THE JAPANESE JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY (2018, vol.29)
OGAWA, Motoi & TAKAGI, Hideaki: The Processes and Characteristics of a Mother’s Forgiveness towards Her Child: A Qualitative Study of Adolescents and Their Mothers.
The issue of forgiveness in mother-child relations has seldom been studied empirically, although Heisaku Kosawa has deepened our knowledge of this subject through psychoanalytic methods based on Ajase complex theory. The aim of this study is to clarify possible processes whereby mothers forgive their children, and their children are forgiven by their mothers. Specifically, 10 mothers were interviewed about what process they followed when they actually forgave their children, and their 12 adolescent children were asked about their processes of being forgiven. The data were analyzed by using the Modified Grounded Theory Approach (M-GTA). The results showed that forgiving and being forgiven each has a four-level process model. The results assert that a mother tries to maintain her function as a parent even after some hurtful and/or puzzling experiences, and that her attitude consequently leads the child to realize that he/she is actually forgiven. In addition, we considered some possible recognition gaps between a forgiving mother and a forgiven child, and the clinical problems associated with these gaps.
yKeywordsz Forgiveness, Mother-child relationship, Ajase complex, M-GTA
TAKASAKI, Fumiko: Developmental Changes in Attitudes towards Praise.
One reason why praise of others is not always effective is a gap between the intention of the giver of praise and the perception of the recipient of praise. In this research, the factor which caused such a gap was defined as “attitudes towards praise” and this factor was analyzed in terms of developmental changes in attitudes. A sample of 1,058 individuals including middle school students, high school students, college students and adults completed a questionnaire on attitudes towards praise and their experiences as providers and recipients of praise. The results showed that as individuals got older, “approval” and “instrumental” attitudes were stronger while “standardization” and “hesitation” attitudes were weaker. While experiences of being praised strongly affected the formation of attitudes towards praise, it was evident that people were influenced more strongly by how they were praised than how often they were praised. It was also shown that how often one praised others influenced the praisers’ attitudes, as mediated by their experience of successful communication of praise.
yKeywordsz Praise, Attitudes towards praise, Experiences of praising others / being praised