Vol.27 No.1

Matsuzaki, Yutaka (Graduate School of Education, Tohoku University), Kawasumi, Ryuichi (Graduate School of Education, Tohoku University) & Tanaka, Mari (Kyushu University). Empathy in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-focused and Other-focused Cognitive Processes. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.1, 1-9.

People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to have higher levels of discomfort (personal distress) while other people experience negative emotions. Further, personal distress is related to self-focused rather than other-focused cognitive processes. However, the characteristics of self-focused and other-focused cognitive processes among adolescents with ASD have not been clarified by previous research. The present study examined empathy in adolescents with ASD, focusing on their self-focused and other-focused cognitive processes. Fifteen adolescents with ASD and 577 typically developing adolescent males were presented with 3 pictures, of a person who felt fear, sad, and anger, and they were asked to express their thoughts (open response), and to evaluate whether their thoughts were self-focused or other-focused (choice response). The results showed no group differences in open responses; however, on the choice response task adolescents with ASD had a higher tendency to rate their thoughts as self-focused than did the typically developing adolescents, for the picture depicting fear. These findings suggest that people with ASD may have had many fearful experiences, which relates to excessively self-focused cognitive process when they perceive a person who feels fear.
yKeywordszAutism Spectrum Disorder, Empathy, Cognitive process

Onitsuka, Shiori (Graduate School of Human-Environmental Studies, Kyushu University). The Participation Process of Mothers of Infants in Childcare Groups: Achievement of Ibasho. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.1, 10-22.

This study examined mothers' participation in childcare groups, focusing on their ibasho (existential place) and level of group participation, in order to understand mothers' experiences and discuss childcare support. Eleven mothers were interviewed about their group experiences. Data analysis using the modified grounded theory approach revealed six stages of participation: (1) gencountering the childcare group,h (2) ginteracting as a simple participant,h (3) gachieving ibasho,h (4) gparticipating in group operations,h (5) grunning the group,h and (6) gdeveloping childcare support.h Mothers who were distressed while nurturing children were able to achieve ibasho when supported by other mothers. Further, mothers' positions shifted from that of support recipients to support providers when they participated in the operations of the childcare group. These findings suggest that a mother undergoes two learning processes-as both a child nurturer and a childcare supporter-and that her ibasho is the place where she accomplishes her roles and feels fulfillment, in addition to returning to her original self.
yKeywordszChildcare groups, Ibasho, Childcare support, Mother-infant relations

Nakamichi, Naoko (Department of Sports Wellness Sciences, Japan Women's College of Physical Education). Guided Participation: Social Pretend Play between Toddlers and Their Older Siblings. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.1, 23-31.

Participation in social pretend play has been regarded as a relatively sophisticated form of pretend play, because it requires the sustained understanding of other people's fantasy framework. The present study investigated whether older siblings changed their behaviors during pretense play and consequently encouraged toddlers to engage in collaborative pretend play, with a sample of 26 pairs of older siblings (M5;5) and toddlers (M1;11). Older siblings smiled longer, gazed at the toddlers longer, used sound effects more frequently, and engaged in more frequent snack-related actions in a gpretense conditionh than in a greal condition.h In addition, sequential analysis revealed that toddlers were significantly more likely to engage in pretense following the specific pattern of older siblings' behavior, as a form of social referencing. These research findings are discussed in relation to what Rogoff (2003) called gguided participation.h
yKeywordszSocial pretend play, Guided participation, Older siblings, Toddlers

Kawamoto, Tetsuya (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo, Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science), Sakakibara, Ryota (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo, Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science), Muraki, Yoshitaka (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo, Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science), Kojima, Atsuhiro (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo), Ishii, Yu (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo, Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) & Endo, Toshihiko (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo). Socioemotional Development through Experiential Activities in University Students: Focusing on Emotion Regulation. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.1, 32-46.

The purpose of this study was to explore University of Tokyo students' socioemotional development in relation to their experiential activities. Participants were 276 university students (164 males, 106 females, 6 unreported). Their mean age at the time of first assessment was 20.46 years (SD1.43, Median20, range 18-27). Personality traits, sense of coherence, and emotion regulation strategies were assessed, and analyses were conducted for rank-order stability, mean-level change, and individual differences in change of students' personality traits and sense of coherence. The results showed that rank-order stability was relatively high. As for mean-level change, scores for extraversion and sense of coherence increased significantly. In addition, individual differences in changes of these traits were accounted by students' emotion regulation strategies. Specifically, students using more positive reappraisal strategies showed more increase in their extraversion scores. In contrast, students using more acceptance strategies showed more decline in extraversion. These findings indicate that extracurricular activities like experiential activities may have effects on the socioemotional development of university students.
yKeywordszPersonality change, Sense of coherence, Emotion regulation, Experiential activities, Socioemotional development

Wada, Mika (Tokyo Public School). Siblings of Hikikomori Youth and the Sociocultural Influences That Support and Discourage Their Autonomy from the Family. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.1, 47-58.

This study investigated how the siblings of hikikomori (gsocially withdrawnh) youth become autonomous from their families, as a clarification of sociocultural influences that impact on their autonomy. Analysis of narrative data from 3 siblings whose brother or sister were hikikomori in adolescence utilized a Trajectory Equifinality Model. The results revealed a four phase process. First, these siblings faced up to the changes in their brother or sister, and in the second phase they progressed through feelings that gI want my family to changeh and that gThey won't changeh as a period. In the third phase they kept their distance at the appropriate times, and in the final phase the siblings exhibited decisiveness and self-control. It was also clear that this process involved both autonomy from their family and independence in adolescence. During the third phase, their parents appeared to impart sociocultural influences by encouraging them to remain in family unit (reflecting a traditional Confucian mentality), and yet respected their independence in the modern context of an industrial society where one must progress through successive levels of education. Finally, the discussion explores the developmental transformation of siblings in Japanese adolescence.
yKeywordszHikikomori youth, Siblings, Autonomy, Independence, Sociocultural influences

Ito, Hiroyuki (Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Noda, Wataru (Osaka Kyoiku University), Nakajima, Syunji (Saga University), Tanaka, Yoshihiro (Nara Saho College), Hamada, Megumi (Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Katagiri, Masatoshi (Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Takayanagi, Nobuya (Hirosaki University), Murayama, Yasuo (Hamamatsu University School of Medicine) & Tsujii, Masatsugu (Chukyo University). Longitudinal Prediction of Psychosocial Maladaptation in Elementary School Based on Developmental Appraisal by Nursery School Teachers. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.1, 59-71.

We examined the extent to which developmental appraisal by nursery teachers predicts psychosocial maladaptation in elementary school, and developed the Developmental Scale for Nursery Record (DSNR). A 7-year longitudinal investigation was conducted on 2,400 children from all day nursery and elementary schools in a suburban Japanese city. Nursery school teachers used the Nursery Teacher's Rating Development Scale for Children (NDSC) to assess children's development. Multiple regression analysis revealed that externalizing problems were predicted by tendencies of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (hyperactivity and inattention), while internalizing problems were predicted by tendencies of autism spectrum disorder (sociality, flexibility, and communication) and tendencies of developmental coordination disorder (gross motor control). Academic performance was influenced by tendencies of the three disorders (inattention, communication, and fine motor control). Item-level analysis identified 35 items that contributed to the prediction of psychosocial maladaptation, and these items were assigned to the DSNR. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the DSNR had optimal levels of reliability and factorial validity. Despite substantial reduction of the number of items, the DSNR showed as much predictive accuracy as did the original NDSC.
yKeywordszNursery school record, Developmental disorders, Psychosocial maladaptation, Longitudinal study, Psychometric property

Nakao, Tatsuma (Faculty of Education, University of the Ryukyus) & Murakami, Tatsuya (Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba). Measuring Attachment Security in Middle Childhood: Construction of a Japanese Version of the Kerns Security Scale (KSS). The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.1, 72-81.

This research adapted into Japanese the Kerns Security Scale (KSS), which assesses attachment security in middle childhood. Participants were 420 boys and 428 girls in grades 4-6 (mean age10.2 years). It examined whether the Japanese KSS could be assumed to be based on one factor regardless of gender or grade. We verified the reliability of the KSS with tests of internal consistency and test-retest correlation at 3 months, and also examined the validity of the KSS in the two ways. First, correlations between the KSS and the Self-Perception Profile (i.e., global self-esteem, social competence, and athletic competence) were conducted to determine whether they were theoretically related or unrelated to attachment security. Second, the KSS was utilized to predict empathy, friendship satisfaction, loneliness, and aggression after 8 months. The results supported our hypotheses. In sum, the Japanese version of the KSS appears to have adequate psychometric properties of validity and reliability.
yKeywordszAttachment security, Middle childhood, KSS Japanese Version, Reliability, Validity

Nagano, Yuka (Jin Dental Clinic) & Kuriyama, Yoko (International Christian University). Developmental Differences in Distress and Negative Emotion, Emotional Regulation Strategy, and Adaptive Behavior in Preschool Children under Dental Treatment. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.1, 83-93.

This study examined developmental differences in three aspects of distress and negative emotion, emotional regulation strategy (ERS), and adaptive behavior of preschool children under dental treatment. Seven younger children (3.1-3.9) and eight older children (5.0-6.5) were observed using checklists and an IC recorder. Data indicated that distress and negative emotion continued in the younger group but decreased or was absent in the older group in terms of emotional expression. All children in the younger group used the emotion-centered ERS more frequently as revealed by verbal expressions of rejection/avoidance and requests for help, whereas the older children used the problem-centered ERS defined as verbal expressions about treatment protocols in use, indicating that the problem-centered ERS was more effective for decreasing distress and negative emotions. The numbers of both passive and independent adaptive responses to the treatment were higher in the older group, but independent behaviors never exceeded passive behaviors in frequency. Overall these results may hold both theoretical and empirical implications for dealing with children undergoing dental treatment.
yKeywordszPreschool children, Distress and negative emotion, Emotional regulation strategy, Adaptive behavior, Dental treatment

Horiguchi, Kouta (Doctoral Program in Life Span Developmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba) & Okawa, Ichiro (Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba). A Review of Studies on Autonomy among Elderly Persons, From the Perspective of Autonomous Motivation. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.1, 94-106.

This article reviews research on the autonomy of elderly persons, and presents a motivational perspective on autonomy to synthesize studies on frailty, the disabled elderly, and independent elderly people. First, research issues related to frailty and the autonomy of disabled elderly people are introduced. Second, constructs of autonomy among independent elderly are examined, on the basis of several theoretical perspectives including perceived enactment of autonomy, and self-determination theory. Third, a motivational perspective is described. Finally, the contributions of the motivational perspective on autonomy to progress in research are discussed, as well as its practical implications.
yKeywordszElderly, Autonomy, Autonomous motivation, Well-being

Vol.27 No.2

Chen, Jingjing (Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba) & Moro, Yuji (Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba). The Relationship between Future Time Perspective (FTP) and Children's School Adjustment. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.2, 115-124.

This research began with development of a scale to examine a child's future time perspective (FTP) in Study 1, and then examine how children's attitudes toward positive and negative aspects of the future influenced their adaptive behavior in school (Study 2). Questionnaire data from 347 elementary school in Study 1 were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis and indicated a 3 factor structure of FTP: gself-trust,h gtrust in future society,h and gworry about the future.h In Study 2, a sample of 937 elementary and middle school students completed the FTP scale and a school maladaptation scale. Multiple regression analysis revealed a dynamic influence of FTP on the adaptive feelings of grelationships with friendsh and gacademic performance.h In Study 3, we used the FTP scale to conduct a longitudinal investigation of how one's affective attitudes about the future changes in the transition from elementary school to middle school. The results indicated that children's gworry about the futureh significantly increased after the transition.
yKeywordsz Future time perspective, Self-trust, Trust in the future society, Worry about future, Maladaptive behavior

Okishio-Harada, Mariko (Department of Creative Lifestyle Management, Shohoku College). The Changeable Feelings of a Person with a Disabled Sibling: Generation of a Story and Its Retelling through Autoethnography. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.2, 125-136.

This study used dialogical autoethnography to clarify the relationship of the author with her sister who has a disability, and explored the author's internal reality as the sibling of a disabled person. Dialogical autoethnography responds to criticisms of autoethnography by introducing dialogue with a co-researcher, with whom analysis and interpretation are carried out collaboratively and repeatedly. While conducting the study the author became aware of her sister as a separate subject who had developed independently from her. She later realized that she had not anticipated her sister's development. In addition, an implicit motivation for the study was the desire to separate from her sister, which conformed to social discourse that assumes separate life paths for siblings. However, the retelling of her life stories revealed a feeling of resistance toward detachment from her sister. The results of the study suggest that siblings of a person with a disability vacillate between social values and their own values and desires, and sometimes suffer as a result.
yKeywordsz Disabilities, Siblings, Autoethnography, Dialogue, Retelling

Hamada, Megumi (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Ito, Hiroyuki (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Katagiri, Masatoshi (Asahikawa Campus, Hokkaido University of Education), Uemiya, Ai (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Nakajima, Syunji (Student Support Service Room, Saga University), Takayanagi, Nobuya (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University), Murayama, Yasuo (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Myogan, Mitsunori (School of Psychology, Chukyo University) & Tsujii, Masatsugu (School of Contemporary Sociology, Chukyo University). Relationships between the Feeling of Gender Dysphoria, and Depression and Aggression in Elementary and Junior High School Students. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.2, 137-147.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feeling of gender dysphoria (incongruity between one's physical sex and gender awareness) in children, and its relationship with internalizing and externalizing problems. Students (N5,204, including 2,669 boys and 2,535 girls in grades 4-9) completed a series of self-report questionnaires that assessed their feeling of gender dysphoria (using our original 13-items tool), depression, and aggression. A factor analysis revealed that 12 items from the gender dysphoria scale loaded on one factor and exhibited sufficient internal consistency. Further, the data showed a comparatively weak correlation with parent- and teacher-reported opposite sex behavior, except for the relationship between self-reports by boys and teacher-reports. A multiple regression analysis indicated that the feeling of gender dysphoria showed a moderate relationship with depression and aggression. Specifically, it was revealed that junior high school boys with a higher feeling of gender dysphoria showed a relatively stronger relationship with depression as compared with junior high school girls, as well as elementary school boys and girls.
yKeywordsz Feeling of gender dysphoria, Depression, Aggression

Mizokami, Shinichi (Center for the Promotion of Excellence in Higher Education, Kyoto University), Nakama, Reiko (Gradate School of Education, Hyogo University of Teacher Education) & Hatano, Kai (Development Center for Higher Education, Osaka Prefecture University). Influences of Self-Formation Activities on Adolescents' Identity Formation through Time Perspective. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.2, 148-157.

We examined adolescent identity formation from the perspective of self formation, focused on agentic and individual formations of the self. Specifically, we tested a hypothetical model that self-formation activities at a specific level would influence identity formation (EPSI synthesis and EPSI diffusion) through one's time perspective (goal orientation and occupational career autonomy). In the preliminary study the Self-Formation Activity Scale was developed, and the results using factor analysis revealed that the Self-Formation Activity Scale has four factors: extension of interests and concerns, extension of relationships, achievement of future goals, and future anxiety. We tested the hypothetical model using these four scores and found out that self-formation activities at a specific level did not influence identity formation directly, but influenced it indirectly through time perspective at an abstract or general level. The predicted model was confirmed despite some small direct effects on identity formation from self-formation activities.
yKeywordsz Self formation, Identity formation, Time perspective, Adolescence

Noda, Wataru (The United Graduate School of Professional Teacher Education, Osaka Kyoiku University), Ito, Hiroyuki (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Hamada, Megumi (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Uemiya, Ai (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Katagiri, Masatoshi (Asahikawa Campus, Hokkaido University of Education), Takayanagi, Nobuya (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki University), Nakajima, Syunji (Student Support Service Room, Saga University), Murayama, Yasuo (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Myogan, Mitsunori (School of Psychology, Chukyo University) & Tsujii, Masatsugu (School of Contemporary Sociology, Chukyo University). Stability of Aggression in Elementary and Junior High School Students: Cohort Analysis of a Latent Trait-State Model with Multiple Group Analysis. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.2, 158-166.

The present study investigated the stability of aggression by analyzing five-year longitudinal data of elementary and junior high school students in one suburban Japanese city. Approximately 2,500 students (3rd grade through 9th grade) participated in this study. The latent trait-state model (Cole & Maxwell, 2009) with multiple group analysis was conducted to analyze the five-year three cohort data. The authors measured aggression with the Hostility-Aggression Questionnaire for Children (Sakai et al., 2000). Results showed that the trait-state model was best fitted to aggression, indicating that both the trait factor and an autoregressive occasion factor contributed to the degree of aggression. The data also indicated that the trait component explained the state of aggression moderately well, although there were sex differences for this result. In addition, the effect of the trait component on aggression increased with grade level. This finding suggests that the individual differences in aggression become fixed during late elementary school and junior high school.
yKeywordsz Aggression, Stability, Latent trait-state model, Cohort

Kumaki, Yuto (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University). Developmental Foundation of Sharing Behavior in Young Children: Changes in Motivation and the Role of Executive Function. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.2, 167-179.

Previous studies have indicated various developmental changes in sharing behaviors among young children. However, there have been limited discussions about the reasons for behavioral changes. The current study was designed to identify the developmental foundation of sharing behaviors in young children. A review of developmental research indicated three steps in the formation of sharing behavior in young children: (1) sharing dependent on the requests and emotional expressions of others, (2) equal sharing, and (3) selective sharing. It is suggested that these behavioral change are related to changes in children's motivation for sharing: altruistic motivation, the need to follow social norms, and the prospect of future reward. In addition, this article discusses the maturation of executive functions as related to sharing behaviors, and the facilitation of inhibition of immediate self-interests. Finally, a developmental model of sharing behavior in young children is proposed and tentative suggestions are proposed for future research designed to clarify developmental mechanisms of sharing behavior.
yKeywordsz Sharing behavior, Social norm, Reciprocity, Executive function, Young children

Vol.27 No.3

Ishii, Ryo (Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science). The Relationship between Time Perspective and the Process and Products of Identity Formation. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.3, 189-200.

This study investigated the relationship between time perspective and emerging adults' identity formation, by focusing on both identity formation processes and products. A total of 108 undergraduates and vocational school students responded to a questionnaire survey, and were divided into 3 groups on the basis of their Multidimensional Ego Identity Scale (MEIS) scores, which are indicators of identity formation products. The results of ANOVA not only showed that there was a relationship between identity formation products and future time perspective, as had been shown by previous researchers, but there was also a relationship between identity formation products and present and past time perspectives, which had not been adequately covered in past research. The results of correlational analyses suggested that each identity formation process has a different meaning and function, and is triggered differently depending on the extent of one's sense of identity with regard to the product.
yKeywordsz Time perspective, Identity commitment management, Identify formation, Emerging adults

Okumura, Yuko (NTT Communication Science Laboratories), Ikeda, Ayaka (Graduate School of Letters, Kyoto University), Kobayashi, Tessei (NTT Communication Science Laboratories), Matsuda, Masafumi (NTT Communication Science Laboratories) & Itakura, Shoji (Graduate School of Letters, Kyoto University). Do Five Year-Olds Care about Their Positive or Negative Reputations? The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.3, 201-211.

In our social lives, we strategically manage our own reputations in relation to others. However, the developmental pathway of reputation management and its mechanisms have not yet been fully investigated. The present study examined whether 5 year-olds display concern for their positive or negative reputations when monitored by an observer. We also studied the effect of displaying an image of a pair of eyes in front of children. In Experiment 1, children did not selectively increase their donations of stickers to a recipient when they were watched by an observer, which indicated a lack of concern for their positive reputations. In Experiment 2, children tended to steal fewer stickers from an absent recipient in the presence of an observer. However, their behavior did not differ when the eye image was displayed, compared to a display of a control image (flowers). These results indicate that children already have developed an awareness of their negative reputations when they are being watched by an observer. The data have implications for the prevalence of negative over positive reputation management among preschoolers.
yKeywordsz Reputation management, Preschoolers, Dictator game, Social awareness

Kitada, Sayaka (The United Graduate School of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University). Young Children's Recognition of Impossible Events and Magic. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.3, 212-220.

This study demonstrated the effects of magic on young children's ability to wonder at physically gimpossible events.h Their ability was measured by an evaluation and by their facial expressions in reaction to possible and impossible events. Four-year-olds and six-year-olds were divided into a control group and a magic group who heard a story about ga land of magich before watching about the impossible event. In responses to the possible event, there were no significant age or treatment group differences. There were significant interactions, however, for the impossible event, and there was a significant age effect for their evaluation, i.e., 6-year-olds wondered more about the impossible events than did the 4-year-olds. In addition, there were no significant age or group differences for facial expressions. Four-year-old children tended to confuse real and fantasy, and so they thought of the impossible event as possible regardless of magic. Meanwhile, 6-year-old children apparently could wonder at the impossible event regardless of magic.
yKeywordsz Physical concept, Young children, Magic, Fantasy, Persistence of things

Kosaka, Yasumasa (Wako University). Moratorium among Young Modern Adults Related to Campus Life: The Concept of gRisk-Averse Moratoriumh. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.3, 221-231.

This study investigated a diversity of moratoriums among modern young adults. University students were classified based on what they considered important in their campus life. Their anxieties, state of moratorium, and learning motivation were also compared. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 624 students, and responses were subjected to cluster analysis using standard scores of seven priorities in campus life. The results extracted four clusters, of which Cluster 1 considered self-inquiry and study as important, exhibited motivation for learning and high self-determination; it corresponded to Erikson's classic-type moratorium. Cluster 2 did not place importance on any activity and was characteristic of students who could not cope positively with campus life. Cluster 3 considered all activities as important, and emphasized independence, anxiety about falling behind, and several motives for learning motivations; it was considered a grisk-averse type of moratorium.h Cluster 4 was about interaction with others, and club or circle activities as important, included a sense of omnipotence, and showed positive dealings with career decisions through activities other than studies; it corresponded to a new type of moratorium proposed by Okonogi.
yKeywordsz Moratorium, University students, Campus life, Learning motivation

Tange, Chikako (National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology), Nishita, Yukiko (National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology), Tomida, Makiko (National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science), Otsuka, Rei (National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology), Ando, Fujiko (Aichi Shukutoku University, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology) & Shimokata, Hiroshi (Graduate School of Nutritional Sciences, Nagoya University of Arts and Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology). Longitudinal Study of Attitudes toward Death among Middle-Aged and Elderly Japanese. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.3, 232-242.

This longitudinal study examined age-related changes in attitudes toward death among middle-aged and elderly Japanese subjects. Data were derived from the National Institute for Longevity Sciences - Longitudinal Study of Aging (NILS-LSA). Participants (N3789; age40-91 years) comprised the first, third, fifth, and seventh waves of NILS-LSA, and the attitude toward death scale for the middle-aged and elderly (ATDS-A: five subscales) was completed up to four times at approximately 4-year intervals. General linear mixed-model analyses revealed the following: gFear of deathh decreased for age groups from middle age to young-old, but stabilized during old-old age. gThe belief in existence of an afterlifeh score decreased with age. Older subjects showed a high score for gIntention to live out own lifeh and gMeaning of death for life,h but these scores did not exhibit longitudinal changes. gApproval of death with dignityh was higher in older subjects, but longitudinal change was seen only in early-middle age. These results suggest that each aspect of attitudes toward death has a different longitudinal trajectory.
yKeywordsz Attitude toward death, Middle aged and elderly, Longitudinal study, Thanatology

Kato, Yoshiro (Kansai University of Welfare Sciences), Shimazaki, Mayumi (Graduate School of Education, Hyogo University of Teacher Education) & Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko (Kwansei Gakuin University). A Review of Behavioral Characteristics of Smith-Magenis Syndrome: Enhancing Developmental Support. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.3, 243-256.

Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS) is a genetic disease associated with intellectual disability, caused by deletions and mutations of the RAI1 gene on chromosome 17p11.2. The syndrome prevalence is now estimated to be 1/15,000 births. This syndrome is characterized by complex clinical features, sleep disturbance and behavior problems. Behavior problems are most difficult for caregivers to manage. In Japan, especially in the areas of special needs education and welfare service, SMS is less well-known than other syndromes with a genetic basis. In this article, the authors review the literature on behavioral and cognitive profiles of SMS along with its associated clinical features and environmental correlates. As a result, disobedience, aggression, self-injury and property destruction were the most frequently reported behavior problems. These maladaptive behaviors were mostly associated with attention seeking function. Moreover, there were several syndrome-specific biological factors such as hearing loss, eye abnormalities, and peripheral neuropathy. Finally, implications were discussed for the enhancement of further effective development support based on an understanding of the characteristics of SMS.
yKeywordsz Smith-Magenis Syndrome, Behavior characteristics, Clinical features, Sleep disturbance, Genetic disease

Vol.27 No.4

Kawasaki, Michio (Takada Junior College). Historical Perspectives and Participation in Social Practice in Studies of Children at Play. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.4, 267-275.

This article discusses sociohistorical properties of children at play and childhood development. The following three main points are discussed. 1. Awareness of the researcher's own intentions and participation in social practice are both essential for the study of children at play. All young children should enjoy play every day, but in our society children do not play enough. I participate in social practices to enrich their lives with play. 2. I give meaning to the facts I encounter through that practice. As each child's play is a once-off event, study methodology cannot be the same as in the natural sciences. So it is important to have a historical perspective as researchers. 3. The same methodology as found in developmental psychology may be applied. The actual development of a child is not normative, but is a once-off story when viewed historically. Because each child is unique, no two childhoods are the same developmentally. Therefore, an approach emphasizing uniqueness of individual development is necessary.
yKeywordsz Play, Historical perspective, Social practice, Methodology of developmental psychology

Kawata, Manabu (Research and Clinical Center for Child Development, Faculty of Education, Hokkaido University), Shiraishi, Yuko (Graduate School of Human Sciences, Waseda University) & Negayama, Koichi (Faculty of Human Sciences, Waseda University). Historical Changes in Allomothering on Tarama Island (Okinawa): A Frontier for Developmental Psychology. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.4, 276-287.

This study took place at Tarama Island (Okinawa, Japan) and examined changes in two types of allomothering (non-maternal childrearing system): traditional babysitting and institutionalized childcare in day nurseries. Framed within a social dynamics approach, this work proposed a human developmental perspective comprised by gerah and glocality.h We first investigated the transition of moriane (Okinawa's unique approach to babysitting) across different eras. Women born between 1943 and 1952 had the highest rate of moriane experiences, and this became less common thereafter although it has increased slightly in recent years. The establishment of a day nursery in 1979 was associated with mothers' higher educational expectations at that time. In addition, changes in childrearing practices were related to the development of social and educational infrastructure, and population dynamics. Around 1950, when the practice of moriane was the most prevalent, children under 15 years of age outnumbered adults (10% of the population was comprised by children under 3 years of age). Thereafter, adults have outnumbered children. Utilities such as electricity and water supply became available around 1972, with the return of Okinawa to Japan. In conclusion, based on the implications of allomothering practices on Tarama Island, we may debate the premises or biases related to understanding children from the perspective of developmental psychology.
yKeywordsz Tarama Island, Moriane, Nursery, Allomothering, Child-adult ratio of population

Naito, Mika (Joetsu University of Education). The Socio-Cultural Construction of gTheory of Mindh: A Critical Evaluation of Cognitive Science from Phenomenological Perspectives. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.4, 288-298.

This article critiques the theories of Theory of Mind (ToM), and proposes an alternative phenomenological framework that demarcates a socio-cultural construction process and its resulting social understanding. First, we observe that the ToM framework and its cognitive science background originated from the premise that a representational understanding of an unobservable mind (i.e., mind-reading) is an intrinsic, universal ability from a third-person perspective. The author then reviews recent phenomenological explanations and their multi- or dual-process models of social cognition which includes implicit false-belief understanding, that emphasize first- and second-person perspectives of social interaction. It is argued that although it may be the most plausible framework of social understanding, the phenomenological model still lacks enough consideration of socio-cultural construction, a process which should be universal across socio-historical contexts. We further assert that ToM, believed to be the one and only universal cognitive process, is nothing more than an outcome of such socio-cultural processes.
yKeywordsz Theory of mind, Phenomenological perspectives, Embodiment, Interaction, Socio-cultural construction

Oshio, Atsushi (Waseda University), Wakita, Takafumi (Kansai University), Okada, Ryo (Kagawa University), Namikawa, Tsutomu (Niigata University) & Mogaki, Madoka (Rikkyo University). A Cross-temporal Meta-analysis of Self-esteem Research in Japan. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.4, 299-311.

Self-esteem is one of the popular constructs in psychological studies, and there have been many studies wherein a meta-analysis of self-esteem research has been conducted. This study focused on research involving cross-temporal meta-analyses, wherein samples who completed the same psychological questionnaires at different points in historical time are located. Oshio et al. (2014) found that mean scores of self-esteem tended to decrease with survey year. Okada et al. (2015) conducted a meta-analysis to examine gender differences in reported self-esteem in Japan, and found that effect size decreased with survey year. This article provides a detailed description of cross-temporal research on self-esteem and discusses the direction of future research on self-esteem from the perspective of historical change.
yKeywordsz Self-esteem, Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, Meta-analysis, Cross-temporal meta-analysis, Birth cohort differences

Tanaka, Mari (Kyushu University). Inner Assessment of Support of Children with Disabilities: Ambiguity and Reasonable Accommodation. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.4, 312-321.

This paper adopts two central viewpoints in consideration of reasonable accommodation for children with disabilities. First, children should be recognized with regard to not only their individuality but also various situational inter-relationships. To describe ambiguity in the understanding of their own latent world, discussions of methodological considerations were formulated. Secondly, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework, which integrates the major models of disability, was taken as a basis for discussion. It is argued that real reasonable accommodation can be made only when the role of environmental factors in creating the disability is recognized, as in the ICF framework. These viewpoints suggest that human development should be interpreted in consideration of its historical meaning, concreteness of the regional space context, and the unique and special existence of individuals.
yKeywordsz Disability, Ambiguity, Reasonable accommodation, Self-understanding, ICF

Kumagaya, Shinichiro (Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo). Individual Impairment vs. Disability that Depends on Location and Era: Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.4, 322-334.

The epidemiological and historical sociology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suggests that the concept of esocial communication and interaction' included in its diagnostic criteria may lead people to mistake einter-personal phenomena' that alternate continuously based on time and place, for persistent eintra-personal phenomena.' Because persistent characteristics that exist independent of social relationships may be diverse among ASD, it is necessary to extract them in a case-by-case manner. Accordingly, we have been doing tojisha-kenkyu (person-centered research) for 8 years with Ayaya, who is a researcher diagnosed with ASD. The results revealed the following possibilities: 1) atypical regulation under interoception-driven long-term goals causes difficulties in motor control, selective retrieval and systematic consolidation of memories; and 2) enhanced interoception fails to be integrated with exteroceptions, which causes difficulties in constructing the emotions and intrinsic intentions of one's self and others, and hyper- and hyposensitivity to sensory inputs and prediction errors. Tojisha-kenkyu has not only academic significance, but it may also lead to therapeutic effects on well-being by making it possible to grasp trans-situational invariants of the self.
yKeywordsz Autism spectrum disorder, Social model, Tojisha-kenkyu (Person-centered research), Cingulo-opercular network

Inui, Akio (Professor Emeritus, Tokyo Metropolitan University). How Does the Prolongation of Youth Transitions Affect Studies of Adolescence and Youth? The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.4, 335-345.

This article provides suggestions and questions to Japanese developmental psychological studies from a youth transition researcher. Over the last few decades, young people's transition to adulthood has been lengthened in Japan and other Western countries, with regard to stable employment, leaving home and marriage. In accord with this change, adolescence/youth researchers in America and Europe are introducing and debating new theories, such as Arnett's theory of emerging adulthood, to explain this prolonged transition. The most critical point under debate is whether or not emerging adulthood is a new universal developmental stage for youth in industrialized countries. Arnett claims universality, but other researchers argue that emerging adulthood applies only to middle class youth who can afford to attend universities, while ignoring the experiences of disadvantaged youth. In Japan, although there have been many developmental psychological studies of adolescence, there seem to be few that focus on the prolongation of the transition. It may be a serious point that most psychological research on adolescents focus only on those who will obtain higher education, while less educated youth seem to be invisible to psychologists in Japan.
yKeywordsz Adolescence, Emerging adulthood, Youth transition, Prolonged transition, Disadvantaged youth

Okada, Tsutomu (Kanazawa University, Institute of Human and Social Sciences). Characteristics of Friendship in Contemporary Adolescents. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.4, 346-356.

The present study explored the characteristics of friendship in contemporary adolescence. The first part of the study compared surveys conducted between 1989 and 2010 on friendship item scores. The results showed that friendship characteristics had not changed much over the years. The second part of the study explored how two characteristics of friendship, self-consciousness and narcissism, were related to gcommu-phobich tendencies and the glunch-mate syndrome.h This study further examined individual differences among contemporary adolescents. The analysis showed that glunch-mate syndromeh tendencies correlated with hypervigilant narcissism. It was suggested that participants with strong glunch-mate syndromeh tendencies remained in a state of high anxiety concerning what their friends thought about them, whereas participants with gcommu-phobich tendencies avoided close relationships with their friends, to escape their anxieties. To find an effective explanation for contemporary adolescent behavior, it is important for developmental psychologists to pay attention not only to the overall picture but also to individual differences among adolescents, and to causal mechanisms of the phenomenon.
yKeywordsz Contemporary adolescents, Friendship, gCommu-Phobich tendency, Lunch-mate syndrome

Shibayama, Makoto (Faculty of Home Economics, Otsuma Women's University), Toyama-Bialke, Chisaki (German School Tokyo Yokohama), Takahashi, Noboru (Faculty of Education, Osaka Kyoiku University) & Ikegami, Makiko (Graduate School of Japanese Applied Linguistics, Waseda University). Interfaces between Child's Language Learning and the Age of Globalization: Daily Practices to Foster Biliteracy of Children in International Marriage Families. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.4, 357-367.

This paper described interfaces between a child's language learning and the age of globalization, and focused on daily practices that foster biliteracy of children in German-Japanese families. Our previous studies and some new data were presented for discussion. Two characteristics of family practices for the development of children's Japanese literacy emerged. First, parental support for their children was continuously carried out with the use of available resources, as defined by the German school system and their social-linguistic environment. Second, families collaborated to overcome critical problems that occurred not only for their children with age, but also due to friction between the family, and local and supplementary schools. These findings have three implications for language developmental study, showing the necessity to (1) consider the extension and diversity of children who learn Japanese, (2) examine children's language developmental processes from long-term and holistic perspectives, not restricted to language skill acquisition, and (3) view a child's literacy development as a collaborative practice with his/her family members, embedded in their daily lives.
yKeywordsz Globalization, International marriage family, German-Japanese child, Biliteracy, Japanese as a heritage language

Sakagami, Hiroko (College of Education, Psychology and Human Studies, Aoyama Gakuin University), Kanamaru, Tomomi (Graduate School of Integrated Human and Social Welfare Studies, Shukutoku University) & Takeda-Rokkaku, Yoko (Department of Childhood Studies, Kawaguchi Junior College). Compliance/Noncompliance of 2-year-olds during a Toy-Cleanup Procedure: Comparisons and Changes between 2004/2005 and 2010/2011. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.4, 368-378.

In light of recent updates which imply delays in Japanese toddlers' self-development, this study investigated changes over the years in the compliance and non-compliance of 2 year-olds as an indicator of self-development in early childhood. We observed and examined the behaviors of 2-year-olds (N111) in 2004 and 2005 (Wave 1) and 2-year-olds (N95) in 2010 and 2011 (Wave 2), during a toy-cleanup procedure. Compared with the children in Wave 1, fewer children in Wave 2 showed a refusal reaction to the requests from strangers to clean up the toys they played with. In addition, children in Wave 2 showed more compliant reactions and less defiance or refusal toward their mothers during mother-child cleanup situations. These findings suggest that toddlers today may be experiencing delays in recognition of the difference between their and others' intentions and in expressing their will. Implications of the data are discussed, regarding changes in children's behaviors and maternal reactions with regard to self-development, or rapid changes in the parent-child environment, which may account for changes over the years in children's compliance or non-compliance.
yKeywordsz Two-year-olds, Compliance, Non-compliance, Self-development, Cohort changes

Kawamoto, Tetsuya (Graduate School of Education, the University of Tokyo, Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) & Endo, Toshihiko (Graduate School of Education, the University of Tokyo). Secular Trends in the Development of Health-Related Physical Fitness in Japanese Adolescents. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.4, 379-394.

This study explored the development of adolescent health-related physical fitness and the secular trend of its trajectory. Data for the study were drawn from archival data of the secondary school attending the University of Tokyo's Faculty of Education. Participants for endurance running were 3,763 adolescents (1,870 females) who entered the school between 1968 and 2001, and those for grip strength were 2,137 adolescents (1,072 females) who entered the school between 1968 and 1987. The results of latent growth curve modeling showed that males improved in their endurance running performance and grip strength during adolescence. Meanwhile, females did not greatly change their endurance running performance and slightly improved in their grip strength during adolescence. In addition, the results also indicated a secular trend in their developmental trajectories. Later-born cohorts showed a decline of endurance running performance for both sexes. Meanwhile, these cohorts also showed an increase in grip strength, but only for male adolescents.
yKeywordsz Health-related physical fitness, Adolescence, Secular trend, Cohort, Latent growth curve model

Murayama, Yasuo (Faculty of Humanities and Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University), Ito, Hiroyuki (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Ohtake, Satoko (Department of Early Childhood Education, College of Nagoya Women's University), Katagiri, Masatoshi (Hokkaido University of Education, Asahikawa Campus), Hamada, Megumi (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Nakajima, Syunji (Student Support Services Room, Saga University), Uemiya, Ai (Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University), Nomura, Kazuyo (Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine), Takayanagi, Nobuya (Faculty of Human Studies, Aichi Toho University), Myougan, Mitsunori (School of Psychology, Chukyo University) & Tsujii, Masatsugu (School of Contemporary Sociology, Chukyo University). A Cross-Sectional Study of the Effects of Social Support on the Mental Health of 4th-9th Grade Students. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.4, 395-407.

Social support is one of the factors that promotes mental health among adolescents. The current cross-sectional study of 4th-9th grade students investigated the effects of social support on mental health problems such as depression and aggression. Using general linear model and controlling for gender, age, and stressors, it was found that students who perceived more social support from peer and/or adults exhibited lower levels of depression. In addition, gender was related to associations between social support and depression - girls showed stronger associations than boys. A negative but weak effect of peer support on aggression was also notable, although we did not find the same effects for adult support on aggression. According to an analysis of relationships between gender/age and levels of social support, girls perceived more social support from peers and adults than boys. Finally, students in higher grade levels perceived more peer support and less adult support.
yKeywordsz Social support, Middle school students, Depressive symptoms, Aggression, Mental health

Yoshizumi, Takahiro (College of Humanities, Chubu University). Social Support and Quality of Life in Junior High School Students from Households on Welfare. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.4, 408-417.

Along with an increase in the number of Japanese people suffering economic hardship, the problems of children in poverty have been especially exacerbated. Economic factors have an effect on not only the necessities of life for these children, but also their social relations. The purpose of the study was to examine the characteristics of social support in children from impoverished households. Junior high school students from households on welfare (n132) and students from ordinary households (n256) completed the SESS measuring social support, and the KINDL, a measure of quality of life (QOL). The results showed that students from impoverished households perceived support from their teachers as lacking, compared to students from ordinary households. Among students from ordinary households, support from parents, teachers, and friends were associated with QOL scores. Among students from impoverished households, support from friends was associated with QOL scores, but support from their teachers was not associated with any QOL scores. These results suggest that more support in school is required for children from impoverished households.
yKeywordsz Child poverty, Welfare recipients, Social support, Quality of life

Goitsuka, Kazuya (Faculty of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu University). The Influence of Expression of Kindness from Others on School Children's Subsequent Social Information Processing Styles in Ambiguous Provocative Situations. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2016, Vol.27, No.4, 418-428.

The purpose of this research was to consider the influence of expressions of kindness from others on children's subsequent development of social information processing (SIP) styles during ambiguous provocative situations. A total of 247 children from grades 4-6 of elementary school completed a questionnaire based on the SIP model, and structural equation modeling was used to verify causality of each variable. For both children who had reported receiving expressions of kindness from others and those that had not, hostile attributions were inversely related to friendly goal setting, and friendly goal setting was inversely related to aggressive behaviors, suggesting a positive relationship to behaviors demonstrating anger restraint. An ANOVA was conducted to verify the influence of others' expressions of kindness, age, and sex on SIP. The results suggested that negative SIP styles in children increased significantly with age, and negative SIP styles were possibly moderated by expressions of kindness from others.
yKeywordsz Social information processing, Ambiguous provocative situations, School children, Expressions of kindness