ABSTRACT
THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (2014, vol.25)


Vol.25 No.1

Toyama, Miki (Faculty of Human Science, University of Tsukuba), Higuchi, Ken (Benesse Educational Research and Development Institute) & Miyamoto, Sachiko (Benesse Educational Research and Development Institute). Mothers' Social Support of Students Preparing for High School Entrance Examinations. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.1, 1-11.

This study investigated the worry and stress associated with high school entrance examinations, mothers' and children's later recall about the entrance exams, and the influence of mothers' social support on their children. Mothers (N=3,085) and their children completed an Internet-based questionnaire. The results indicated that children experienced various worries and stresses connected with the entrance examinations, and that many children also had feelings of self-growth as a result of the examinations. Children gained a sense of fulfillment by studying and felt that the entrance examinations were overall a positive experience. Social support from the mothers had both positive and negative effects on children. This support promoted a sense of self-fulfillment through self-development as a result of studying, but also contributed to children's worry and stress.
yKeywordszHigh school entrance examination, Social support, Adolescents, Stress, Self-growth



Hirakawa, Kumiko (Ishinomaki Senshu University). The Development of Assertive Emotional Expression in Preschool and Elementary School Children. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.1, 12-22.

The present study investigated the development of assertive expression of anger among preschool and elementary school children. In the experiment, 110 children ages 5-7 were presented hypothetical stories involving interpersonal conflicts with peers, and they were asked about the facial expressions of the protagonists. They heard four stories, two of which were about facial expressions and the other two were about both facial and verbal expressions. Sixth- and 7-year-olds chose the more intense angry facial expression than did the 5-year-olds, when the protagonist expressed his emotion only facially. In addition, 7-year-olds chose the more intense angry facial expression when the protagonist expressed his emotion by face alone, compared to when he expressed anger both facially and verbally. Finally, 7-year-olds understood the positive function of anger expression to inform others of one's intention. Therefore, the results suggest that the understanding of the assertive expression of anger develops between ages 5 to 7.
yKeywordszAssertive emotional expression, Anger, Facial expression, Preschool children, Elementary school children



Okamoto, Yoriko (Department of Early Childhood Education and Care, Shohoku College), Sugano, Yukie (Department of Childhood Studies, Aoyama Gakuin Women's Junior College), Shoji, Reika (Graduate School of Education Master's Course, University of Yamanashi), Takahashi, Chie (Faculty of Regional Sciences, Tottori University), Yagishita-Kawata, Akiko (Japan Organization for Employment of the Elderly Persons with Disabilities and Job Seekers Hokkaido Center), Aoki, Yayoi (Department of Early Childhood Education and Care, Matsuyama Shinonome Junior College), Ishikawa, Ayuchi (Aichi Prefecture Child Guidance Center), Kamei, Miyako (Research and Education Center for Life Span Development, Shirayuri College), Kawata, Manabu (Graduate School of Education, Hokkaido University) & Suda, Osamu (Graduate School of Humanities, Tokyo Metropolitan University). The Function of Parental Proxy Talk in Pre-Verbal Communication. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.1, 23-37.

How do parents communicate with babies before their infants learn to talk? It has been observed that parents use Parental Proxy Talk (PPT) as if the speech came from the infant's own voice. In other words, PPT reflects their expectations what the infants were thinking and feeling. The present study of PPT explored how PPT functions from birth to 15 months of age, and how PPT contributes to communication with pre-verbal infants. Dyadic interactions of twelve mothers with their infants were observed and analyzed. The results showed that there were three periods in the development of the use of PPT; (1) a gradual increase between 0?3 months, (2) a peak period from 6-9 months, and (3) a period of decreasing use of PPT from 12-15 months. The study also showed that PPT functions to support not only the pre-verbal infants but also parents themselves, e.g., in parents' emotion regulation.
yKeywordszParental Proxy Talk, Parent-Infant communication, Pre-Verbal communication, Longitudinal study



Kondo, Tatsuaki (Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University). Development of the gDon't Knowh Response in Preschool Children as Shown by a State Visualization Procedure. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.1, 38-46.

This study investigated whether preschool children give a gdon't knowh response to an unanswerable question, and developmental changes in gdon't knowh responses. Participants were 4-year olds (n=27), 5-year olds (n=31) and 6-year olds (n=33). On each of three tasks, participants were asked both answerable and unanswerable questions. To elicit more gdon't knowh responses, a Question Card was used which visually indicated the gdon't knowh state. Four-year old children correctly indicated a gdon't knowh response to the unanswerable question, and the gdon't knowh response was less prevalent in 5-year old children. In addition, there were non-verbal indications of a gdon't knowh state other than a clear gdon't knowh response. These results suggest that the point in development when children can correctly say gI don't knowh is earlier than previous research had indicated, and that the meaning of the gdon't knowh response in 4-year old children is not the same as that for 5- and 6-year olds.
yKeywordszPreschool children, gDon't knowh response, Unanswerable question, Visualization



Yamada, Mayo (Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University, Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). The Development of Intention as Examined in Young Children's Naming of Drawings. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.1, 47-57.

Pictures are one of the important communication tools used by young children. The present study clarified the development of intention in young children's drawings, examining developmental changes in children's naming of drawings in a communication situation. Preschoolers (20 2-year olds, 26 3-year olds, 29 4-year olds, and 30 5-year olds) were asked individually to draw a figure (e.g., a circle: without-naming condition) and a figure which was named by an experimenter and child (e.g., a circle labeled an apple: pre-naming condition). After the drawing session, an experimenter asked three test questions: (1) gWhat is this?h; (2) gIt looks like eX' (e.g., ea red light'). Which picture did you draw?h; and (3) gWhat picture were you going to draw at first?h The results showed that although 2-year olds decided to draw an object, significantly fewer of them answered with pre-naming (e.g., an apple). These 3-, 4- and 5-year olds answered with pre-naming even though they were given different names by the experimenter. In addition, significantly more 5-year olds accepted the naming from the experimenter, compared with the 2- and 3-year olds.
yKeywordszDrawing, Intention, Naming, Preschoolers



Tanaka, Yoshihiro (Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Ito, Hiroyuki (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Takayanagi, Nobuya (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Harada, Shin (Institute of Socio-Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokushima), Someki, Fumio (College of Staten Island, City University of New York), Noda, Wataru (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Ohtake, Satoko (Department of Early Child Education, College of Nagoya Women's University), Nakajima, Syunji (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Mochizuki, Naoto (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine) & Tsujii, Masatsugu (School of Contemporary Sociology, Chukyo University). Predicting School Adaptation Using the Nursery Teacher's Rating Development Scale for Children (NDSC): A Longitudinal Follow-up Study from Nursery School to Elementary School. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.1, 58-66.

This study investigated relations between scores on the Nursery Teacher's Rating Development Scale for Children (NDSC) and school adaptation, as well as the predictability of school adaptation based on NDSC scores. Two kinds of data were available for 386 toddlers: the NDSC as completed by nursery school teachers in the previous academic year at nursery school, and the Teacher's Rating School Adaptation Scale for Elementary School Students-All Student Version (TSSA-EA) completed by elementary school teachers six months after these children finished nursery school. Analyses of correlations between the NDSC and TSSA-EA revealed a relation between the NDSC scores and school adaptation. Multiple linear regression analyses and risk analyses indicated that the subscales of the NDSC predicted the following subscales of the TSSA-EA: Academic Problems, Psychosomatic Problems, Interpersonal Problems, and Emotional Problems.
yKeywordszNursery school child records, Nursery Teacher's Rating Development Scale for Children (NDSC), Longitudinal study, School adaptation



Hatano, Kai (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University, Research Fellow of the Japan Society for Promotion of Science) & Harada, Shin (Institute of Socio-Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokushima). A Study of Psycho-Social Self-Identity in Relation to Intrinsic Motivation and Active Learning. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.1, 67-75.

The goals of this study were to examine the hypothesis that psycho-social self-identity has an effect on the active learning of students by mediating their intrinsic motivation for grades. A university sample of 131 freshmen, 264 sophomores and 279 juniors (N=674) completed a questionnaire. First, based on mediational analysis, correlations showed that psycho-social self-identity, active learning of students, and intrinsic motivation were all positively correlated at all three years of college. Second, the results of multiple-population analysis showed that the hypothetical model (i.e., that psycho-social self-identity has an effect on the attitudes of students by mediating their intrinsic motivation for grades) fit the data regardless of college year. Finally, to examine the relationships among variables correctly, a boot strapping method revealed indirect effects of intrinsic motivation for all three groups. These results indicate that psycho-social self-identity and intrinsic motivation assume a crucial role in promoting the active learning of students.
yKeywordszUniversity students, Identity, Intrinsic motivation, Active learning



Nishita, Yukiko (National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology), Tange, Chikako (National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology), Tomida, Makiko (National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology), Ando, Fujiko (Aichi Shukutoku University) & Shimokata, Hiroshi (Nagoya University of Arts and Sciences). The Reciprocal Relationship between Intelligence and Depressive Symptoms among Japanese Elderly Adults. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.1, 76-86.

This study examined the reciprocal relationship between intelligence and depressive symptoms over time, in an elderly Japanese sample. Participants (age range=65-79: N=725) were from the first wave of the National Institute for Longevity Sciences Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA). They were tested three times and followed for about 4 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) and intelligence was assessed by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Short Forms (WAIS-R-SF). Structural equation modeling with a cross-lagged panel design showed that intelligence was related to subsequent depressive symptoms at every time point, such that poorer cognitive functioning was related to higher depressive symptoms. However, depressive symptoms were unrelated to subsequent intelligence. These findings suggest that intellectual ability may predict depressive symptoms in community-dwelling Japanese elderly adults.
yKeywordszIntelligence, Depression, Elderly adults, Cross-lagged panel design



Watanabe, Daisuke (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University), Yuzawa, Masamichi (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University) & Minakuchi, Keigo (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University). The Roles of Working Memory in Subtraction Problem Posing by Elementary School Children. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.1, 87-94.

This research investigated the roles of verbal and visuo-spatial working memory among 2nd and 3rd graders (N=160) when posing subtraction problems in gCombineh and gCompareh scenes. The problem in the Combine scene was concerned with the relationship between a set and a subset. The Compare scene problem was concerned with the relationship between two different sets. Children with higher scores for verbal working memory posed the subtraction problem with appropriate expressions and information congruent with the pictures presented in the Combine scene, in comparison to children with lower scores for verbal working memory. Children with higher scores for visuo-spatial working memory posed the subtraction problem with appropriate expressions and information congruent with the pictures presented in the Compare scene, compared to children with lower visuo-spatial working memory scores. These results suggest that verbal and visuo-spatial working memories play different roles for children's understanding of Combine and Compare scenes, and that different approaches are required to provide instruction on problems consisting of these two types of scenes. yKeywordszElementary school children, Working memory, Problem posing, Subtraction



Tsuda, Chiharu (Faculty of Education, Osaka Kyoiku University) & Takahashi, Noboru (Faculty of Education, Osaka Kyoiku University). The Different Influences of Phoneme-Based and Mora-Based Phonological Awareness on Learning English among Japanese Children. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.1, 95-106.

This research examined the relationships among phonological awareness, vocabulary, and spelling in English among Japanese children. Phoneme isolation from words, blending phonemes into words, and phoneme deletion from words were used to assess phonological awareness in English, based on the work of Stahl and Murray (1994). The participants were 73 first- and second-grade junior high school students. While the second-grade students had better vocabulary knowledge, there were no differences in phonological awareness and spelling between the two groups. Their errors in phonological awareness were mainly mora-based, i.e., the students answered based on morae instead of phonemes. The results of hierarchical regression analysis, with vocabulary as a dependent variable, showed that grade and spelling explained more than fifty percent of the variance. Phonological awareness, especially phoneme blending, explained a significant amount of the spelling results. Phoneme-based phonological awareness rather than mora-based awareness is apparently needed for the acquisition of spelling knowledge by Japanese children, which in turn is closely related to the acquisition of vocabulary.
yKeywordszVocabulary, Spelling, Phonological awareness, Junior high school children, Japanese students, English language education


Vol.25 No.2

Watanabe, Masayuki (Department of School Psychology, Shiga University) & Takamatsu, Midori (Japanese Red Cross Otsu School of Nursing). Developmental Changes from Childhood to Adulthood of Imaginary Body Movement in Spatial Perspective Taking. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.2, 111-120.

Spatial perspective taking consists of two processes: (1) imagination of body movement to another vantage point in three-dimensional space, and (2) other cognitive information processing. Most previous research has not separated these processes adequately. Thus, it is not clear when and how imagination of body movement develops. A video game task was devised to evaluate the response time between stimulus presentations and responses from each vantage point and the theoretical response time to rotate a body image to a 180-degree position. A hundred healthy individuals between the ages of 3 to 21 were participants (five age groups of 20 people each). Response times and numbers of correct responses on all nine trials, for each participant of each age group (inclusive of information processing functions other than imagination of body movement), confirmed that developmental change was accelerated between 6- and 13-year old groups. The theoretical response times suggested that imagining of body movements continues to develop until adulthood. These results are important for our understanding of both embodied spatial cognition and executive functions for spatial perspective taking.
yKeywordszSpatial perspective taking, Response time, Embodiment, Childhood, Information processing


Kasuga, Hideaki (Graduate School of Letters, Ritsumeikan University), Utsunomiya, Hiroshi (College of Letters, Ritsumeikan University) & Sato, Tatsuya (College of Letters, Ritsumeikan University). The Effect of Cognitions of Parental Expectations on University Students' Personality of Self-inhibition and Life Satisfaction: Focusing on Styles of Reaction to Expectations. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.2, 111-120.

This study investigated how parental expectations for their college-age children were related to their children's reaction styles, self-inhibition, and life satisfaction. Undergraduate students (N=367) completed a questionnaire that assessed parental expectations, their feelings about and reactions to these expectations, and students' self-inhibition and life satisfaction. The results indicated that students' reaction styles and life satisfaction differed according to their feelings of parental expectations. Students who thought about parental expectations only in terms of their careers and with regard to being a good child felt more of a burden, whereas students who thought about their parents' high expectations regarding personality, career, and being a good child reacted more positively to the parental expectations. In addition, the personality characteristic of self-inhibition in the latter group appeared to enhance their life satisfaction. These results suggest that not only parental expectations for children's careers, but also children's ways of thinking about their parents' expectations are important for a fuller understanding of the impact of parental expectations.
yKeywordszParental expectations, Self-inhibition, Life satisfaction, Styles of reaction to expectations


Sakata, Yoko (Faculty of Psychology, Aichi Shukutoku University) & Kuchinomachi, Yasuo (Faculty of Social Welfare, Shizuoka University of Welfare). Lifespan Developmental Changes in Abstraction Abilities for Form, Texture, and Color Features of Objects. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.2, 133-141.

This study examined lifespan developmental changes in abstraction abilities for three visual features of objects. They were shape, texture or color features, which were common to two or eight geometric figures. The findings indicated that abstraction abilities for shapes remained constant across age, but that abstraction of texture and color features varied between the six age groups. Texture and color were visible to the youngest participants (3 year-olds) and to the oldest (75-90 year-olds) age groups, but the 3 year-olds and elderly participants were not aware that the two or eight figures shared the same texture or color. These results support the "first in, last out principle" in the lifespan development of visual cognition.
yKeywordszLifespan development, Abstraction, Shape, Texture, Color


Ishikawa, Akane (Graduate School of Letters, Chuo University). The Relationship of the Past, Present, and Future in the Time Perspectives of Adolescents. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.2, 142-150.

Most research on adolescents' time perspective has focused on their future, yet attitudes and consciousness about the future vary according to one's view of the past. This study investigated differences in consciousness of goals as related to types of adolescents' views of the past. Undergraduate students (N=314) completed questionnaires that included scales about one's view on the past and goal consciousness. Cluster analysis of index scores on five subscales pertaining to one's view on the past extracted four types of students: "Disconnected" (n=137), "Conflicted" (n=78), "Integrated" (n=70), and "Captive by Past" (n=29). One way ANOVA revealed significant differences in the scores on two subscales of goal consciousness among the four student groups. "Integrated" students had higher hopes for the future than the other three clusters of students. "Integrated" students also had greater consciousness of having future goals than "Disconnected" and "Captive" students. These data revealed that students who cognitively connected the past, present, and future and were accepting of their own past had higher hopes and goals for the future.
yKeywordszTime perspective, Adolescence, View on the past, Goal consciousness, College students


Masuda, Megumi (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University). The Development of Emotional Expression and Understanding in Young Children. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.2, 151-161.

This study investigated young children's ability to express emotions on a verbal task and on two non-verbal tasks (a drawing task and a facial expression-making task). Forty-four young children (4-6 years old) participated individually. The experimenter told a story and asked each child to answer with what kind of emotion (happy, sad, angry, fear or surprise) the protagonist would feel, to draw the protagonist's facial expression on the contour of a human face, and to make the same kind of facial expression as that of the protagonist. The results showed that there was no significant correlation between children's behavior on the verbal task and on the non-verbal expression tasks, and that a significant correlation was found between scores on the two expression tasks in the younger age group (range=4 ; 5-5 ; 5). This latter finding suggests that non-verbal tasks can measure different aspects of emotions from that measured by the verbal task, and that the drawing task may possibly elucidate young children's ability to expressions emotions facially.
yKeywordszEmotion understanding, Emotional expression, Emotional labeling, Drawing, Facial expression, Preschoolers


Kikuchi, Shino (Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University). Can Preschoolers Transfer the Structure of Stories in Problem Solving?: The Development of Analogical Reasoning. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.2, 162-171.

This study investigated the development of analogical problem solving. Specifically, it examined whether preschoolers could solve a problem by extracting a solution from an analogous story. Children in the younger age group (age range=4 ; 4-5 ; 4 years) and older age group (age range=5 ; 4-6 ; 4) were presented with stories about problem-solving and asked to solve a practical problem; the solution to the problem was similar to what was embedded in the analogous stories. Half of the children who were presented with two stories were also asked to describe similarities between the stories, while the other half were not. The results showed that the older children spontaneously solved the problem without needing to compare the stories explicitly. However, the younger children generally could not solve the analogical problem spontaneously. However, the younger children who were asked to compare the two stories were able to solve the problem. These results suggest that children develop the ability to identify common structures between stories and problems at about 5 1/2 years of age, which allows them to solve analogous problems in their own lives.
yKeywordszAnalogy, Problem solving, Reasoning, Preschoolers, Analogous stories


Tagaki, Masakuni (School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University). The Meaning of Acquired Disability: A Qualitative Analysis of Life Stories of Men with Spinal Cord Injuries. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.2, 172-182.

This study examined the ambivalent meanings of acquired disability through a qualitative analysis of the life stories of people with spinal cord injuries. Semi-structured interviews with ten men, each of whom had sustained spinal cord injury for 20 years, revealed that they managed their mobility impairments independently or by using social services, and were often enthusiastic about their job, social activities and family issues. They actively promoted social awareness of disability issues, criticized current disability policies, and often complained of discrimination by public transportation personnel. Some participants were unhesitant about using a wheelchair in public, because they believed this would help raise disability awareness. At the same time some participants were reluctant to participate in social activities, because they felt some how inferior to more socially active peers. Other participants maintained the vision that they would become able-bodied again. These results indicate that a focus on ambivalent meanings of acquired disability is necessary for an understanding of the actual situation of people with disabilities.
yKeywordszAcquired disability, Spinal cord injury, Life story, Ambivalent meaning


Yamamoto, Naoki (Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo). Fundamentals and Future Subjects in the Study of Motor Development in Light of the Work of Gesell, McGraw, and Thelen. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.2, 183-198.

This paper discusses Esther Thelen's developmental theory from the perspective of motor development, as rooted in George E. Coghill's embryologic research and as developed by Arnold L. Gesell and Myrtle B. McGraw. A comparison of the developmental theories and research of Gesell, McGraw, and Thelen clarifies two theoretical fundamentals and two future subjects of interest regarding motor development. The two fundamentals are that: (i) the entire system's behavior is analyzed in terms of interactions among sub-systems, and (ii) developmental change triggers are specified in relation to the status of the system and sub-systems. Future subjects include: (iii) the concept of intrinsic dynamics, which indicates how a system's intrinsic state affects its development, and (iv) multiple time scales, which indicate that changes of various time scales are nested in development. We verified points (iii) and (iv) based on recent studies that propose future issues for consideration in the study of motor development.
yKeywordszMotor development, System theory, Intrinsic dynamics, Multiple time scales


Vol.25 No.3

Oura, Kenji (Graduate School of Education, Waseda University). The Validity of Pragmatic Reasoning Schemas Theory for Children's Conditional Evaluation. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.3, 207-220.

Many psychological researchers have investigated human thinking. For example, the pragmatic reasoning schemas theory of Cheng and Holyoak (1985) has been one of the leading theories on this topic. According to this theory people reason by using abstract knowledge structures as induced from their ordinary life experiences. Nakamichi (2004, 2006) investigated the validity of this theory by using conditional evaluation tasks with kindergarteners. As a result these researches tended not to support Cheng and Holyoak's theory. In Nakamichi's studies, however, children were not provided with a rationale as part of the task presentation. In contrast the scores of adults were higher when they received a rationale as part of the presentation of Cheng and Holyoak's four-card selection task. The purpose of the present study of three age groups (20 4-6 year olds, 27 7-9 year olds and 26 10-12 year olds) was to investigate the validity of pragmatic reasoning schemas theory from developmental point of view, by using two conditional evaluation tasks with a rationale. The results showed significant differences between the two tasks. Children's performance indicated that they were influenced by their knowledge base and prior experiences rather than by their use of pragmatic reasoning schemas and moreover these findings were also consistent with Piaget's theory. In conclusion, it was suggested that Cheng and Holyoak's theory did not hold for children.
yKeywordszCognitive development, Logical thinking, Conditional evaluation task, Pragmatic reasoning schema, Piaget's theory


Ito, Hiroyuki (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Nakajima, Syunji (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Mochizuki, Naoto (Support Center for Campus Life, Osaka University), Takayanagi, Nobuya (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Tanaka, Yoshihiro (Department of Community Child Education, Nara Saho College), Matsumoto, Kaori (Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Ohtake, Satoko (Department of Early Childhood Education, College of Nagoya Women's University), Harada, Shin (Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, University of Tokushima), Noda, Wataru (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine) & Tsujii, Masatsugu (School of Contemporary Sociology, Chukyo University). Development of the Positive and Negative Parenting Scale (PNPS): Factor Structure and Construct Validity. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.3, 221-231.

This study identified 7 subordinate concepts of parenting behaviors (involvement, positive responsivity, monitoring, respect for will, overprotection, inconsistency, and harsh discipline) based on factor structures of existing scales and findings from a meta-analysis. It also developed an inclusive scale to evaluate all of these concepts. Confirmatory factor analysis on a large dataset from 7,208 children (grades 1 to 9) supported a 6-factor model where Involvement and Monitoring were integrated, suggesting that the scale can generally be evaluated, assumed subordinate concepts of parenting. A second-order factor model, wherein these 6 factors were assumed to be explained by 2 second-order factors (Positive Parenting and Negative Parenting), was superior to a model based on expert classifications and the first-order factor model which did not assume second-order factors in terms of fit and parsimony. Consistent with previous findings, Positive Parenting and its subscales correlated with children's prosocial behavior and externalizing problems. Negative Parenting and its subscales correlated with children's internalizing and externalizing problems. These results substantiated the construct validity of the scale.
yKeywordszParenting behaviors, Parental attitudes, Factor structure, Prosocial behaviors, Problem behaviors


Yanaoka, Kaichi (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University). Effects of Planning and Executive Functions on Turning Back by Young Children in the Execution of Scripts. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.3, 232-241.

This research examined the effects of planning and executive functions on young children's performance in executing a script with and without turning back (returning to a previous state). Young children (N=94) performed a newly developed gdoll task,h two executive function tasks (DCCS and red/blue tasks), a planning task, and a receptive vocabulary task. The doll task required participants to enact a script by changing a doll's clothes and then turn back (return the doll to its previous state) by removing obstructive items. The results showed that on the doll task children's answers were divided into three steps. Specifically, shifting (the ability to switch as related to cognitive flexibility), an executive function factor, had a positive influence on whether young children could turn back. Planning was also an important factor that helped enable children to take the shortest route to execute the script. These findings suggest that shifting and planning play different roles in turning back when children execute scripts in different situations.
yKeywordszScript, Executive function, Turning back, Planning, Young children


Kondo, Tatsuaki (Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University, Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). Preschool Children's gI Don't Knowh Responses When Inferring the Emotions of Others in Equivocal Situations. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.3, 242-250.

This study studied developmental changes in whether preschool children knew that they did not recognize the emotions of others. It also investigated differences between the gdon't knowh recognition for specific other people vs. other people in general. Participants were 4-year olds (n=27), 5-year olds (n=31) and 6-year olds (n=33). Children were asked to infer the emotions of one's self, a specific friend, and others in general (a fictitious character) based on equivocal situational cues. A Question Card was used on the tasks to indicate the gdon't knowh state. The results indicated that there were more gdon't knowh responses in the gother personh than in the gselfh condition, and that six-year olds gave more gdon't knowh responses than did four-year old children. In addition, more six-year old children gave vocal explanations of their gdon't knowh responses toward gothers in generalh than did five-year old children. These results suggest that children from about 5 or 6 years of age may understand they do not recognize the emotions of others, and that there is a qualitative difference between children's gdon't knowh recognition for specific others vs. other people in general.
yKeywordszPreschool children, Emotional inference, gDon't knowh response, Self/other


Tabuchi, Megumi (Department of Psychological Science/Center for Applied Psychological Science, Kwansei Gakuin University) & Miura, Asako (Department of Psychological Science, Kwansei Gakuin University). The Effects of Intergenerational Interaction on the gNarrativesh of Old Adults as Altruistic Behaviors: An Experimental Investigation. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.3, 251-259.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of recipients' reactions to the narratives of old adults in the situation of passing on knowledge, wisdom and advice. Participants were 34 male adults (ages 60-82; M=68.38, SD=3.53) who were assigned to the Younger condition (recipients were younger adults, ages 22-23) or Same Generation condition (recipients were older adults, ages 68-72). In both conditions, participants were asked to talk to the recipients about experiences from their youth, and about the knowledge and wisdom they had gained. Recipients responded to the participants in either a positive or a neutral way. Narratives fit into three general categories (lesson, recollection, expectation) and into seven more specific sub-categories. In the Younger condition, more participants talked about elessons' than in the Same Generation condition. When the younger recipients reacted positively, the greatest number of participants talked about elessons learned from failure.' This analysis identified the reactions that elicited old adults' altruistic narratives toward younger people.
yKeywordszOld adults, Altruistic behavior, Narrative, Intergenerational interaction, Laboratory Experiment


Shima, Yoshihiro (Faculty of Education, Kagoshima University). Adolescents' Internal Working Models of Attachment as a Mediator between Their Social Adjustment and Parental Child-Rearing Attitudes. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.3, 260-267.

Many studies have reported a relationship between recognition of parental child-rearing attitudes and children's attachment, and between attachment and children's social adjustment. This study tested the model that internal working models of attachment mediate the relationship between recognition of parental child-rearing attitudes and social adjustment. A questionnaire research was conducted on 191 undergraduate students. The results revealed that participants who felt their maternal care had been deficient showed highly avoidant attachment, while those who felt overprotected by their mother showed highly anxious attachment. In addition, higher ganxietyh resulted in lower self-esteem (an index of intrapersonal adjustment) and higher gavoidance of being injuredh (an index of interpersonal adjustment), while higher gavoidanceh resulted in lower self-esteem and higher gsurficial relationshiph and gavoidance of being injuredh (indices of interpersonal adjustment). In sum, these data indicate that negative recognition of parental child-rearing attitudes led to insecure attachment, and that insecure attachment led to social adjustment difficulties.
yKeywordszInternal working model, Attachment, Cognition of child-rearing attitudes, Social adjustment


Suzuki, Go (Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo). Two Methods for Comparing Multiple Ideas in Children's Mathematical Problem Solving. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.3, 268-278.

The present study compared the use of two methods to compare multiple ideas, in children's mathematical problem solving. Fifth grade children (N=46) were assigned to one of two method conditions and shown four ideas based on the mean, mode, maximum, and minimum in an intervention problem. Children assigned to Condition 1 found similarities and differences between the four ideas, and children assigned Condition 2 selected the best idea from the four ideas. After the intervention, all the children solved two problems: (A) examining whether they could estimate a number in ways other than the mean when the data contained an outlier, and (B) examining whether they could refer to a multiple representing value without a prompt. Only among children who gave a correct answer to problem A did more children assigned to condition 1 refer to multiple representing values. The analysis of answers when children referred to multiple representative values in problem B showed that there was a marginally significant tendency for children assigned to Condition 1 to respond that the mean is not always the appropriate value, or that the mean is affected by the maximum/minimum.
yKeywordszComparison, Multiple solution strategies, Children's understanding of representative values, Mathematical problem-solving, Fifth grade children


Ogawa, Shota (Doctoral Course, The United Graduate School of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University). Consolation of a Friend in Adolescence: Encouragement, Empathy, and the Action of Going Away. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.3, 279-290.

This study examined the influence of a close friend's consolation on adolescents and college students. Junior high school students, high school students, and university students read a story in which a person was consoled by a close friend, and they evaluated their affect (in terms of gratitude and repulsion) when being consoled. Three kind of consolation were examined: (1) a close friend encouraged me (encouragement), (2) a close friend showed empathy for me (empathy), and (3) a close friend left from where we were (leaving). The gratitude score for gencouragementh and gempathyh were higher than for gleaving.h In addition, for each kind of consolation there were age-related differences in affect. In the case of gencouragementh and gempathy,h gratitude scores for junior high school and high school students were higher than among university students. However, in the case of gleaving,h the repulsion scores of high school students were higher than for junior high school and university students. These findings suggest that differences in affect are related to developmental changes in expectations for close friends.
yKeywordszConsolation, Support, Empathy, Pro-social behavior, Adolescent development


Tomita, Shohei (Faculty of Education, Mie University) & Noyama, Kanami (Fujino Nursery). Development of the Psychological Desire to See Frightening Things in Early Childhood: Analysis of the Frightening Card Selection Task. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.3, 291-301.

People sometimes know that something is frightening but still try to see it. This study investigated how the psychological wish to see frightening things develops in childhood. We presented 92 children (ages 4, 5, and 6) with a frightening card and a non-frightening card (depicting either an animal or a ghost), and asked them which card they would want to see if they could only see one (a gfrightening card selection taskh). An appearance/reality distinction task and a mental/real distinction task were also conducted and examined for correlations. The results demonstrated that the behavior of preferring to see the frightening card rather than the non-frightening card increased with age, and such behavior was correlated with recognition of the mental/real distinction. In addition, boys tended to prefer the frightening card more than did the girls.
yKeywordszFrightening things, Fear, Imagination, Fantasy/Reality distinction, Early childhood


Kato, Hiromi (The Southern Regional Rehabilitation Center for Children with Disabilities), Kato, Yoshinobu (Faculty of Human Development, Nagoya University of Arts) & Takeuchi, Yoshiaki (College of Social Sciences, Ritsumeikan University). How Do Young Children Understand Video Images of Objects and Themselves?. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.3, 302-312.

This research investigated the developmental relationship between young children's performance on a mark test and on an object-reaching test using video images. Forty-three young children (ages 30-43 months) participated in the experiment. After performing the mark test, children experienced three main conditions of the object-reaching test on which they were asked to find the real target doll only by looking at its televised image. The results showed that a video-elicited correct search for a target which appeared behind the children's back was far more difficult than a search for a mark on their heads. This was especially true of the results obtained for one of the front/back conditions, whereby two stands were presented in front and at the back of the child at the same time and that the target was put only on the front or back. In this condition, many of chilren who passed the mark test made an incorrect search toward the front stand.
yKeywordszMark test, Object-reaching test, Young children, Representation, Video images


Furumi, Fumikazu (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science), Osanai, Hidekazu (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University), Oba, Yukiko (Faculty of Education, Kyoto University) & Tsuji, Erika (Faculty of Education, Kyoto University). The Effect of Other Children's Knowledge and Self Role-Taking on Preschoolers' Changing Their Explanation about Stories. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.3, 313-322.

Thirty-nine preschoolers (21 girls and 18 boys, mean age=5;4) performed a story telling task which was devised for this study, in addition to a false belief task and Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PVT-R). Participants were introduced to the story telling task and assigned to either of two groups, a role-play group and a control group. Children in the role-play group were required to act in the role of a teacher, whereas children in the control group were not required to enact any role. In the story telling task, children watched movies with their partners. After watching the movies, one child explained the movie they had watched together to the other child. In the next session, children changed partners to a partner who had not watched the same movie in the preceding session, and were again asked to explain the movie. According to the results, when children explained the movie to a partner who had not watched the same movie, they were more likely to include the particular names that appeared in the story than when they explained it to a partner who had watched the same movie. In addition, children in the role-play group included the particular names from the movie more often than did control group children. These results suggest that preschoolers have the ability to change their behavior according to others' knowledge and according to their own roles.
yKeywordszPreschoolers, Communication development, Theory of mind, Perspective-taking, Role playing


Komatsu, Koji (Faculty of Education, Osaka Kyoiku University) & Konno, Chieri (Nishi Elementary School). Children's Presentational Self in Their Personal Stories: An Exploration of 3rd Grade Students' Writings from a Semiotic Perspective. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.3, 323-335.

This study investigated elementary school students' personal stories which were written as a homework assignment, with a specific focus on children's selves. We considered the child's self not as internal entity but as what emerges from meaning construction by children. The discussion was based on Komatsu's (2010, 2012) theoretical framework of the presentational self, as derived from the theory of semiotic mediation (Valsiner, 2007). Third graders (N=26) wrote 632 stories over a ten month period, and mainly described their experiences at home and in their neighborhoods, or their trips to various destinations. Twelve stories by four children were selected for a discussion of the emergence of children's selves. The analysis showed that several types of meaning construction which develop from the description of events in sequential order (which is common in children's writings) bring about the reader's awareness of the writer's self as observable in writing. In addition, children's descriptions of others in their stories appear to be important for the clarification of their selves.
yKeywordszElementary school children, Self, Semiotic approach, Personal stories, Presentational self


Vol.25 No.4

Hasegawa, Mari (International College of Arts and Sciences, Yokohama City University). Children's Understanding about Diversity of Beliefs from the Perspectives of Relativism, Tolerance, and Theory of Mind. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.4, 345-355.

In Study 1, ideas about morals, facts, ambiguous facts, and taste were investigated among younger children, first-, second-, and third-grade elementary school students (N=253). Next, a child with the identical opinion (A) and a child with the opposite opinion (B) were identified. Participants were asked: gDo you think that only one belief is right, or are both beliefs are right?h (understanding of relativism) and gDo you want to play with Child A/Child B?h (tolerance). False-belief tasks were also conducted with younger children. Depending on the task, even younger children could understand relativism. Each age group of children made judgments about the four domains. In tolerance judgments, the moral domain became differentiated with increasing age. Understanding of relativism was not observed for taste, perhaps because the desirable taste of ice cream used in the task might have been positive for all children. There were also correlations between Theory of Mind and understanding of relativism. In Study 2, a supplemental experiment was conducted using vegetables, considered to be less attractive than ice cream for children. The results indicated that understanding of relativism increased for the vegetable task.
yKeywordszUnderstanding of beliefs, False belief, Relativism, Tolerance, Theory of mind


Shuto, Toshimoto (Saitama University) & Ninomiya, Katsumi (Aichi Gakuin University). Maternal Concepts of gPersonal Autonomyh as a Social Context of Children's Moral Development. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.4, 356-366.

This study elucidated how mothers conceptualize personal entitlement and how their children acquire their own conceptions of personal discretion. Married Japanese women and 34 of their children (mean age=5 years 10 months) participated in interviews. Mothers' conceptions of personal entitlement were assessed by using scenarios of conflicts between a husband and wife. The women were also presented with four situations that depicted children's defiance in moral, conventional, personal, and prudent (showing care and forethought) events. Children of participants were presented the same picture-scenarios as their mothers. Mothers who had gindependenth conceptions of spousal relationships showed a strong tendency to persuade their children repeatedly when they engaged in improper behavior. The results suggest that maternal concepts of personal entitlement are reflected in the social context of the child's moral development at home, and influence the development of the child's sense of personal discretion.
yKeywordszMoral development, Social domain theory, Concept of spousal relationship, Personal autonomy, Discipline


Onoda, Ryosuke (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo, Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). The Effects of Audience Difference on Children's Writing of Arguments about School Rules, from the Standpoint of Social Domain Theory. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.4, 367-378.

According to social domain theory, thinking takes place in three different domains - the moral, the societal, and the personal, or in coordination among these three domains. The present study examined (1) the effects of audience differences on children's domain coordination, and (2) the difficulties children experience in domain coordination when writing arguments about school rules. Fourth graders (N=30) were assigned to an gold friend conditionh or a gtransfer student condition.h In each condition, children were asked to produce a piece of writing to persuade the target audience to abide by the school rules. The reasons children listed were then categorized according to domains of thinking. The results showed the following: (1) children generated more reasons based on the societal domain in the transfer student condition, and more reasons based on the personal domain in the old friend condition; and (2) the degree of difficulty children had in writing was positively correlated with the number of reasons they generated. These results suggest that the children recognized the need for domain coordination and could coordinate domains according to their audience.
yKeywordszSocial domain theory, Domain coordination, Writing arguments, Audience awareness, Elementary school students


Suzuki, Ayumi (Faculty of Humanities and Human Sciences, Hiroshima Shudo University). Young Children's Understanding of Morally Relevant False Beliefs. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.4, 379-386.

This study investigated whether negative outcomes constrain young children's understanding of false beliefs on morally relevant false belief tasks. Participants (3-6 year-olds, N71) were presented with three kinds of morally relevant false belief situations, in which the same false belief accidentally caused morally negative, positive, or neutral outcomes. In addition to identifying an actor's false beliefs, children were asked to evaluate the act itself and to justify their evaluations. The results showed that young children gave fewer correct answers under negative and neutral conditions of morally relevant false belief tasks than they did on standard false belief tasks. Even children who passed the false belief tasks were affected by morally negative outcomes in evaluating the acts, but they gave more intentional reasons to justify their evaluations than did children who did not pass these tasks. These findings suggest that identifying morally relevant false beliefs is a challenge for young children because of their bias against negative outcomes, and also due to the inherent complexity of such situations.
yKeywordszYoung children, False belief, Moral judgment, Intentionality, Theory of mind


Ichiyanagi, Tomonori (Niigata University). Moral Development through Moral Lessons: A Longitudinal Analysis of Students' Worksheets from a Sociocultural Approach. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.4, 387-398.

The goal of this research was to clarify the moral development of children through moral lessons at school, based on a sociocultural approach. Descriptions of morality related reading provided by first grade elementary school children were treated as language mediated morality, and changes in these descriptions were analyzed longitudinally over a five-month period. We found that participants initially copied the sample expressions when they described gmind expression cardsh that were used to express their emotions visibly in class, but at a later age they began to rearrange the expressions or to create original expressions. In addition, most students who rearranged expressions wrote multiple thoughts and noted the conflicts among their ideas. This exploration of moral development through moral lessons therefore suggests that children appropriate language representing multiple points of view into their own expressions. This language can be considered gvernacular moral language.h However, the data also suggest that this moral developmental shift was not a step upward in a hierarchical progression, but rather a spiral progression depending on the changing contents of lessons and gmind expression cards.h
yKeywordszMoral development, Sociocultural approach, Vernacular moral language, Mediation, First-grade children


Murakami, Tatsuya (Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science), Nishimura, Takuma (Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba) & Sakurai, Shigeo (Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba). Relation between Cognitive/Emotional Empathy and Prosocial and Aggressive Behaviors in Elementary and Middle School Students. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.4, 399-411.

This research examined the reliability and validity of the Cognitive and Emotional Empathy Scale for Children (CEES-C) and investigated differences by gender and grade level in empathy. It also examined the relationship between empathy and prosocial and aggressive behavior among Japanese elementary and middle school students. Participants were 546 elementary school children (grades 4-6) and 646 middle school students. Factor analysis of the CEES-C revealed six factors. Cognitive empathy was comprised by two factors: gsensitivity to others' emotions (sens)h and gperspective-taking (pt).h Emotional empathy involved four factors: gsharing of others' positive emotions (sp),h gsharing of others' negative emotions (sn),h ggood feelings toward others' positive emotions (gf),h and gsympathy for others' negative emotions (sym).h Among both elementary and middle school students, sens and sym had a positive relationship with prosocial behavior. In addition, for upper division elementary school students, gf had a negative relationship with aggressive behavior. Finally among middle school students pt had a negative relationship with aggressive behaviors.
yKeywordszEmpathy, Prosocial behavior, Aggressive behavior, Elementary school students, Middle school students


Tobari, Maine (Faculty of Human Science, Bunkyo University). A Review of Neuroimaging Studies of Empahy. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.4, 412-421.

There has been a recent growth in neuroimaging research to unveil the neural basis of empathy. This article reviews some of these neuroimaging studies and findings regarding empathy, in contrast with traditional definitions and theories of empathy. Recent research indicates that empathy as related to physical and social pain activates brain areas assicuated with (a) involvement in processing mirrored feelings of one's pain (e.g., anterior insula cortex, anterior cingulate cortex), (b) understanding action (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus, pars opercularis), and (c) mentalizing (e.g., dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, temporo-parietal junction, precuneus). It has also been suggested that these brain areas play an important role in affect sharing and understanding of other people's feelings, both of which are integral components of empathy. In addition, it has been observed that the emotions of other people do not always automatically elicit empathic responses in observers, because empathic brain responses are sometimes modulated by situational factors and observer characteristics. A newly emerging topic in this field is the investigation of the neural basis of prosocial behavior.
yKeywordszEmpathy, Neuroimaging studies, Neural basis, Review, Empathy for pain


Watanabe, Yayoi (Faculty of Letters, Hosei University). A School-Based Prevention Framework for Children and Adolescents: Research Perspectives on Moral Development and Prosocial Behavior. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.4, 422-431.

This paper first reviews previous studies by contrasting prosocial behavior with moral development, both of which have been the focus of many developmental psychologists. Many researchers in this area have considered the question of how individuals may acquire more effective ways to regulate their emotional responses or social relations, and learn to guide their behavior in moral or virtuous ways. Therefore, to build bridges between research and practice researchers have introduced moral education, social skills training, or social and emotional learning into schools to prevent crises in behavior like bullying. Recently, these approaches seem to be gradually integrating as a united intervention framework, because there is a consensus that students need cognitive, behavioral, and affective skills to effectively enact key roles in a given social context at schools. The implications of the current trend are discussed in terms of improvement of both social competence and moral character.
yKeywordszMoral development, Prosocial behavior, Emotional competence, Social and emotional learning, Prevention practices in schools


Aoki, Tazuko (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima Univrsity). A Study of Theories and Site Visits of Character Education. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.4, 432-442.

The purpose of this study was to clarify theories of character education and to describe how character education is practiced in the U.S.A. First, the word echaracterf was defined. Next, the eleven principles of CEP (Character Education Partnership) and its strategies were described to identify the goals of character education. In addition, excellent practices at several American schools and three centers which advised the schools were introduced based on our visits to these institutions. The relationship between character education and positive psychology was examined, and differences between character education and other strategies including SEL, assertion skills, etc., were discussed in relation to the positive development of students. Finally, the difference between moral education in Japan and character education was discussed. It was apparent that character education is one of the comprehensive school reform movements that have applied many theories from developmental psychology.
yKeywordszCharacter education, Education in the United States, Moral education, Positive psychology, Comprehensive school reform movement


Kanakogi, Yasuhiro (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University). The Nature and Transformations of Prosociality in Early Life. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.4, 443-452.

Are we born to be inherently prosocial? More boldly stated, are we born to be inherently good? Recent studies of infants have revealed the possible presence of prosociality in early life. However, discussions about prosociality itself in the literature on developmental science have been limited. To address such a gap in the literature, this paper sought to illuminate the nature and transformation of prosociality, based on empirical and developmental research. Accordingly, it included a discussion about how people may form and maintain prosociality in our society, with reference to theories of evolutionary biology. This was followed by a review of empirical evidence on prosociality from infancy to preschool age, which provided evidence of the inherent nature of prosociality and its gradual transformation with age. Further, the transformation of prosociality was described in consideration of factors that affect its development. Finally, this paper provided tentative suggestions for future research that would clarify the mechanisms of the emergence of prosociality and its gradual transformation with age.
yKeywordszProsociality, Helping behavior, Empathy, Sympathy, Cognitive development


Komoto, Aiko (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo). The Developmental Significance of School Events in Secondary Schools: Exploring Retrospective Meaning from the Perspective of University Students. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.4, 453-465.

School events (called gakkou gyoji in Japanese) are part of the national curriculum, yet little is known about the developmental significance of school events. The purpose of this study was to explore the retrospective meaning ascribed to school events from the perspective of individuals who had been involved in such activities. University students (N670) were asked to complete a questionnaire about their experiences in school events at secondary school. Six aspects of meaning were identified: feeling positive about group activities, becoming considerate of others, getting exhausted with group activities, becoming active in the resolution of problems, improving of leadership proficiency, and increasing commitment to school activities. The results revealed that (1) among the dimensions of involvement, only engagement was associated with all aspects of meaning; (2) among activity qualities, goal-oriented behavior was strongly associated with engagement; and (3) agreeableness had a moderating effect on the association between activity quality and engagement. These findings suggested that school events can have developmental meaning and significance as life events. Further longitudinal research is needed to examine developmental outcomes and processes, while considering individual personality characteristics.
yKeywordszSchool events, Meaning, Adolescence, Secondary school, Structured activities


Nishinaka, Hanako (Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University). Sense of gIbashoh among Elementary School Children from Psychological and Educational Perspectives: Its Structure and Gender/Grade Level Comparisons. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.4, 466-476.

This research studied the structure of gIbashoh (sense of own place) among upper elementary school children, from the perspectives of psychology and education. It examined gender differences and developmental changes in gIbasho,h and the main results were as follows. First, statistical analyses yielded four factors: gSense of Perceived Acceptance,h gSense of Fulfillment,h gSense of Self-Affirmation,h and gSense of Relief.h The hypothesis from the field of education that gSense of Fulfillmenth and gSense of Self-Affirmationh would represent one aspect of gIbashoh was supported. In addition, one aspect of gIbashoh that had been found in a previous study of adolescents (gSense of Authenticityh) was not identified by the present study. It is possible that gSense of Authenticityh is not yet an important element of gIbashoh prior to adolescence. Second, 4th graders felt more gSense of Perceived Acceptanceh and gSense of Self- Affirmationh than did 5th and 6th graders, and felt more gSense of Reliefh than did 5th graders. Third, girls felt more gSense of Perceived Acceptanceh and gSense of Reliefh than did boys.
yKeywordszgIbashoh, Education, Elementary school children, Self


Murayama, Yasuo (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Ito, Hiroyuki (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Takayanagi, Nobuya (Graduate School of Medicine Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hirosaki University), Matsumoto, Kaori (Graduate Program in Clinical Psychology, Kanazawa Institute of Technology), Tanaka, Yoshihiro (Department of Community Child Education, Nara Saho College), Noda, Wataru (Department of Practical School Education, Osaka Kyoiku University), Mochizuki, Naoto (Support Center for Campus Life, Osaka University), Nakajima, Syunji (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine) & Tsujii, Masatsugu (School of Contemporary Sociology, Chukyo University). Development of a Response Styles Questionnaire for Middle School Students. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2014, Vol.25, No.4, 477-488.

Response styles may prolong and increase depression among children and adolescents. The purpose of the current study was to develop a Response Styles Questionnaire for Middle School Students (RSQ-MS), based on data from a sample of 4th through 9th grade school children (N5,217). Drawing on previous questionnaires which measured responses styles, a total 16 items were generated that were assumed to represent four factors: Rumination, Problem-Solving, Escape from Thinking, and Distraction. As predicted, the results of an exploratory factor analysis indicated that four factors could be derived from the RSQ-MS. Correlations among these factors were similar to the correlations found in previous related studies, and the subscales of the RSQ-MS exhibited acceptable levels of Cronbach's alpha. In addition, the Rumination subscale was positively correlated with depression and aggression, and the Problem-Solving and Distraction subscales were negatively correlated with depression and aggression. These results were in line with the results of past research, which suggests that the RSQ-MS has strong construct validity.
yKeywordszResponse styles, Rumination, Depression, Childhood, Adolescence