THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (2017, vol.28)
HORII, Junpei: Combinations of Perceptions of and Coping with University Entrance Examinations: Generalized Self-Efficacy and Career Decision Self-Efficacy.
This study investigated differences in studentsf levels of Generalized Self-Efficacy (GSE) and Career Decision Self-Efficacy (CDSE), based on combinations of perceptions of and coping styles in relation to university entrance examinations. First, cluster analysis extracted four clusters of students (N=259) which were then used to make group comparisons: “positive/active,” “somewhat positive / somewhat passive,” “negative/passive,” and “indifferent” toward the university entrance examination. Second, the results of ANOVAs showed group differences in GSE, goal selection and autonomy of decision-making. In their levels of GSE, “positive/active” students had significantly higher scores than “negative/passive” and “indifferent” students. In terms of goal selection, “positive/active” students had significantly higher scores than “negative/passive” students. Finally, in their levels of autonomy in decision-making, “positive/active” students had significantly higher scores than “negative-passive” students, and those who were “indifferent” toward the university entrance examination had significantly lower scores than the other three types of students. These results suggest that it is important, in provision of career support, for university students to recall their experiences with university entrance examinations.
yKeywordsz Perceptions of university entrance examination, Coping with university entrance examination, Generalized self-efficacy, Career decision self-efficacy, University students
TOYAMA, Noriko: Development of Selective Trust in Young Children.
Over the past decade, developmental researchers have devoted great attention to young children’s selective trust, or selective social learning, i.e., propensity to learn from some sources rather than others. Recent studies have challenged the long-standing assumption that young children are credulous -- disposed to trust claims made by other people even when those claims run counter to their own beliefs. This article reviewed recent studies on young children’s selective learning based on informants’ epistemic attributes such as accuracy, certainty, and specialty, and also their non-epistemic attributes such as age, linguistic information, familiarity, physical attractiveness, and social status. The available evidence suggests that young children are highly selective in their learning from testimony. The evidence also indicates that young children, especially 3-year-olds, have some difficulty because they are less inclined to mistrust individuals. Based on the review, this article discusses the implications of this research for future research on this relatively new topic.
yKeywordsz Selective trust, Selective social learning, Cognitive development, Young children