Vol.28 No.1

Watanabe, Manami (Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo). Abuse Anxiety during Pregnancy: Differences Based on Parenting Experience. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.1, 1-11.

The purpose of this study was to investigate aspects of abuse anxiety during pregnancy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 pregnant women (28 were primiparas and 17 were multiparas), and statements regarding abuse anxiety were categorized. Categories were (1) “Empathetic reaction to abusive parents,” (2) “Anxiety about being regarded as an abusive mother,” and (3) “Anxiety about the possibility of being abusive.” Examples of their sub-categories were: (1) eSense of similarity between their own parenting and child abuse,f (2) eAnxiety about the possibility of their children seeing them as abusive mothers,f and (3) eAnxiety about the possibility of not being able to control their emotions.f The results suggest the diversity of abuse anxieties, which had never before been examined. Moreover, the contents the mothers referred to as the subjective causes of their abuse anxiety differed between primiparas and multiparas women. It is necessary to study the process of how mothers develop specific abuse anxieties, in order to suggest adequate support for these mothers.
yKeywordszParenting anxiety, Abuse anxiety, Child maltreatment, Parental support, Pregnant mothers

Otani, Takashi (Kyoto International Social Welfare Exchange Centre, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Kobe Gakuin University), Shimizu, Satomi (Heian Jogakuin University), Goma, Hideyo (Kyoto University of Education), Okubo, Junichiro (Tezukayama University) & Shimizu, Hiroyuki (Kobe Gakuin University). The Usefulness of Picture Sequencing Tasks in Developmental Assessment. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.1, 12-23.

Participants in this study were 349 children (age range44-107 months), and the results were evaluated according to the age group of the participants. The tasks were based on similar tasks published by Baron-Cohen, Leslie and Frith (1986), and were divided into three categories: “mechanical,” “behavioral,” and “intentional.” The mechanical tasks were the easiest, and performance on these tasks were set as a base to estimate the achievement levels for the other two categories. The results revealed that all tasks or three categories were performed successfully by 3-7 year-old children. 4.5 year-old children had a 50% success rate in passing the “mechanical” tasks, 5.7 year-old children had a 50% success rate in passing the “behavioral” task, and 6.5 year-old children had a 50% success rate in passing the “intentional” task. These results suggest that the picture sequencing tasks are useful for the assessment of development when the categories are adequately considered.
yKeywordszPicture sequencing task, Developmental assessment, Young children

Tian, Lingling (Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University), Hiraishi, Kenji (Graduate School of Education and Human Development, Nagoya University) & Watanabe, Kenji (School of Education, Kogakkan University). Discrepancies between Adolescents' and Mothers' Conceptions of Parental Authority, Mother-Adolescent Conflicts and Adolescents' Well-being. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.1, 24-34.

This study analyzed differences between adolescents' and mothers' conceptions of parental authority, and assessed the relationships among the discrepancies of adolescents' and mothers' conceptions of parental authority, mother-adolescent conflicts, and adolescents' well-being. Participants were 287 adolescents and their mothers. The research examined their conceptions of parental authority (legitimacy of parental authority, rule obligation), adolescents' perceptions of mother-adolescent conflicts (quantity of issues, intensity of issues) and well-being (depression, anxiety, self-esteem). The results showed the following: (1) adolescents reported lower scores of conceptions of parental authority than did mothers; (2) adolescents at upper grade levels reported lower scores of conceptions of parental authority than did adolescents at lower grade levels; (3) females reported higher levels of mother-adolescent conflicts than did males; and (4) discrepancies between adolescents' and mothers' conceptions of parental authority negatively affected mother-adolescent conflicts, and in turn, mother-adolescent conflicts negatively affected adolescents' well-being.
yKeywordszParental authority, Mother-adolescent conflict, Adolescence, Mother-adolescent relationship

Sasaki, Takayuki (Faculty of Business Administration, Osaka University of Commerce), Takahama, Yuko (Professor Emeritus, Ochanoizu University), Kitamura, Kotomi (Faculty of Human Sciences, Osaka University of Human Sciences) & Kimura, Fumika (Faculty of Contemporary Human Life Science, Tokyo Kasei Gakuin University). An Analysis of Dyadic Data among Parents with Toddlers and Grandparents: The Determinants of Childcare Support Frequency and Informant Discrepancy. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.1, 35-45.

The purpose of this research was to investigate the determinants of grandparents' childcare support frequency and discrepancies between parent-reports and grandparent-reports. It employed a multilevel approach suitable for dyadic data. Parameter estimations were made for 186 dyads of parents and grandparents, and interdependence within the dyads and measurement errors were taken into account. The results revealed that predictors from the parental side, but not the grandparental side, were linked with the frequency of grandparents' childcare support. Regardless of support providers' age, time availability, economic status, or health status, the extent of recipients' demands was related to an increase in the frequency of childcare support. On average, grandparents were more likely to underestimate the frequency of their support than parents, the recipients of support. Those grandparents who were satisfied with their intergenerational support relationships and those who lived close to parents with toddlers were more likely to underestimate the support frequency, meaning that the discrepancy between the two reports was higher.
yKeywordszChildcare support, Intergenerational relationship, Generativity, Dyadic data, Grandparents

Sakakibara, Ryota (Faculty of Law, Economics and Humanities, Kagoshima University), Tomizuka, Yuriko (Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo) & Endo, Toshihiko (Graduate School of Education, University of Tokyo). The Relationships between Cognitive Emotional Labor Strategies and Psychological Health of Nursery Teachers. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.1, 46-58.

This study concerned the relations between cognitive emotional labor strategies and the psychological health of nursery teachers, and examined how their job involvement moderates those relations. Questionnaires were completed by 1,798 nursery teachers. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that compared to other strategies, “rumination,” “catastrophizing,” and “attribution to school” had relatively strong positive relations with “emotional exhaustion” and “intention to leave.” On the other hand, “positive reappraisal” was the only strategy that had negative relations with both variables, although the effect sizes were small. In addition, interaction effects between “rumination,” “catastrophizing,” and “job involvement” were confirmed. Simple slope analysis showed that “job involvement” had a buffering effect on “rumination” and “catastrophizing” on “intention to leave.” This buffering effect was inconsistent with previous theories and findings. The significance of these research findings and the limits of this study were discussed.
yKeywordszNursery teacher, Emotional labor, Psychological health, Job involvement

Vol.28 No.2

Takiyoshi, Michika (Iwate University), Suzuki, Daisuke (Tohoku University) & Tanaka, Mari (Kyushu University). Cognition of Awkwardness in People with ASD: An Exploratory Study. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.2, 63–73.

This study analyzed how people with typical development (TD) perceive awkwardness during different stages of life and contrasted these perceptions with cognitions about people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants (ns214 people with TD, 111 people with ASD, ages 9–60) were asked when they felt awkward. Their responses were grouped into 12 categories and analyzed. The results showed that elementary school-aged TD participants felt awkward when another person's opinions or feelings opposed their own. High school students felt awkward in interpersonal relationships. Meanwhile, ASD participants ages 16 and older failed to understand the relationship between themselves and others, or to immediately sense the atmosphere of other people. ASD participants were especially less perceptive of awkwardness in the contexts of conversations and facial or non-verbal cues. However, they tended to feel awkward when they could not handle an issue on their own. The discussion concerned the characteristics and development of cognitions of awkwardness that people with ASD perceive in comparison to people with TD.
yKeywordszAutism Spectrum Disorder, Typical Development, Awkwardness, Developmental stages

Kudo, Hidemi (Graduate School of Human Development, Aichi Prefectural University). Development of Understanding of Ambiguous Figures in Young Children: Effects of Figure De-construction and Re-construction on Children's Spontaneous Reversal of Interpretations. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.2, 74–83.

This study investigated the ages at which children can reverse ambiguous figures without any suggestion of another interpretation. When children cannot reverse the figures, we also considered whether or not they reverse them more easily after having observed the process of disassembling a figure (e.g., perceived as a rabbit) into pieces and then reassembling the pieces into the exactly same composition as previously presented, but with the pretext that the figure would be different (e.g., a duck). The results showed that a majority of 5-year-old children easily succeed in making alternative interpretations, whereas 3-year-olds stick to their first interpretations and cannot find another one. We found that the de- and re-construction procedure facilitates the spontaneous reversal of ambiguous figures only for 5-year-old children, whereas there was no such effect for 3- to 4- year-olds. Our findings suggest that it is not until age 5 that children come to understand the representational nature of interpretations of ambiguous figures.
yKeywordszYoung children, Ambiguous figure, Development of representation, Figure reconstruction

Hihara, Shogo (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University) & Sugimura, Kazumi (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University). An Examination of Negative Identity of Adolescents Using the Twenty Statements Test: Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.2, 84–95.
This study examined the validity of a procedure to identify adolescents choosing a negative identity, by using the Twenty Statements Test (TST). In Study 1, 222 (Survey 1) and 204 (Survey 2) Japanese university students completed questionnaires. Consistent with our hypotheses, students in the negative identity group scored lower on identity achievement, trust, and environmental exploration, and higher on guilt and career indecision, than did their peers in the other groups. There was no significant difference in self-exploration among the groups. In Study 2, 22 university students took part in interviews. Students in the negative identity group stated their negative self-definitions more clearly than did individuals in the other groups. Moreover, they had experienced identity crisis, guilt, and crisis of trust. Overall, these results reveal that the procedure used in this study was effective for identification of adolescents who choose a negative identity.
yKeywordszNegative identity, Identity crisis, Twenty Statements Test, Self-concept, Adolescence

Miyake, Hidenori (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science) & Sugimura, Shinichiro (Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University). The Effect of Directive Words on Semantic Integration of Speech and Gesture in Comprehension in Young Children. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.2, 96–105.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of directive words on young children's ability to integrate speech and gesture in comprehension. In this study, 3- to 6-year-old children (N210) were presented with a combination of two types of spoken sentences and gestures. They were divided into two groups. One was the group in which children were presented gestures and speech with directive words, and the other was the group in which they were presented gestures and speech without directive words. Using iconic gesture in Experiment 1 and abstract gesture in Experiment 2, the participants were asked to select an object that best matched the message. The result showed that young children in the group with directive words integrated speech and gesture more than the group without directive words. The proportion who made the right choice selecting speech and gesture increased with age in Experiment 1, but it did not increase with age in Experiment 2. Based on our results, we discuss how young children's ability to integrate speech and gesture can be developed.
yKeywordszGesture, Speech, Integrated comprehension, Directive words, Young children

Fujino, Hiroshi (Tokyo Gakugei University), Matsui, Tomoko (Tokyo Gakugei University), Tojo, Yoshikuni (Ibaraki University) & Hakarino, Koichiro (Musashino Higashi Center for Education and Research). Do Verbal Proposition Cues Facilitate False-Belief Reasoning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder? An Intervention Study. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.2, 106–114.
We investigated the effect of verbal proposition cues related to the basic principle of false-belief in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and discussed the findings from the perspective of verbal ability. The participants were 54 children with ASD from 6–12 years of age. A pre-test was administered using a false-belief task. Twenty-nine children who did not pass the pre-test were given another false-belief task as an intervention. In this task, the ‘seeing leads to knowing' principle was provided verbally before the belief question. Children who passed this task were given another false-belief task without verbal cues as a post-test for a probe. They were also asked to state the reasons for their answers. Four children passed the intervention task and post-test, and two children among them referred to relations between perception and knowledge as reasons for their answers. Their verbal ages were over 10 years. These results suggest that verbal proposition cues can facilitate false-belief reasoning, in ASD children with a verbal age of 10 years who can understand the false-belief principle and generalize from it.
yKeywordszAutism spectrum disorder, False-belief reasoning, Verbal proposition, Intervention

Vol.28 No.3

Imaoka, Tae (Faculty of Education, University of Tokoha) & Shoji, Ichiko (Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba). The Relationships between Function of Guilt, Degree of Guilt, and School Adjustment in Junior High School Students. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.3, 123-132.
This study investigated the function of guilt among junior high school students, and examined the relationship among the function of guilt, degree of guilt, and school adjustment among junior high school students. 596 junior high school students completed a questionnaire. The main results were as follows. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of the Function of Guilt Scale revealed 4 factors: “self-improvement,” “reflection,” “arousal of negative feelings,” and “consideration of others.” In Study 2, structural equation modeling analysis indicated the following: (a) the degree of guilt that students experienced in their school life had a positive effect on their function of guilt, (b)“self-improvement,” “reflection,” and “consideration to others” had positive effects on school adjustment, and (c)“arousal of negative feeling” had negative effects on school adjustment.
yKeywordszFunction of guilt, Degree of guilt, School adjustment, Junior high school students

Motoshima, Yuko (Faculty of Education, Art and Science, Yamagata University). Maternal Cognition of Infant Emotions and Infant Attachment Security: A Longitudinal Study. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.3, 133-142.
This longitudinal study examined whether maternal cognition of infant emotions predicted infant attachment security beyond the variance explained by maternal sensitivity. Maternal cognition of infant emotions was assessed by the Japanese version of the IFEEL Pictures, and maternal sensitivity was observed during free play, at 2 months. Infants' attachment security was then assessed with the Attachment Q-Sort on the basis of home observations at 18 months. The results showed that infants of mothers who were more likely to interpret joy or sad precisely on the IFEEL pictures at 12 months scored higher on attachment security at 18 months. Maternal cognition of infant emotions also accounted for variance in attachment security beyond the variance explained by maternal sensitivity. These findings suggest the important role of maternal cognition of infant emotions for infant attachment development.
yKeywordszMaternal cognition of infant emotions, IFEEL Pictures, Attachment security, Longitudinal study

Ishibashi, Yumi (Graduate School of Education, the University of Tokyo). Development of Children's Thinking about Geography: Causal Explanations of Industrial Locations. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.3, 143-153.
This study examined children's thinking about geography as evidenced by their causal explanations of industrial locations. A sample of 25 third graders and 26 fifth graders individually addressed three problems involving the geographical locations of dairy industries, arable industries, and food services industries. The children were asked why a certain industry had developed in a particular location. In addition, they were asked follow-up questions to clarify their explanations, pursue causal relationships, and focus on different conditions. An analysis of the children's explanations revealed that as children get older they focus more on social and economic conditions, and less on “pre-natural” and human conditions. Even the third graders were able to explain natural causes for the growth of dairy and arable industries; the fifth graders were able to provide social causes for food service industries. Follow-up questions were effective for children to focus on different geographical conditions. This was particularly true of the fifth graders, who focused on at least one geographical condition before they were asked the follow-up questions.
yKeywordszGeographical understanding, Elementary school children, Causal explanation, Naive geography, Social scientific phenomena

Egami, Sonoko (Faculty of Education, Ehime University). Career-Oriented Women's Change in Their Adherence to “Maternal Love” from the Prenatal to Postnatal Period. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.3, 154-164.
This study examined career women's change in their adherence to “maternal love” through both quantitative and qualitative analyses. First, a scale for adherence to “maternal love” was broken into two factors (“justification of child-rearing by women” and “sanctification of motherly love”) by using confirmative factor analysis of previous data (N=1260). Next, investigation of changes in the two factors from the prenatal to postnatal period showed that the score for “sanctification of motherly love” increased post-partum, as first-time mothers and their discourse changed dramatically in contrast with second-time mothers. In addition, first-time mothers' narratives generated some main themes, and they changed in the following contexts: change in their impression for adherence to “maternal love,” evaluation of themselves as mothers, and redefinitions of their careers.
yKeywordszCareer-oriented women, “Maternal love”, First-time mothers, Thematic analysis

Vol.28 No.4

Takenoshita, Yuji (Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Nursing and Rehabilitation, Chubu Gakuin University). Human Society as a Community of Practice.. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.4, 176–184.
A social group of nonhuman primates is a collection of individuals, each of whom is capable to acquiring resources for survival from the environment. The process of maturity for nonhuman primates involves the decrease, and ultimately dissolution, of dependence on others for resource acquisition. In contrast, human society is a community of practice in which members cooperate to obtain resources from the environment and share them with each other through exchange and distribution networks. In human society, therefore, maturity is not a process of decreasing dependence, but a process through which individuals construct dependency relationships with others to integrate themselves into a community of practice. Consequently, we should consider developmental support in human societies as intended to help children construct good social relationships with others, rather than to offer compensation for abilities that children lack.
yKeywordszAtypical, Adversity, Nonhuman primates, Community of practice, Society

Takashio, Junichi (Biwako Gakuen Medical and Welfare Center, Kusatsu). Motor Development in Children with Cerebral Palsy, Reconsideration from the Viewpoint of Environmental Assistance. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.4, 185–194.
Rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy, the predominant symptom of which is movement disorder, has developed as influenced by learning theory. It has centered on an academic approach to neuronal development that gained importance from the 1950s. Subsequently, the process of rehabilitation for such children around the world began to change gradually after World Health Organization (WHO) adopted the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) in 2001. However, in Japan the elimination of rehabilitation programs with outdated methodologies has not been easy. This paper (1) reconsiders clinical factors in daily life from the viewpoint of environmental assistance including the person; (2) addresses how to understand behavioral disorders and the development of movement; and (3) discusses recent practices of physical therapy that promote environmental adaptation, postural control, and experience of locomotion by children, with the goal of optimal encounter with the environment. I specifically discuss the necessity to improve the support system in order to introduce electric wheelchairs in daily life from early childhood, and address how important it is to accumulate experiences of locomotion by understanding gravitational forces, for the sake of patients' physical and mental development.
yKeywordszChildren, Movement disorder, Mobility equipment, Adaptation to environment, Physical therapy, Cerebral Palsy

Myowa, Masako (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University). New Perspectives on Early Human Development from the Prenatal Period. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.4, 195–201.
The explosion of synapse formation between neurons in the nervous system (“synaptogenesis”) occurs during the fetal period. Synapses grow at a remarkable rate during the early years of life, while excess connections begin to be cut back. This latter process is called “pruning.” During pruning, seldom-used connections are lost and the brain becomes more precisely organized. This process is particularly important during an individual's critical period of life. According to this view, different extrauterine experiences in the perinatal period may be closely related to later difficulties in cognitive, language, and emotional development. Our recent findings have shown that preterm infants at a term-equivalent age and full-term newborns actually follow different trajectories in neural information processing. We discuss the possibility that such early neural alternations in maturation among preterm infants could be related to later difficulties in social-cognitive development.
yKeywordszCritical/Sensitive period, Pruning, Preterm infant, Autonomic nervous system (ANS), Social cognition

Michinobu, Ryoko (Department of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Center for Medical Education). The Wellbeing of Children Living on a Remote Japanese Island. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.4, 202–209.
This paper examined how the daily activities of children and culturally specific child-rearing practices of an island community contribute to children's health and wellbeing. The ideas presented here were based on ethnographic research undertaken over a 6-year period in a remote island of Japan. The conceptual framework of “life landscape” was used to portray how their wellbeing was promoted through immersion in the surrounding environment, and through their participation in periodical social events. According to this framework, children's exploration into the natural environment is a common everyday phenomenon that creates a landscape for daily life. It is the sheer experience of bodily senses, as mediated by cultural meaning. Social events include a shishimai (“Lion Dance”), and a kagura (sacred Shinto) musical event in which children dance and walk from one end of the community to the other. In this way, the children's wellbeing is deeply embedded in the island's culture and way of life.
yKeywordszChildren, Wellbeing, Life landscape, Remote island

Nakamichi, Keito (Faculty of Education, Shizuoka University). Young Children's Social Behaviors at Preschool: A Comparison of Children from Intact Families vs. Fatherless Families. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.4, 210–220.
This study examined differences in preschoolers' social behavior, as a comparison between intact families and fatherless families. One hundred and seventy-four children with two parents (M62.04 months) and 201 children with one parent (M62.91 months) were recruited from public preschools. The children's teachers assessed the following types of social behaviors during peer activities: prosocial, aggressive, hyperactive, asocial, anxious-fearful, and excluded by peers. The results showed the following: (a) there were no differences between children in intact families vs. fatherless families in terms of aggressive, hyperactive, anxious-fearful, and excluded-by-peers; (b) children in fatherless families exhibited less prosocial behavior and more asocial behavior than children in intact families; and (c) regardless of family type, children's prosocial behavior was negatively related to externalizing behaviors (aggressive and hyperactive) and internalizing behaviors (asocial and anxious-fearful), whereas externalizing/internalizing behaviors were positively related to “excluded by peers.” These findings suggest that the effect of one-parent family life on young children's externalizing behaviors may be small in Japan compared to that reported previously for children in Europe and the United States.
yKeywordszPreschoolers, Fatherless families, One parent, Social behaviors, Peer relationships

Kubo, Yoko (Doctor Course, The United Graduate School of Education, Tokyo Gakugei University). Development of Psychological Independence in Adolescents with Congenital Heart Disease. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.4, 221–232.
Remarkable advances in medical and surgical management have enabled many infants with congenital heart diseases (CHD) to survive into adulthood. We therefore have recently become more interested in the development of independence in adolescent CHD patients, and in how to support their independence. Ninety-two CHD patients (ages 12–29) and 273 reference participants (ages 12–29) were divided in 2 age groups (ages 12–18 and 18–29), and we compared their degree of psychological independence based on their responses to a questionnaire. Among patients ages 12–18, there were no significant differences by group (CHD vs. reference group), and males were generally more independent than females. On the other hand, among patients ages 18–29, males in the reference group were more independent than males in the CHD group; meanwhile, the sex difference of greater male independence only was only notable within the reference group. Apparently it is not the severity of the CHD but how one contracted the disease, which influenced adolescents' independence. Finally, we discuss how to support adolescents' independence based on the results of this study.
yKeywordszCongenital Heart Disease, Adolescence, Psychological independence, Development

Horii, Junpei (Graduate School of Education, Aichi University of Education). Combinations of Perceptions of and Coping with University Entrance Examinations: Generalized Self-Efficacy and Career Decision Self-Efficacy. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.4, 233–243.
This study investigated differences in students' levels of Generalized Self-Efficacy (GSE) and Career Decision Self-Efficacy (CDSE), based on combinations of perceptions of and coping styles in relation to university entrance examinations. First, cluster analysis extracted four clusters of students (N259) which were then used to make group comparisons: “positive/active,” “somewhat positive / somewhat passive,” “negative/passive,” and “indifferent” toward the university entrance examination. Second, the results of ANOVAs showed group differences in GSE, goal selection and autonomy of decision-making. In their levels of GSE, “positive/active” students had significantly higher scores than “negative/passive” and “indifferent” students. In terms of goal selection, “positive/active” students had significantly higher scores than “negative/passive” students. Finally, in their levels of autonomy in decision-making, “positive/active” students had significantly higher scores than “negative-passive” students, and those who were “indifferent” toward the university entrance examination had significantly lower scores than the other three types of students. These results suggest that it is important, in provision of career support, for university students to recall their experiences with university entrance examinations.
yKeywordszPerceptions of university entrance examination, Coping with university entrance examination, Generalized self-efficacy, Career decision self-efficacy, University students

Toyama, Noriko (Faculty of Human Sciences, Waseda University). Development of Selective Trust in Young Children. The Japanese Journal of Developmental Psychology 2017, Vol.28, No.4, 244–263.
Over the past decade, developmental researchers have devoted increased attention to young children's selective trust, or selective social learning, i.e., propensity to learn from some sources rather than others. Recent studies have challenged the long-standing assumption that young children are credulous -- disposed to trust claims made by other people even when those claims run counter to their own beliefs. This article reviewed recent studies on young children's selective learning based on informants' epistemic attributes such as accuracy, certainty, and specialty, and also their non-epistemic attributes such as age, linguistic information, familiarity, physical attractiveness, and social status. The available evidence suggests that young children are highly selective in their learning from testimony. The evidence also indicates that young children, especially 3-year-olds, have some difficulty because they are less inclined to mistrust individuals. Based on the review, this article discusses the implications of the research for future research on this relatively new topic.
yKeywordszSelective trust, Selective social learning, Cognitive development, Young children