Vol.26 No.1

Chishima, Yuta (Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). Mental Conflict and Expectations of Merits and Demerits Associated with Self-Change among Adolescents at Different Educational Levels. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.1, 1-12.

The purpose of this study was to clarify the mental conflicts associated with expectations for the merits and demerits of self-change. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 1162 adolescents who attended either junior high school, high school, vocational school, or college, and participants responded to items concerning expectations that had been developed in a preliminary survey. The findings of the current study showed that the percentages of students whose responses fit into five clusters of expectations for self-change differed by educational level. Specifically, glow expectationsh and gmerits of self-maintenanceh were common responses in junior high school, gavoidance-avoidance conflictsh was frequent for high school students, and gmerits of self-changeh and gapproach-approach conflictsh were common among vocational school and college students. These educational level differences may be associated with developmental changes that occur with maturation of self-esteem and reflection.
yKeywordszSelf-change, Expectation, Mental conflict, Educational level, Adolescence

Murayama, Yasuo (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Ito, Hiroyuki (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Hamada, Megumi (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Nakajima, Syunji (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Noda, Wataru (Department of Practical School Education, Osaka Kyoiku University), Katagiri, Masatosi (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Takayanagi, Nobuya (Graduate School of Medicine Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hirosaki University), Tanaka, Yoshihiro (Department of Community Child Education, Nara Saho College) & Tsujii, Masatsugu (School of Contemporary Sociology, Chukyo University). Relationships of Bullying Behaviors and Peer Victimization with Internalizing/Externalizing Problems. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.1, 13-22.

Although previous studies in Japan have reported on the prevalence of bullying behaviors and peer victimization, little is known about the severity of internalizing and externalizing problems exhibited by students in Japan. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships of bullying and/or victimization with internalizing and externalizing problems. Students (N4,936, grades 4-9) completed a series of self-report questionnaires that assessed bullying behaviors, victimization, depression, self-harm, aggression, and delinquency. In addition, class teachers rated students' absenteeism, i.e., how many days students were absent during the previous spring term. The results indicated that about 10% of the students had experienced bullying or victimization more than once a week. Rational and verbal bullying reportedly occurred more frequently than other types of bullying. Compared to students who were not involved with bullying and victimization, victimized students more frequently reported elevated depression and self-harm. Furthermore, it was shown that students who bullied peers self-reported more aggression, and delinquent behavior was indicated by a higher percentage of those who had experienced both bullying of other students and peer victimization.
yKeywordszBully, Peer victimization, Internalizing problems, Externalizing problems

Suganuma, Shinichiro (Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo). The Process of Adolescents' Experience of Resignation (Akirameru). The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.1, 23-34.

Research findings regarding the function of resignation (akirameru in Japanese) are inconsistent. This study clarified the role of being resigned in the mental health of adolescents by focusing on not only resignation behavior, but also on resignation as a process. Semi-structured interviews about past experiences of resignation were conducted with 15 participants (8 male, 7 female; age range22-30 years). Twenty-nine episodes were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach (M-GTA), resulting in 24 concepts. Preliminary analysis revealed the concept of gweakened desireh and suggested that weakened desire was related to the role of resignation in mental health. On the basis of this concept, the process of resignation was divided into three types: gregretful,h gindecisive,h and gbold,h and the results clarified the details of each of these types. The data suggest that being gregretfulh negatively impacts mental health. In contrast, being gindecisiveh (lukewarm and irresolute) and gboldh (decisive) can apparently be conducive to mental health. The limitations of this study and the need for further research are discussed.
yKeywordszResignation (Akirameru), Qualitative research, Modified Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA), Adolescence, Mental health

Nagase, Kai (Graduate School of Education, Tohoku University) & Tanaka, Mari (Kyushu University). The Cognitive Process of Humor in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Structural Incongruity and Elaboration of Stimulus. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.1, 35-45.

This study investigated the characteristics of humor in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), focusing on structural incongruity and stimulus elaboration. eStructural incongruityf refers to the peculiarity of a situation, and it is considered necessary for one to experience humor. eStimulus elaborationf involves inferences and thoughts related to the situation and influences the amount of humor experienced. In the present study, 19 individuals with ASD and 46 typically developing (TD) control participants rated items for the humor variable of structural incongruity, and for concept level and schema level. They also rated the items for variable elaboration. Scores for structural incongruity at the concept level were higher than scores at the schema level among TD individuals, while there was no difference between scores at the concept level vs. at the schema level for ASD individuals. ASD individuals also gave higher ratings to gnon-socialh items than did TD individuals, in elaboration.
yKeywordszAutism Spectrum Disorder, Humor, Structural Incongruity, Stimulus Elaboration

Hamana, Mai (Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo) & Haryu, Etsuko (Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo). Developmental Changes in the Semantic Domains of Emotion Words in Young Children. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.1, 46-55.

Children grasp the meaning of words either too broadly or narrowly at first, and then show a gradual progression toward adult-like understanding. This study investigated changes in the semantic domains of words for emotions. Children in the 2-year old (n29, age range2;6-3;7), 3 year-old (n30, age range3;6-4;7), 4- year old (n30, age range4;6-5;7) and 5-year old (n29, age range5;6-6;7) classes at preschools labeled emotions in response to a story task and a facial expression task. The number of words for emotions they labeled increased only between the 2- and 3-year old classes. However, for both tasks, 5-year olds divided stimuli more individually than did 3- and 4-year olds. These results show that for emotion words, lexical refinement and change of semantic domains continue even after words have entered children's vocabulary.
yKeywordszYoung children, Preschoolers, Language development, Emotion, Semantic domain

Hirai, Mika (International College of Arts and Sciences, Yokohama City University), Kozaki, Yuko (Office for Promotion of Human Resource Development in Perinatal Medicine, Toho University), Hasegawa, Mai (University of the Sacred Heart) & Takahashi, Keiko (Department of Psychology, University of the Sacred Heart). What Children Need for Their Normal Life: The Naïve Beliefs of Japanese Adults. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.1, 56-69.

This research examined the elements which constitute a minimum standard of living for preschoolers (ages 0-6 years). In Study 1, presented with the What Children Need (WCN) list of 40 items consisting of material and social needs considered normal for children, 484 mothers of preschoolers were asked to what degree their children were supplied with each item. The results of the survey indicated that 37 out of the 40 needs (items) were met for over 50% of the sample. The number of items that were supplied correlated with ratings of children's well-being, even controlling for the degree of subjective wealth. In Study 2, three groups of participants (503 parents of preschoolers from two-parent families, 1,000 citizens from the general population, and 74 single parents of preschoolers) were asked to what degree each WCN item was indispensable for normal life. Numbers of the items that satisfied a majority of participants were 19, 9, and 30, respectively within the three groups. In addition, participants in their 20s, females, and/or parents recognized more items than did other participants.
yKeywordszPoverty, Preschool children, Socially perceived necessities, Naïve beliefs

Yamamoto, Kohsuke (Faculty of Human Environment, Osaka Sangyo University). The Importance of Autobiographical Memory for Self/Identity Achievement. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.1, 70-77.

This study examined how autobiographical remembering affects the achievement of self and identity. Participants (N231) completed an identity scale (Shimoyama, 1992) that assessed their level of self/identity development. They were next asked to recall an autobiographical memory of high- or low-level importance and to rate these memories based on 5 items pertaining to memory characteristics (e.g., vividness) and 13 items from the Centrality of Event Scale (Berntsen & Rubin, 2006, 2007). The identity scale was then completed again. The group that recalled an autobiographical episode with high-level importance had higher post-test identity scale scores than the group that recalled an episode with low-level importance. However, differences in the identity scale scores between the two groups were not observed in the pre-test. In addition, autobiographical memories of high-level importance were more emotional, positive, vivid, frequently remembered, and related to self/identity achievement than were memories of low-level importance. The importance of autobiographical memory as a facilitator of self and identity achievement will be further examined in future research.
yKeywordszIdentity achievement, Autobiographical memory, Self

Vol.26 No.2

Sunagawa, Mebuki (Graduate School of Education, Tokyo University, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). The Experiences of Females with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Social Adaptation Process and Factors Which gVeilh Their Disorders. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.2, 87-97.

This study investigated the experiences and factors that affect adult females with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Twelve Japanese females who were diagnosed in their adulthood (after age 20) were interviewed and the data was analyzed using the grounded theory approach (GTA). The results suggest that four different social factors may function as a gveilh that conceals adult femalesf ASD. Under these gveils,h they appeared to develop social adaptation skills that at the same time functioned as yet another gveil.h In addition, because of these womenfs superficial social adaptation skills, other people may overlook their low self-esteem and other difficulties. This study highlights the need to understand the experiences of females with ASD, in consideration of differences from their male counterparts.
yKeywordsz Autism Spectrum Disorders, Gender differences, Social factor (veil), Social adaptation

Hatano, Kai (Development Center for Higher Education, Osaka Prefecture University) & Harada, Shin (Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokushima). The Correlation between Changes in Identity and Active Learning during the Freshman Year of University. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.2, 98-106.

This study focused on the relationship of between change in psycho-social self-identity and the active attitudes of university students, after differentiating core identity from psycho-social self-identity. Participants (437freshman, including 221male, 212female, and 4 of unknown gender) completed a questionnaire in two waves at an interval of approximately three months. First, to confirm change of identity and active attitude of students, the results of pared t-test and correlational analysis showed that identity scores and active attitudes of students significantly decreased and that stability of core identity was higher than that of the other two variables. Second, structural equation modeling examined the relation between identity change and change in the active attitudes of students. The results showed that change in psycho-social self-identity was positively related to change in active attitudes of students, whereas change in core identity was not related to attitudinal change. The data were discussed in terms of how to support and improve psycho-social self-identity among university freshman.
yKeywordsz Identity, University students, Active attitudes of students, University freshman

Kawamoto, Tetsuya (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo, Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science), Oshio, Atsushi (Faculty of Letters, Arts and Sciences, Waseda University), Abe, Shingo (Faculty of Psychology and Children's Studies, Baika Women's University), Tsubota, Yuki (Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University, Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science), Hirashima, Taro (Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University), Ito, Hiroyuki (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine) & Tani, Iori (School of Humanities, Tokai Gakuen University). Age and Gender Differences of Big Five Personality Traits in a Cross-Sectional Japanese Sample. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.2, 107-122.

This study explored the effects of age and gender on the mean levels of Big Five personality traits in Japanese adulthood. The data for the present study were drawn from a large cross-sectional study. The participants were 4,588 adults (2,476 women, M age53.5 years, SD age12.9, age range: 23-79 years), and the analyzed measure was a Japanese version of the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI-J; Oshio, Abe, & Cutrone, 2012). Multiple regression analyses were carried out to determine the effects of age, gender, and the interaction between the two on each Big Five scale. Age differences were found suggesting that agreeableness and conscientiousness are positively associated with age. Gender differences were also found suggesting that females have higher levels of extraversion, while males are more open to experience. An Age~Sex effect was confirmed only on neuroticism, indicating that younger females' level of neuroticism is significantly higher than males, but older females' level is lower and is at the same level as males.
yKeywordsz Big Five personality, Age differences, Gender differences, Cross-Sectional survey

Nagase, Kai (Graduate School of Education, Tohoku University, Research Fellow of Japan for Society Promotion) & Tanaka, Mari (Kyushu University). Cognitive Processes in Humor Appreciation among Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Causal Inference and Stimulus Elaboration. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.2, 123-134.

This study investigated characteristics of humor in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), focusing on their causal inferences and stimulus elaboration. Causal inference refers to incomprehensibility of the causes of incongruity, and it has a negative influence on the level of humor experienced. Stimulus elaboration involves inferences and thoughts related to the situation; it has positive influence on the level of humor experienced. In the present study, 12 individuals with ASD and 20 typically developing (TD) control participants rated items of variable humor, items of variable causal inference, and items of variable elaboration of humorous stimuli that either contained or did not contain clues. The results showed no differences in score humor, causal inference, or elaboration among individuals with ASD. Other findings indicated that causal inference and elaboration influenced humor in individuals with TD, while only elaboration influenced humor in individuals with ASD.
yKeywordsz Autism Spectrum Disorder, Humor, Causal Inference, Elaboration

Fujito, Mami (Graduate School of Letters, Kyoto University) & Yato, Yuko (College of Letters, Ritsumeikan University). Cognitive Bases of Lying Behavior in Young Children. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.2, 135-143.

Lying is defined as a behavior that conceals the truth to manipulate othersf thoughts or behaviors. The present study investigated the cognitive bases of lying behavior in young children. Seventy-five children between four to six years of age were assigned a lying task, which consisted of a competitive game in which they were given a choice between a lie and the truth. Additionally, they performed a false belief task, two types of conflict inhibition tasks, and a counterfactual reasoning task. The results showed that four year-oldsf lying behaviors were correlated with their false belief understanding, whereas six year-oldsf lying behaviors were strongly correlated with their counterfactual reasoning ability. These findings suggest that the cognitive factors which are related to childrenfs lying behavior differ according to age, and that false belief understanding is not a necessary component of lying. Children have to consider the mental states of others in both false belief understanding and in lying. Therefore, false belief understanding and lying behavior may develop interdependently among children.
yKeywordsz Preschoolers, Lying behavior, False belief understanding, Counterfactual reasoning, Cognitive development

Kawamoto, Tetsuya (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo, Research Fellow of Japan Society for The Promotion of Science) & Endo, Toshihiko (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo). Cohort Effects on the Development of Performance Intelligence in Adolescence. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.2, 144-157.

The purpose of this study was to explore the development of adolescent intelligence and cohort effect on their intelligence. Data for the study were drawn from the archival data of the secondary school attached to the University of Tokyofs Faculty of Education. Participants were 3,841 adolescents (1,920 females, M = 12.21 years, SD = 0.49; range 12-17), and the analyzed measure was the Tanaka B Intelligence Test - New Edition (Tanaka, 1953). Structural change, rank-order stability, and mean-level change of adolescentsf intelligence were analyzed. The results showed that the structure of intelligence was highly consistent through adolescence and that rank-order stability was comparable to that found in previous research. As for mean-level change, adolescentsf intelligence scores increased linearly and birth cohort had a statistically significant effect on the mean and slope of change. However, the directions of the effects were inconsistent. Later-born cohorts showed an increase of the mean and slope in perception related domain. On the other hand, these cohorts also showed a decline in capacity to grasp the objectsf relationships.
yKeywordsz Performance intelligence, Adolescence, Cohort effect, Hierarchical linear modeling

Takeshima, Katsunori (Hyogo Support Center for Developmental Disorders) & Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko (Kwansei Gakuin University). Interpersonal Vulnerability to Depressive Symptoms in Japanese Children: Prospective Examination of Coping, Social Support, Peer Relationships, and Interpersonal Stressors. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.2, 158-167.

This study examined the prospective relationship between interpersonal factors and depressive symptoms during middle childhood. Children (M age = 9.94; SD = 0.23; 49 girls, 59 boys) completed questionnaires assessing their coping skills, perceived social support, peer relationships, and depressive symptoms at Time 1. About 9 months later (Time 2), depressive symptoms were assessed again, along with interpersonal stressors. After controlling for the depressive symptoms at Time 1, high levels of disengagement coping and low maternal support predicted increases in depressive symptoms at Time 2. In addition, there was an interaction effect between coping skills and interpersonal stressors for depressive symptoms. Among children who experienced high levels of family stressors, disengagement coping predicted more depressive symptoms. These findings support an interpersonal model of depression and indicate the need to assess interpersonal relationships in childhood depression research.
yKeywordsz Childhood depression, Interpersonal relationships, Coping skills, Middle childhood

Vol.26 No.3

Uragami, Moe (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University) & Sugimura, Shinichiro (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University). The Process of Forming Mental Number Lines in Early Childhood. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.3, 175-185.

The formation of a mental number line is very important for numerical conceptual development in early childhood. This process has been viewed from two main positions. One position focuses on a qualitative shift from a logarithmic to a linear representation of numerical magnitude, while the other position focuses on proportion-judgment, which takes particular note of anchor points and utilizes the strategy of estimating numerical magnitude. The present study investigated the representation of number lines before they fit logarithmic functions. Additionally, we examined the relationships between qualitative change in mental number lines and the use of anchor points. Fifty-eight participants (ages 4-6) completed a 0-20 number-to-position task, and 27 participants (in the same age range) completed a 0-10 number-to-position task. The results found 5 primitive number representations including the big-small type before fitted functions. It was also revealed that linear representations did not always use proportion judgment while using both end points and midpoints. These findings allowed us to further understand how mental number lines are formed in early childhood.
yKeywordsz Numerical estimation, Number line, Representation shift, Proportion judgments, Preschoolers

Matsumoto, Takuma (Osaka University of Economics, Part-Time Lecturer). A Fixation of Passive Attitudes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Parents-Child Transaction and the Parents' Distress. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.3, 186-196.

Wing and Gould (1979) have identified the passive attitudes of children with autism spectrum disorder. However, negative aspects of this passivity have not been fully examined. The purpose of this study was to clarify the mechanism by which passivity becomes inflexible before puberty. Data were obtained from semi-structured interviews of 11 parents of children with autism spectrum disorder and passive attitudes. The data were analyzed by the modified Grounded Theory Approach, and extracted 15 concepts and 6 categories. It was revealed that there was a unique state called gthe child can do something when feeling compelled.h In this state, the children could not initiate their desired actions but were able to follow their parents' requests. As a result, they became more passive. This was also related to a fragile sense of self. In terms of parent-child transactions, parents would feel particular distress and so they played a role in children's passivity. There were some limitations to the preceding model, e.g., a biased sample, which should be addressed in future research.
yKeywordsz Passivity, Autism spectrum disorder, Modified Grounded Theory Approach, Parents-child transaction, Sense of self

Otomo, Kiyoshi (Center for the Research and Support for Educational Practice, Tokyo Gakugei University), Miyata, Susanne (Department of Medical Sciences, Aichi Shukutoku University) & Shirai, Yasuhiro (Department of Modern Languages and Literatures, Case Western Reserve University). The Acquisition of Verb Morphology in Japanese: Order of Acquisition and Relationships with Maternal Language Input. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.3, 197-209.

The process of the acquisition of morphemes attached to Japanese verbs has not been established by researchers, and there has been no systematic investigation of the acquisition order of verb morphemes. Study 1 analyzed longitudinal speech data of 4 mother-child dyads between 1-3 years of age, and revealed that a common sequence existed in children's acquisition of verb morphemes. Possible contributing factors were semantic complexity, complexity of morphological structure, and maternal input. Study 2 examined morpheme input frequency and variations of stem-morpheme combinations in mothers' speech, based on the data from 3 mother-child dyads. The results showed that the acquisition order of a child correlated with the input frequency and variation indices of his mother; these indices also correlated even among the mothers. These findings suggest that maternal speech tends to share the same pragmatic functions and perspectives in conversations as those of children. Children may also have similar tendencies in their verbal expressions.
yKeywordsz Language developmentCVerbsCMorphemesCYoung childrenCLanguage input

Kawamoto, Tetsuya (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo, Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). The Association between Emerging Adult Identity and Multiple Social Relationships: Differences among Attachment Styles to Parents, Friends, and Romantic Partners. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.3, 210-224.

This study explored the association between multidimensional identity and multiple social relationships in emerging adults. Participants were 385 students (210 men, 175 women, M22.4, SD2.4, range: 18-29 years). Identity was assessed with the Multidimensional Ego Identity Scale (Tani, 2001). Attachment to their parents, friends, and romantic partners were assessed as the key social relationships of the participants, by the Experiences in Close Relationship Questionnaire-Revised (Fraley, Waller, & Brennan, 2000). The effects of age, gender, and social relationships on each identity dimension were estimated as follows by structural equation modeling. Attachment to parents had an effect on the Self-Sameness and Continuity dimension; age had an effect on the Self Identity dimension; attachment to friends and romantic partners had an effect on the Interpersonal Identity dimension; and age and attachment to friends had an effect on the Psychosocial Identity dimension. These results indicate that the internal aspect of identity is associated with one's relationships to parents, while the social aspect of identity is associated with relationships to friends and romantic partners.
yKeywordsz Identity, Social relationships, Attachment style, Emerging adulthood, Cross-sectional survey

Kosaka, Yasumasa (Wako University) & Oshio, Atsushi (Waseda University). Development of a Scale of Immature/Mature Love. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.3, 225-236.

This report documents the instrumentation of a Scale of Immature/Mature Love (SIML). 750 individuals who had a boyfriend or girlfriend completed an on-line questionnaire with scale items scale based on a three-dimension model (Kosaka, 2011). The gRelativity-Absoluteness(R-A)h dimension represented loving one's partner because he/she compared favorably with others, or loving the partner unconditionally. The gOwnership-Openness(O-O)h dimension was about monopolizing the partner, or hoping for the partner's happiness and well-being. The gImmersiveness-Leapingness(I-L)h dimension reflected excessive focus on the relationship with one's partner, or challenges for the future based on the existence of the partner. Confirmatory factor analysis supported these three dimensions. A gLover Scoreh based on all SIML items showed positive correlations with scores for identity, intimacy, relationship satisfaction, desire to marry the partner, and positive effects of the romantic relationship, and negative correlations with scores for negative effects of the romantic relationship. R-A scores correlated significantly with evaluations of the relationship and satisfaction, I-L scores shows significant correlations with ego development, and O-O scores showed only weak correlations with other variables.
yKeywordsz Mature love, Immature love, Scale development, Ego development

Kakihana, Shinichiro (Department of Human Life Studies, Koriyama Women's University). The Influence of Features of Kana Letters on Children's Letter Sound Knowledge Acquisition. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.3, 237-247.

The study examined the influence of various features of kana letters on the development of children's letter knowledge. Reading accuracy of 183 3-5 year old Japanese children for 71 regular letters (46 basic letters, 20 daku-on letters, and 5 handaku-on letters), and of 277 3-6 year old children for combination letters were examined. Daku-on letters include a voicing diacritic, and handaku-on include a /p-/ diacritic. Six features of kana were investigated: (1) frequency in picture books, (2) letter shape complexity, (3) position in the kana letter table, (4) vowels, (5) shape similarity to other letters, and (6) regularity of voicing rules. Regression analysis for basic letters revealed that position in the kana letter table had independent effects, and that frequency and shape similarity had marginally significant effects, on reading accuracy. For daku-on letters, frequency had an independent effect, and position in the letter table and shape similarity had marginally significant effects on reading accuracy. Only frequency had an independent effect for combination letters. Reading development for kana letters apparently involves both universal and language-specific aspects.
yKeywordsz Reading development, Kana letters, Picture books, Language development

Kinoshita, Takashi (Graduate School of Human Development and Environment, Kobe University). The Development of Teaching Behavior in Young Children. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.3, 248-257.

This study investigated how young children teach non-verbal skills to learners so that learners could then improve the skills by themselves. Thirty-four children were asked to teach a research assistant how to make an origami gkabutoh (samurai helmet) with a sheet of paper. The children also performed a theory of mind task and were asked to reflect on their own learning skills. All of younger children (4;10-5;9 years) and older children (5;11-6;5 years) taught by demonstration, and most of older children also attracted the learner's attention to them with their utterances. When the learner made a mistake, most of younger children helped him directly, but several older children changed their helping behavior to teach more indirectly when the learner made a mistake. Theory of mind scores were significantly correlated with the frequency of children's monitoring of the learner's behavior. In addition, there was a significant relationship between reflection on one's own learning process and the tendency to use an indirect teaching strategy. These results suggest that preschool children can use teaching strategies to help others improve their skills.
yKeywordsz Teaching behavior, Young children, Intentionality of teaching, Theory of mind, Reflection on learning process

Vol.26 No.4

Asano, Ryosuke (Hamamatsu University School of Medicine). The Integration of Developmental and Social Psychological Perspectives on Research on Close Relationships. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.4, 267-278.

It is important to examine close relationships because they play a pivotal role in individuals' growth, development, and well-being. This article presents a novel approach that incorporates individual-dyad hierarchical perspectives from social psychology with the temporal perspectives of developmental psychology. Research on adult attachment shows that there are missing links between developmental and social psychological studies of close relationships. This review explores the possibility of an integrative approach, based on temporal perspectives that investigate the developmental course of attachment style, and hierarchical perspectives which examine the processes involved in dyadic relationships at both individual and dyad levels including structure of interaction and shared relational efficacy. Longitudinal data analyses (cross-lagged model and latent growth curve model) and dyadic data analyses (pairwise correlation analysis, common fate model, and multilevel structural equation modeling) are reviewed to illuminate empirical research methods and data correction issues. Future studies on close relationships require consideration of both developmental and social psychological perspectives.
yKeywordsz Close relationships, Adult attachment theory, Individual-dyad dynamics, Longitudinal study, Dyadic data

Ito, Yuko (Faculty of Human Studies, Bunkyo Gakuin University). A Review of Research on Characteristics of Intimacy in Marital Relationships. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.4, 279-287.

This review concerned intimacy in marital relationships from the perspectives of commitment and affection. In addition, it examined changes in intimacy through life events including child rearing, divorce, individualization, and retirement, and differences in consciousness of these events between wives and husbands. The results indicate that Japanese marital couples sometimes sacrifice intimacy to maintain the family, that marriage is based not only on intimacy but also on functionality and social relationships, and that intimacy in marital relationships is different from intimacy in romantic relationships. The following issues should be considered in future research. First, because marriage can be of long duration it is problematic to compare age groups, with the exception of measures of marital satisfaction. Therefore, life stages should be considered when examining changes in intimacy. Second, short-term longitudinal studies centered on life events should be carried out. Finally, because marital relationships are affected by one's culture, society, social system, values, and gender roles, these factors should also be considered in studies on marital relations.
yKeywordsz Marital relationships, Intimacy, Life stages, Gender, Longitudinal research

Akazawa, Junko (Faculty of Human Culture and Sciences, Fukuyama University). Dating Violence: The Dark Side of Intimate Relationships. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.4, 288-299.

This paper considered the relationship between several aspects of intimacy and dating violence in terms of various theories, rebutted myths concerning dating violence, and clarified areas for further study. Theories of intimacy indicate that violence is a manifestation of excessive absorption in the current relationship and relationships with parents in early life, and that these characteristics presaged a high likelihood of the use of violence as a conflict tactic. Common myths about dating violence, e.g., gwomen are victims,h glove and violence are at opposite poles,h and gphysical violence is the worst form of violence,h are all false. The literature suggests that one may more accurately state that gviolence is often mutual,h glove potentially can be a cause of violence,h and gpsychological violence tends to last longer and result in greater damage than other forms of violence.hBased on these considerations, this article proposes the need for research on the effectiveness of education concerning conflict tactics to prevent dating violence, and research on dating violence from lifespan and sociocultural perspectives.
yKeywordsz Dating violence, Gender, Intimate relationships, Interpersonal conflict, Lifespan development

Nishida, Asano (Graduate School of Humanities, Tokyo Metropolitan University). The Relationship between Autistic Characteristics and Alexithymic Tendencies in University Students through Content Analysis. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.4, 300-311.

The purpose of this study was to explore conditions under which university students with autistic characteristics experience alexithymia, through content analysis of their subjective emotional experiences. Twenty university students completed questionnaires including the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and the 22-item Tronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and were interviewed about their own subjective emotional experiences. The interview data were analyzed through content analysis. Results showed a correlation between autistic characteristics as assessed by the AQ and gthe amount of feeling wordsh relevant to alexithymia. Content analysis data were subjected to multidimensional scaling for a more detailed examination of their features. The results indicated two patterns of relational isolation. The first was ambiguous or missing verbal expressions related to one's feelings. The second was insufficient verbal illustration of interpersonal relationships. These features have seldom been highlighted in research on autism spectrum disorders.
yKeywordsz Subjective emotional experience, Content analysis, Autistic characteristic, Alexithymia, University student

Ueno, Moeko (Department of Psychology, Doshisha University, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science), Uchiyama, Ichiro (Department of Psychology, Doshisha University), Campos, Joseph J. (University of California, Berkeley), Dahl, Audun (University of California, Santa Cruz) & Anderson, David I. (San Francisco State University). Infant Responsiveness to Downward Slopes in a Virtual Moving Room. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.4, 312-321.

The precise visual perception of self-movement is essential for locomotion and postural control. In the second half of the first year, infants become highly responsive to peripheral lamellar optic flow (PLOF) specifying self-movement. Past studies on infant responsiveness to PLOF have only contrasted postural responses to optic flow patterns differing in overall direction of movement, e.g., horizontal vs. downward movement. This study investigated whether infants show differential responses to PLOF specifying different degrees of downward movement. Twenty-seven 9-month-olds were presented with PLOF specifying 30‹ descent, 10‹ descent, and horizontal forward movement in a virtual moving room. The infants showed degree-appropriate postural responses to each of the three conditions, as well as elevated cardiac accelerations to 30‹ descent. These results show that infant reactions to optic flow are highly attuned to the specific direction of the perceived movement.
yKeywordsz Infancy, Downward slope, Postural compensation, Cardiac response, Visual perception

Tanaka, Yuka (Kobe University of Welfare). The Effects of Coping with Menopausal Symptoms on the Psychological Adjustment of Middle-Aged Women. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.4, 322-331.

The present study explored the relationships between coping with menopausal symptoms and psychological adjustment. Middle-aged womeniN431, 40-60 years oldjwere asked about their menstrual status, menopausal symptoms, their coping with the symptoms, subjective well-being and life satisfaction. Based on their reported menstrual status, 395 participants were divided into three groups (pre-menopause, peri-menopause, and post-menopause). The main results were as follows. Factor analysis of data for coping with symptoms produced 6 dimensions: acceptance of bodily change, positive care of one's body, positive thinking, prioritizing of activities, changes in thinking, and talking with someone about symptoms. Lower menopausal symptoms and positive care of one's body had positive effects on subjective well-being. Among peri-menopausal women with severe symptoms, acceptance of their bodily changes was related to higher psychological well-being. For post-menopausal women, prioritizing of activities was related to subjective well-being, regardless of symptoms. These results indicate that effective coping is influenced by women's menopausal symptoms and menopausal status.
yKeywordsz Menopause, Menopausal symptoms, Coping, Middle-aged women

Tanaka, Yoshihiro (Department of Community Child Education, Nara Saho College), Ito, Hiroyuki (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Murayama, Yasuo (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Noda, Wataru (The United Graduate School of Professional Teacher Education, Osaka Kyoiku University), Nakajima, Syunji (Saga University Student Support Service room), Hamada, Megumi (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Katagiri, Masatoshi (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Takayanagi, Nobuya (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine) & Tsujii, Masatsugu (School of Contemporary Sociology, Chukyo University). The Relationship between Bullying and Victimization, and Traits of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in School Children. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.4, 332-343.

This study investigated the relationship between experiences of bullying and victimization with the traits of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in nursery school, elementary school, and junior high school children in one Japanese city. The parents of 8,396 toddlers and 1st-9th grade youngsters completed questionnaires. They assessed their children's ASD and ADHD traits and various forms of bullying and victimization experienced by their children during the past year. Ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that both ASD and ADHD traits were associated with all forms of bullying and victimization. Controlling for the effects of other independent variables, ASD traits were associated with all forms of victimization, whereas ADHD traits were associated with all forms of bullying and victimization except physical victimization. In addition, ASD traits indicated more potent effects on victimization than ADHD traits. Finally, ASD and ADHD traits differed in interaction effects for grade and gender.
yKeywordsz Bullying and victimization, Neurodevelopmental disorders traits, Autism spectrum disorder, Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, Parental rating scale

Toyoda, Kaori (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo). Lifelong-Learning-Based Vocational Identities of MBA Graduates: TEA Analysis and Situated Learning Theory. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.4, 344-357.

The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of vocational identity transformation in 23 MBA graduates from a business school in Japan, and to examine the coexistence between workers and organizations. Qualitative analysis using the trajectory equifinality approach (TEA) from the viewpoint of situated learning theory indicated that there were five developmental stages of vocational identity: (1) emerging and settlement, (2) enhancement or stagnation, (3) release, (4) expansion, and (5) creation. In each stage, a person has a different view of work, and workers' belief in the value of their work changes during the expansion stage. Vocational identity starts as being characterized by organizational culture, and transforms into one that is characterized by social scientists as lifelong learning. The results suggest that coexistence between workers and organizations is feasible if the following two issues for workers are settled: (1) development of a boundary trajectory into the business school, with workers' learning beyond official job training, and (2) development of a cross-boundary trajectory between business schools and organizations for the most use of social science, when encouraged as a legitimate practice of organizational membership.
yKeywordsz Business school (MBA), Vocational identity, TEA (TEM/TLMG/HSI), Situated learning, Life-long learning

Onoda, Ryosuke (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo, Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). Children's Listening in Relation to their Utterances in Classroom Discussions: Bias in Listening to My-side and Other-side Utterances. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2015, Vol.26, No.4, 358-370.

The purpose of the present study was to clarify relations between children's listening and their utterances. Four discussion sessions in a third grade class were observed, and immediate recall tasks measured children's biases in listening. A My-side bias (MB) index was calculated for each session, and was derived by subtracting the number of other-side arguments recalled from the number of my-side arguments recalled. Categorical analysis revealed the following: (1) MB index scores were negatively correlated with rebuttal utterances, which provided reasons for my-side arguments and also replies to other-side counterarguments; (2) children who had high MB index scores reworded other children's supportive arguments more than did children with low MB index; and (3) children with low MB index scores questioned the opposing position more than did children with high MB index. These results suggest that children's bias in listening relates to their utterances, and that it is important to encourage children to listen to other-side utterances, which enhances their rebuttals and replies to other-side counterarguments.
yKeywordsz Listening skills, My-side bias, Rebuttals, Debate, Elementary school students