Including Recognition of Intergenerational Transmission in Old Age. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.2, 183-192.

Self-narratives about a family were collected through semi-structured interviews with 31 healthy elderly individuals. For nine participants who provided a narrative about intergenerational transmission or intergenerational buffers, the narrative structure was characterized, and their ordering of intergenerational relationships was analyzed. Three types of narrative were identified: approved intergenerational transmission, partially approved intergenerational transmission, and partially approved intergenerational buffers. The self-narrative about intergenerational transmission had a contrasting structure, in which one admires the next generation which inherited a positive legacy and denies the one who did not. This indicates that recognition of transmission gave order to onefs self-experience. The self-narrative about intergenerational buffers contrasted the suffering of the previous generation and next generation which did not inherit a negative legacy, and displayed the construction of meaning about the relationship with the previous generation and transmission of a negative legacy to the next generation. This self-narrative has both an active feature of reconstruction of meaning about an unfortunate childhood, and a passive feature of abruptly discovered negative transmission.
yKeywordsz Generativity, Intergenerational transmission, Intergenerational buffers, Old age, Narrative approach


Osugi, Yoshimi (Poppins Corporation) & Uchiyama, Ichiro (Faculty of Psychology, Doshisha University). Development of Object Knowledge in Three- to Five-Year-Oldsf Manual Search for an Occluded Object. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.2, 193-201.

Children who are over three years old can generally find dropped and hidden objects easily. However, there is little research on how exactly preschoolers are able to find them. This study therefore focused on whether children could find a dropped and hidden object, not only by applying the concept of solidity (knowledge that objects move only on unobstructed paths), but also by understanding the representational properties of a board acting as a barrier to stop the moving object. This study utilized ag hole taskh in which the board had a hole through which an object went while falling, although it looked like a full board. On the hole task, three-year-olds had significant difficulty finding the object, compared to four- and five-year-olds. This suggests that when searching for an object, three-year-olds take into consideration solely the concept of solidity, while four- and fiveyear-olds include representations of the physical properties of the board in their search. That is, representational ability when searching for objects develops between the age of three and four.
yKeywordsz Solidity, Preschoolers, Representation, Manual search


Yamamoto, Kohsuke (Department of Psychology, Nara University of Education). An Influence of Individual Differences in Self-Identity Achievement on Voluntary and Involuntary Autobiographical Remembering. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.2, 202-210.

The present study examined how individual differences in the self-identity achievement affect voluntary and involuntary autobiographical memory. In Study 1, 313 participants completed an identity scale (Shimoyama, 1992) that assessed their level of self-identity development. Participants were then asked to record the contents and ratings of involuntary autobiographical memories for one month, using a diary method. Participants with a higher level of self-identity achievement recalled more important, more emotional, and more vivid memories than did participants with a lower level of self-identity achievement. In Study 2, 114 participants were asked to complete the same identity scale used in Study 1 and to recall autobiographical memories in the laboratory. The results confirmed those of Study 1. Furthermore, voluntary memories were more vivid and more important than involuntary memories. These findings were interpreted in terms of the self-memory system (Conway & Pleydell-Pearce, 2000).
yKeywordszIdentity, Autobiographical memory, Involuntary memory, Self-Memory system


Ito, Hiroyuki (Research Center for Child Mental Development), Mochizuki, Naoto (Research Center for Child Mental Development), Nakajima, Syunji (Research Center for Child Mental Development), Seno, Yui (School of Education and Welfare, Aichi Prefectural University), Fujita, Chikako (Faculty of Humanities, Nanzan University), Takayanagi, Nobuya (Research Center for Child Mental Development), Ohnishi, Masafumi (Faculty of Education and Regional Studies, Fukui University), Ohtake, Satoko (Research Center for Child Mental Development), Okada, Ryo (Faculty of Education, Kagawa University) & Tsujii, Masatsugu (School of Contemporary Sociology, Chukyo University). Construct Validity of the Nursery Teacher Rating Development Scale for Children (NDSC): Component Structure and Its Relation to Age and Maladaptive Problems. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.2, 211-220.

The present study assessed the construct validity of the Nursery Teacher Rating Development Scale for Children (NDSC). Data were obtained from 9,074 preschoolers over four years of longitudinal investigation at nursery schools. Principal component analysis yielded nine subscales, and all subscales exhibited sufficient internal consistency. Four subscales, (Calmness, Attention, Sociality, and Adaptability) showed a comparatively weak relation with age and a strong relation with scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a screening tool for behavioral and emotional problem of children. This finding indicated that these subscales reflect childrenfs maladaptive behaviors or symptoms of developmental disorders. Inversely, the other four scales (Curiosity, Self-care, Fine movement, and Gross movement) showed a relatively strong relation with age and a weak relation with SDQ scores. This indicated that these subscales measured childrenfs developmental level of adaptive behaviors. In conclusion, the balanced scale composition of NDSC may enable early detection and appropriate treatment of children who have special needs and contribute to planning nursery education that is adaptable to suit childrenfs developmental state.
yKeywordszChildcare records, Developmental disorders, Adaptive behavior, Maladaptive behavior


Vol.24 No.3

Kasada, Mai (Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo). Life Course Decision-Making Processes of Middle Aged Siblings of Individuals with Mental Retardation. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.3, 229-237.

This study focused on how siblings (N=14) of individuals with mental retardation make major life course decisions. It was also concerned with what helped or prevented individuals from resolving conflicts in making choices. Data from survey interviews were analyzed with a Trajectory Equifinality Model (TEM). TEM is a method to compare the diversity and complexities between life courses in temporal order (Sato, 2009). There were two main findings. First, it was found that siblings may have conflicts about caretaking responsibilities for their mentally retarded brother / sister at the time they chose their own careers. However, these conflicts could be resolved if their parents did not lead the siblings to become caregivers. The second finding was that siblings selected care roles on their own volition when their mothers could no longer care for the disabled individuals. Thus, parents are the key persons for the siblings through all their life stages. It is necessary to expand opportunities and systems for the support of siblings even if they provide care in part for their brothers / sisters.
yKeywordszFamilies of mental retarded, Siblings, Middle age, Life course


Kamiya, Tetsuji (Graduate School of Education, Tohoku University). Marital Relationships of Married Couples Raising Children with Discrepant Family Role Concepts. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.3, 238-249.

The aim of this study was to categorize types of marital relationships of couples with children under 6 years of age, in terms of their concepts of family roles such as spouse, parent and housekeeper, and in relations with in-laws. It also examined the association between the types of relationships, marital satisfaction, and a sympathetic communication style. Questionnaire data from 183 couples were analyzed. Based on the importance of mutual family roles as related by wives and husbands, 3 types of couples were identified. gMutually high couplesh both rated the importance of all family roles as high. In contrast, gmutually low couplesh both rated them all as of low importance. gDiscrepant couplesh showed divergent opinions in rating the importance of roles, whereby wives rated the roles as very important but the husbands rated them as unimportant. In addition, mutually high couples and discrepant couples were more satisfied with their marriages and reportedly used a more sympathetic communication style than did mutually low couples. These results indicate that divergent opinions within couples are likely to be compensated for by a sympathetic style of communication.
yKeywordszFamily role, Married couples, Marital satisfaction, Spousal communication, Couples with children


Matsuda, Natsumi (Department of Clinical Psychology, Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo, Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). Management of Tics by Patients with Tourette Syndrome. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.3, 250-262.

Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a chronic tic disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics. Typically, tics start in childhood and their severity declines during adolescence. Tics are partly suppressible but cannot be fully controlled. People with TS often try to control tics, but this may cause negative side effects. The purpose of the current study was to explore the process of self-coping and the contexts in which it occurs, in order to identify factors that make self-coping effective. Sixteen participants with TS were interviewed and transcripts of their interviews were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. The results suggest that patients feel simultaneously compelled to control tics and reluctant to do so because of the costs involved, and that achieving partial control is a way of striking a balance between the benefits and costs. Situations in which patients keep trying and failing to control tics were compared with situations in which they gained a sense of control by partially controlling them. Finally, the discussion explored the contexts in which self-coping was successful, along with patientsf thoughts and feelings when trying to control tics.
yKeywordszTourette syndrome, Tics, Self-Coping, Semi-Voluntary symptoms, Sense of control


Iizuka, Yuki (Graduate School of Human Culture, Ochanomizu University). Separation and Reintegration of Mothers and Infants Admitted to a NICU because of Low Birth Weight. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.3, 263-272.

Separation and reunion between mothers and infants who have been placed in a NICU due to low birth weight have traditionally been studied in the field of nursing, and have seldom been studied by developmental psychologists. The present study investigated emotional conflicts and real life experiences, through an analysis of interviews conducted with 8 mothers, based on a phenomenological approach. Consistent with insights from past maternity nursing research, the present findings suggested that mothers suffered from guilt for bearing children with a low birth weight, and felt a psychological distance from the infants due to their separation from the infants who were placed in incubators. These feelings, however, disappeared quickly when the mothers became able to hold their infants without restraint. The discussion focused on the practical and theoretical implications of this study.
yKeywordszMaternal holding, Mother-Infant relationship, NICU, Mother-Infant separation


Sakakihara, Hisanao (Osaka University, Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion Science). Improvement of Relationship Disturbance between an Autistic Child and Identified Other: Modification of Subjective Abilities and Defective Traits. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.3, 273-283.

It has been shown that assistance for autistic children in their interactions with other children is beneficial for their development. Therefore, it is important to understand the nature of relationship development between autistic children and specific others, in addition to how autistic children themselves change and how the identified other affects them. This paper is a case study of an autistic boy from age 10:5 to 11:11, based on records of the boyfs activities and those of a child-care supporter. The results were as follows: (1) as the relationship progressed, the boyfs social cognition and symbolic thought also developed; (2) obsessive behaviorfs strength and frequency declined and its direction became variable; and (3) relationships between the autistic boy and others expanded. It is clear that in relationship development between the autistic child and a specific other, there was a change in subjective abilities and defective traits, and in the relationship itself. In addition, the identified other had an effect on these changes as an gattachment object,hgtransitional object,h and gautistic object.h
yKeywordszAutism, Relationship development, Attachment, Transitional object, Autistic object


Kosaka, Yasumasa (Faculty of Human Studies, Wako University). Reasons to Not Desire a Steady Romantic Relationship, in Relation to Adolescent Ego Development. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.3, 284-294.

This study investigated the relationship between reasons for not desire steady romantic relationship and ego development among adolescents. Participants were 307 university students who did not desire a steady romantic relationship (Love-Unnecessary group). Factor analysis of items consisting of reasons to not want a steady romantic relationship revealed 6 factors: avoiding the burdens of a steady romantic relationship; self-mistrust; desire for a full life; not knowing the meaning of romantic relationships; the influence of past romantic relationships; and optimistic expectations for a romantic relationship. Next, cluster analysis revealed 5 clusters: adolescents declining to have a steady romantic relationship; adolescents having no reason not to desire a steady romantic relationship; adolescentsf self-mistrust; adolescents being influenced of past romantic relationships; and adolescents having optimistic expectations for romantic relationships. Finally, Analysis of Variance indicated that adolescents who declined to have a steady romantic relationship and reported self-mistrust were low in ego development, while adolescents with optimistic expectations for a romantic relationship were high in ego development.
yKeywordszRomantic relationship, University students, Identity, Ego development, Adolescents


Inumaki, Shuji (Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University, Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). A Longitudinal Study of Social Interactions between Nursery Teachers and a Young Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Development of Joint Attention. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.3, 295-307.

This longitudinal study examined how a young child with autistic disorder reacted to nursery teachers, in the development of pointing behavior. Observations of this child were conducted from the age of 2 years 10 months to 6 years 2 months, in a nursery school for handicapped children. Data were divided into three periods in relation to the childfs pointing behavior (1: no comprehension or production of pointing, 2: only comprehension of pointing, and 3: comprehension and production of pointing). The main findings were as follows. First, the young child showed greater responsiveness to nursery teachersfapproaches involving physical proximity and / or contact, and the teachersf manipulating of a toy to which the girl paidattention. Second, the child demonstrated more avoidance of teachersf approaches that did not follow the childfs focus of attention. Third, with the development of joint attention, the relationship between the teachersf approach and the young childfs response changed. These results indicate that the approaches of teachers must not only elicit the childfs attention and interest, but also must change according to the childfs developmental level.
yKeywordszChildren with autism, Joint attention, Nursery teachersf approaches, Pointing behavior, Quality of interaction


Furumi, Fumikazu (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). Experiences with Role-Play Activates Primary School Childrenfs Mind-Reading on a Communication Task. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.3, 308-317.

The present study examined the effects of role-play on mind-reading, to determine whether understanding of anotherfs thoughts and role-playing were related in 9 year-old primary school children. In this study, 46 children performed three types of tasks related to understanding the mind of another individual. After performing these tasks, participants were randomly assigned to two groups and introduced to a communication task in which the use of mind-reading was essential (adapted from Dumontheil, Apperly, & Blakemore, 2010). For purposes of analysis, the data were divided into two groups according to scores on the tasks related to understanding the mind of another individual. The non-role-playing group made significantly more mistakes than did the role-playing group. The low-score group made significantly more mistakes than did the highscore group. These results suggest that experience with role-playing may activate mind-reading in the communication task. However, there was no group difference in reaction time whereas there was a group difference among the 40 adult participants.
yKeywordszMindreading, Role-Playing, Theory of mind, Perspective-Taking, Second-Order false belief task


Osumi, Junko (The Joint Graduate School (Ph.D.Program) in Science of School Education, Hyogo University of Teacher Education) & Matsumura, Kyoko (The Joint Graduate School (Ph.D.Program) in Science of School Education, Hyogo University of Teacher Education). Effects of Teaching Materials on Eye Gazes to Letters in Autistic and Non-Autistic Students with Intellectual Disabilities. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.3, 318-325.

This paper investigated the effects of three different teaching methods (tracing letters with a stick, underlined a sentence, and reading a sentence) on the eye movements of students with intellectual disabilities while they read letters in a picture book. Twenty-three of the participants were autistic, while another 12 participants also had intellectual disabilities but were not autism. When they read a picture book, their eye movements were monitored by an eye tracker monitor that was linked to a computer. Participantsf length of visual fixation, fixation count, and first fixation duration on letters were analyzed. In the case of tracing letters with a stick and underlining a sentence, scores for fixation length and first fixation duration on letters were high. The cut-in illustration in the picture book did not influence the eye movements of the students. These results suggest that tracing letters with a stick and underlined a sentence are effective methods that help autistic and non-autistic students with intellectual disabilities to pay attention to letters.
yKeywordszEye gaze, Autism, Intellectual disabilities, Teaching methods for reading letters, Attention


Ishijima, Konomi (Graduate School of Human Sciences, Waseda University) & Negayama, Koichi (Faculty of Human Sciences, Waseda University). Mother-Infant Interaction in Tickling Play: Intention Reading Based on Narrative Sharing. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.3, 326-336.

This article reports a case study on the development of mother-infant tickling play and ticklishness, with special reference to the intention reading of the infant. Naturalistic observations of mother-infant play were carried out for 3 months in the home of a 5 month-old infant. The results indicated that alternate looking between the tickling motherfs hands and her face appeared at 6.5 months. The infant also showed an expectation of ticklishness before the actual touch. A triadic relationship was characterized by rapid alternation of the infantfs visual orientation between a target object and the mother, a sign of understanding another personfs intention. The situation observed here had a similar structure to that of a triadic relationship focusing on the same target and sharing intention. But it was also somewhat different because the target was not an external object. Based on narrative sharing, the mother and infant seemed to use the mothersf hands as a target of mutual intention two months before the appearance of a true triadic relationship. The present findings may be taken as an evidence of a eprototriadic relationshipf (Negayama, 2011) which is interpreted as the precursor of a true mother-object-infant triadic relationship.


yKeywordsz Tickling, Intention reading, Tactile interaction, Mother-infant interaction, Longitudinal research


Jin, Yijun (Graduate School of Contemporary Psychology, Rikkyo University) & Ono, Hisasi (Graduate School of Contemporary Psychology, Rikkyo University). Mother-Child Correlation in the Process of Epigenetic Development and Its Influence on Youth Identity. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.3, 337-347.

The present study investigated mother-child correlations in the process of epigenetic development, and the influence of such correlations on youth identity formation. Participants were 104 college students (21 males, 83 females) and their mothers. Correlational and Structural Equation Modeling analysis revealed the following: (1) there were many significant correlations between psychosocial themes of epigenetic schema for both mothers and youth; (2) significant mother-child correlations did not appear to exist for aspects of basic trust and autonomy; (3) motherfs basic trust and autonomy were significantly correlated with youth identity; and (4) basic trust and autonomy of youth function as mediating variables in the model of maternal influence on youth identity.
yKeywordszEpigenetic development, Mother-Child correlation, Youth identity, Psychosocial developmente


Sato, Kensuke (Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo) & Sanefuji, Wakako (Institute for Advanced Study, Kyushu University). Irrational Outcomes Promote Young Childrenfs Understanding of False Beliefs. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.3, 348-357.

The present study investigated whether surprising outcomes promote young childrenfs understanding of false beliefs. Thirtythree 3-year-olds (3 ;4 ?4 ; 3) and 36 4-year-olds (4 ;4 ?5 ; 3) completed three kinds of false belief tasks. One of the tasks included irrational events (an object in a pot suddenly disappeared and another object appeared unexpectedly). The other two tasks had a similar story structure to the girrational taskh did not include the surprising disappearance / appearance of objects. Children in both age groups gave more correct answers on the irrational tasks than on the other two tasks. Although the proportion of correct answers for irrational tasks did not significantly exceed a chance level, consistency of answers on the irrational tasks was high, especially among 4-year-olds. These findings suggest that children used the surprising experiences aroused by irrational events as a cue to draw inferences about othersf and their own false beliefs. The results also indicate that childrenfs hindsight bias may interfere with their mind-reading processes, and that a mechanism to represent false beliefs is in operation before children become able to pass standard false belief tasks.
yKeywordszPreschooler, Theory of mind, False belief, Hindsight bias, Surprisee


Yamamoto, Naoki (Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo). The Microgenetic Process for Rolling-Over Movements in Male Adults in Developmental Relation to Rolling-Over Movements in Infancy. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.3, 358-370.

This study redefined variability of rolling-over movements among adults in relation to developmental research on rolling-over movements in infancy. Based on the concept of multiple time scales, we experimentally analyzed the microgenetic processes of 26 healthy male adultsf rolling-over movements in terms of individual intrinsic dynamics. In Set 1, participants rolled over comfortably. In Sets 2-4, they rolled over in three different movement patterns. In Set 5, participants again rolled over comfortably. Our results demonstrated the following: (a) correlations of performances in Sets 2-4 with that in Set 1 differed according to the instructed movement patterns; and (b) changes in performances of Sets 1 and 5 differed by participant. These results led to two conclusions: (a) motor coordination with individual intrinsic dynamics differed by restrictions on movement, and (b) stability of intrinsic dynamics differed by participant. Finally, the present results were integrated with previous findings to outline the developmental process of rolling-over movements.
yKeywordszMultiple time scales, Microgenesis, Rolling-over movement, Intrinsic dynamics


Harada, Shin (Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University). Developmental Changes from Adolescence to Early Adulthood in the Relationship between Narcissism and Interpersonal Relationships. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.3, 371-379.

The present study examined differences in the relationships between narcissism and friendship, and between narcissism and intimacy, in the developmental transition from adolescence to early adulthood. It was hypothesized that there would be little difference in the relationship between narcissism and gtrust for a friendh as an index of friendship, while narcissism would correlate more negatively with intimacy in an early adult sample than in an adolescent sample. Samples of 247 undergraduate and graduate students between the ages of 18-25 years (adolescents) and 352 adults between the ages of 26-35 years (young adults) completed a questionnaire which consisted of narcissism scales, a friendship scale, and an intimacy scale. The results of correlation analyses and tests for two correlation coefficients showed that there was no significant difference in the relationship between narcissism and gtrust for a friendh between the two developmental stages, while multidimensional narcissistic indices for four dispositions (gneed for attention and praise,h gnarcissistic rage,h gnarcissistic depression,h and glack of empathyh) correlated more negatively with intimacy for the early adult sample than for the adolescent sample.
yKeywordszNarcissism, Intimacy, Friendship, Adolescence, Early adulthoods


Yuzawa, Masamichi (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University), Watanabe, Daisuke (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University), Minakuchi, Keigo (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University), Morita, Aiko (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University) & Yuzawa, Miki (The Faculty of Human Life Sciences, Notre Dame Seishin University). Classroom Behavior and Learning Supports for Children with Poor Working Memory. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.3, 380-390.

This study consisted of classroom observations of children with relatively poor working memory, and examined their behavioral characteristics in Japanese and mathematics classes to suggest ways to support their learning. Two classes of first graders received computer-based working memory tests, and 3 children with the poorest scores from each class were selected; 37 hours of observations were conducted in total for the children in Japanese and mathematics classes. Some children rarely raised their hands for teachersf questions, and found it difficult to listen carefully to teachersf explanation or to their classmates. There were exceptional situations in which those children raised their hands, when (a) teachers gave ample time for childrenfs consideration before a question; (b) teachers repeated questions; and (c) teachers gave several alternatives as answers to a question. These findings suggest that in classes where individual differences in the development of working memory are inevitable a teacher could use questioning techniques to facilitate the learning of children with poor working memory.
yKeywordszWorking memory, First grade children, Learning supports, Individual differences, Classroom observations





Vol.24 No.4

Muto, Takashi (Department of Child Study, Shiraume Gakuen University). The Role of Developmental Research in Practitioner Fields: Toward Research-Oriented Practice and Practice-Oriented Research. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.4, 407-416.

This paper examined the ways in which developmental psychology can be useful for practitioners in the field, with early childhood education and child care as an example. This discussion appeared to relate to the broader problem of how research can be useful for practitioners in general. Progress in research including the evidence-based approach in developmental psychology continues to change the relationship between research and practice. It is also necessary to devise a more effective way to compile practice-based research. There appear to be three types of research geared at practice: research by practitioners themselves, action research based on collaborations between researchers and practitioners, and a third approach where researchers observe and analyze the practice. We next examined the characteristics of several types of research: child research in general, research on curriculum and teaching methods, research on social problems, research that provides evidence, basic research that transforms theoretical frameworks, and research that promotes social policies. It seems important based on this analysis to promote research from the fields of practice. Finally, we proposed that it would be useful to cultivate both research-oriented practitioners and practice-oriented researchers.
yKeywordszDevelopmental psychology, Practice, Research, Evidence-Based approach, Practice-Based research


Hongo, Kazuo (Graduate School of Education, Tohoku University). Specialization and the Roles of Clinical Developmental@Psychologists: Progress in Developmental Psychology in the Interaction of Practice and Basic Science. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.4, 417-425.

This article focused on the specialization and roles of the clinical developmental psychologist from three points of view. First, it discussed the meaning of gclinicalh within clinical developmental psychology by looking back at the history of the@Japanese Organization of Clinical Developmental Psychologists. The second issue was the meaning of a gdevelopmental point of viewh at the core of the specialization of clinical developmental psychologist, from the viewpoint of developmental assessment and support. Third, the role of clinical developmental psychology and developmental psychology in providing support after the East Japan Great Earthquake Disaster was discussed. Consideration of the circularity of gbasicsh and gpracticeh in developmental psychology and clinical developmental psychology leads to suggestions for the future direction of developmental psychology research.
yKeywordszClinical developmental psychology, Developmental psychology, Developmental point of view, Theory and practice, Longitudinal research


Fujino, Hiroshi (Tokyo Gakugei University). Basic Research on Developmental Disorders and Clinical Applications: Autism@Spectrum Disorder and Theory of Mind. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.4, 429-438.

Basic research on the development of theory of mind (ToM) has influenced clinical research and practice concerning@developmental disabilities, and studies of clinical cases have contributed to progress in basic research which investigates the developmental foundations of ToM. This paper first reviews the influence of the concept of ToM as related to metarepresentation processing, which may explain the social and communication problems associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from a cognitive viewpoint in research on developmental disabilities. This work raises the question of the applicability range of the ToM concept. Secondly, an eAnimated Version of ToM Testf developed by Fujino (2002, 2005) is suggested here to be a valid measure. On the basis of the data collected using this tool, a discussion followed with regard to the developmental trend of ToM in school-aged ASD children and the relationship between acquisition of ToM and language abilities. The effectiveness and limitations of the two approaches used in developmental support for ToM, and problems of ToM acquisition and mental health were next discussed. Finally, a critical argument from the standpoint of the individual with ASD is provided regarding the concept of ToM.
yKeywordszAutism Spectrum Disorder, Theory of mind, Basic research, Clinical practice, Animated Version of ToM Test


Kitagawa, Megumi (Department of Human Sciences, Faculty of Letters, Konan University). Bridging Research and Practice in Parent-Child Relationship Interventions Based on Attachment Theory. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.4, 439-448.

This article reviews studies published in Europe and the United States that have bridged research and practice through interventions for the parent-child relations, based on attachment theory. Research findings have indicated that parental characteristics such as their internal working model, sensitivity, and reflective functions affect the quality of child attachment. Accordingly, various intervention programs were developed to improve such characteristics and were found to be effective. These included the Video Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting (VIPP), Minding the Baby (MTB), and the Circle of Security Program (COS). There has been active discussion about what kind of interventions and what intervention elements are most effective. Refinement of assessment tools has been found to be necessary in applications to clinical settings. Finally, future issues concerning interventions for Japanese populations were discussed. It appears that application of interventions developed in Europe and the United States requires one to examine the universality of attachment and cultural factors. We also need to explore how to provide a secure base in clinical setting and to examine hypotheses with regard to factors associated with positive change in attachments.
yKeywordszIntervention program, Parent-child relationship, Attachment, Research, Practice


Matsushima, Hideaki (School of Human Cultures, University of Shiga Prefecture). Improving Interfaces between Research and Practice in Research on Juvenile Delinquency. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.4, 449-459.

In search of a better relationship between developmental research and clinical practice in recent Japanese judicial / welfare practices, this article presented two research studies were presented as material for discussion, with respect to how they contributed to clinical practice. Both studies focused not on the specific therapeutic setting itself but rather on everyday life as a whole, and stressed the importance of micro-analysis of how the problem was socially constructed. These studies were relevant to clinical practice in that they used qualitative descriptions of the field in which clinical practice is carried out that (1) relativized the seriousness of the situation with troubled youth and (2) offered a basis for recognition of multiagency work.
yKeywordszJuvenile delinquency, Thick description, Meaning, Clinical practice, Micro-Analysis


Toda, Yuichi (Faculty of Education, Osaka Kyoiku University). Bullying Research and Supporting Prevention Practices in Schools. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.4, 460-470.

This article is based on the experience of the authorfs commitment to schools, and makes arguments concerning (1) how bullying research influenced the authorfs support of prevention practices in schools, and (2) how commitment to prevention practices shaped his own concerns about bullying problems and the direction of research. Because bullying is defined differently among children, teachers, researchers, and parents, this discussion must begin with a description of the nature of the problem, defined as grepetitive aggression in a relationship.h This definition seems to apply not only to bullying in different countries but also is relevant to child abuse and domestic violence. In addition, a process model of bullying and assessments of the severity of bullying influenced the authorfs commitment to prevention practices such as peer support in schools. However, involvement with such prevention practices revealed various limitations in his previous research. These experiences led the author to deepen his commitment to the practice and to facilitate his own research.
yKeywordszBullying, Process model, Peer support, Assessment, Cyberbullying


Onodera, Atsuko (Faculty of Human Sciences, Mejiro University). The Interface between Fundamental Studies of the Family and Practical Parent-Child Activities. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.4, 474-483.

In this study of the interface between psychological studies and the practical daily life activities, Levyfs concept of goverprotectionhand Symondfs childrearing classification were first considered from the standpoint of American social needs. Four developmental directions, e.g., gInternal Working Model,h gD- type (Disorganized / Disoriented),h gEmotional Availability,h and gFather-Child Attachmenth were next reviewed, as influenced by the Bowlbyfs theory and Ainsworthfs Strange Situation Procedure. Lastly, in reference to my research studies on father-daughter relationships and the transition to parenthood, I described my own interface activities of child-rearing magazines and educational support programs for special needs children at school. To establish a firm interface, it is important not only that developmental psychologists conduct original studies, but also that practitioners be open-minded to benefit from the new research-based knowledge.
yKeywordszParent-Child relationship, Fundamental studies, Practical Activities , Interface, Father-Daughter relationships


Hamatani, Naoto (Faculty of Urban Liberal Arts, Tokyo Metropolitan University). Difficulties of Children at an Inclusive Preschool in Sustaining Their Everyday Life: From the Standpoint of a Clinical-Developmental Itinerant Consultant. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.4, 484-494.

As an itinerant consultant to inclusive preschools, the author has recognized the increasing needs of children with severe difficulties to sustain everyday life. Practitioners and researchers concerned with early childhood care have faced the issue of the developing individuality of children`s behaviors, and also have focused on the meaning of individuality and the relationships between children and other people. Derived from various problems presented in consultations, this article provides an analysis of the structure of gdifficulty moving on to the next activityh (DMNA), in order to build a hypothetical model. In this formulation, achieving emotional closure of the activity in process was most important in the DMNA process. The origin of DMNA was considered in terms of the structure of triadic relationships in which children objectify their private cognitive and emotional experiences to share them with other people. In that moment, childrenfs sense of time becomes segmented by the caregiver`s verbalizations, which enables children to create narrative stories.
yKeywordszItinerant consultation, gDifficulty to move on to the next activityh, Inclusive preschool, Dyadic relations, Narrative story


Sato, Shinichi (Graduate School of Human Sciences, Osaka University). Fundamental and Applied Studies on Dementia from a Geropsychological Approach. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.4, 495-503.

Research shows that there are two distinct approaches to geropsychology: (1) a life-span developmental psychology approach, which explores developmental changes in individuals, and (2) an approach involving psychological facets of gerontology, which is an interdisciplinary field addressing problems encountered with aging. In this paper, the contents of dementia studies were first reviewed from neurocognitive, clinical, and developmental approaches. Second, examples of fundamental and applied studies on dementia were examined, including studies of visual space recognition within paintings of scenic images, the relationship between perception of anotherfs emotion and cognitive rigidity, false estimates of cognitive abilities of elderly patients with dementia by their caregivers, memory using false memory and metamemory methodologies, and practical interventions (i.e., the gPersonal Care Methodh). Finally, as an example of new basic research brought about by clinical knowledge, research on communication between family members and the elderly with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) at risk for dementia is clearly needed.
yKeywordszGeropsychology, Life-Span developmental psychology, Gerontology, Aging, Dementia


Kabaya, Shinsuke (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo). Mothersf Attuned Responses to Negative Emotions of Pre-Linguistic Infants: The Association between Maternal Internal Working Models and Infant Temperament. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.4, 507-517.

Researchers in the field of the intergenerational transmission of attachment have recently focused on mothersf attuned responses, which are akin to empathic responses to infantsf negative emotions (i.e., showing that the mother is gin tuneh with the babyfs emotions). The present observational study investigated how mothers produce attuned responses to their infants. Regression analyses revealed that mothers with a secure internal working model produced gmind-related comments (i.e., comments that express something about the infantfs thought processes) with smilesh in response to their infantsf negative emotions. Insecure mothers either did not make these responses, or instead made responses that did not include mind-related comments. Avoidant mothers and infants displaying highly fearful temperaments rarely produced mind-related comments with smiles. Because such attuned responses may have been overlooked in previous studies, it is important to focus on these responses as factors that promote infantsf socioemotional development.
yKeywordszAttuned response, Internal working model, Temperament, Mother-Infant interaction


Itoh, Tomoko (Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science; Faculty of Education and Integrated Arts and@Sciences, Waseda University) & Nakagaki, Akira (Faculty of Education and Integrated Arts and Sciences, Waseda University).@Can Children Really Solve Bayesian Problems? An Analysis of Junior High School Studentsf Modes of Reasoning on the Red Nose Problem. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.4, 518-526.

Junior high school students responded to the Red Nose Problem using three representations of information. Their proportions of correct answers did not differ significantly between the natural frequency (Zhu & Gigerenzer, 2006) and absolute number representations, but were significantly smaller for a partly modified natural frequency representation that included a relative frequency representation. In the partly modified natural frequency representation, students used modes of reasoning in which relative frequency was interpreted as absolute numbers. This suggests that Zhu & Gigerenzerfs (2006, pp. 302-303) finding that gchildren can systematically reason the Bayesian way if the information is provided in natural frequencies rather than in probabilitiesh was obtained because children interpreted natural frequencies as absolute numbers. The problem structure for natural frequencies was not differentiated from that for absolute numbers, in which basic firstorder quantification of probability is required. However, third-order quantification of probability is required in Bayesian problems. It appears that children do not reason the Bayesian way. These results seem to indicate gdegeneration effectsh(Nakagaki, 1989).
yKeywordszBayesian problems, Representation of information, Natural frequency representation, Operations to quantify probability, Degeneration effects


Lee, Heebok (Graduate School of Education, Tohoku University) & Tanaka, Mari (Graduate School of Education, Tohoku University). Narrative Abilities of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.4, 527-538.

The present study compared the Fictional Narrative abilities of 26 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) with the abilities of 32 typical children. Participants (ages 7- 19 years) were asked to narrate a story while looking at the images in a wordless picture book. Group differences were detected in childrenfs use of gsettingsh and gendingsh as story structure components. Children with ASD were less likely than normal children to identify the causes of a characterfs mental state and emotions. In addition, it was more difficult for ASD children to construct a story from the characterfs point of view. In contrast to findings from previous studies, there were no significant group differences in the use of referential devices, and gaze behavior at the listener was observed here in many ASD children in elementary school. Additional research is needed to determine how ASD children regulate and adjust their narratives according to the status and knowledge of the listener.
yKeywordszAutism Spectrum Disorder, Narrative, Fictional Narrative, Construction, Performance


Yamamoto, Naoki (Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo). The Microgenetic Process for Rolling-Over Movements in Male Adults in Developmental Relation to Rolling-Over Movements in Infancy. THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY 2013, Vol.24, No.3, 358-370.

This study redefined variability of rolling-over movements among adults in relation to developmental research on rolling-over movements in infancy. Based on the concept of multiple time scales, we experimentally analyzed the microgenetic processes of 26 healthy male adultsf rolling-over movements in terms of individual intrinsic dynamics. In Set 1, participants rolled over comfortably. In Sets 2-4, they rolled over in three different movement patterns. In Set 5, participants again rolled over comfortably. Our results demonstrated the following: (a) correlations of performances in Sets 2-4 with that in Set 1 differed according to the instructed movement patterns; and (b) changes in performances of Sets 1 and 5 differed by participant. These results led to two conclusions: (a) motor coordination with individual intrinsic dynamics differed by restrictions on movement, and (b) stability of intrinsic dynamics differed by participant. Finally, the present results were integrated with previous findings to outline the developmental process of rolling-over movements.
yKeywordszMultiple time scales, Microgenesis, Rolling-over movement, Intrinsic dynamics